1 Dimensional LENR Theories

  • We're pulling this 1 Dimensional theory discussion from various areas of LENR-Forum as well as elsewhere on the web.



    How do you convince a skeptic?


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    Here's the place to start when discussing 1 dimensional amplification effects.




    Basically, if a linear "AstroBlaster" tube effect can be in place, then the 1 dimensional collisions are amplified and may be enough to overwhelm the Coulomb barrier and cause Fusion.


    How would a linear tube effect happen? By constraining the degrees of motion for Hydrogen trapped in a lattice structure of Nickel, or Deuterium trapped in a lattice structure of Paladium. The atoms will collide on a 1 dimensional path.


    That is the commonality between Zephir's 1 Dimensional Theory and my 1 Dimensional Theory.


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    On Vortex I proposed a 1dimensional Bose-Einstein-Condensate theory, and the response was that this aligned with the Luttinger Liquid model, which has very recently been supported in experiment.


    -———————http://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg89493.html————————


    So maybe it will be known as the Vibrating 1 Dimensional Luttinger Liquid BEC theory, the V1DLLBEC.



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    How do you convince a skeptic?



    Zephir_AWT

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    Likes Received757

    Wednesday, 11:26 pm

    +2

    #373


    The key for exploiting and utilizing high-dimensional phenomena which would break the 3D thermodynamics is in utilizing lower-than-three dimensional geometry and arrangement. This aspect is pervading like Ariadne's red silk of destiny all breakthrough findings of the last decades.




    At the case of cold fusion the basic exploit of low-dimensional geometry is rather simple and it follows from attenuation of energy during piston collisions. Actually one of mainstream approaches to hot fusion is already based on the concept of colliding pistons, but it's still contaminated with classical 3D approach: the pistons are used for concentration of energy into a single point and for formation of dense plasma, the particles of which will still collide in 3D. The problem of 3D plasma approach is, it not only increases the temperature by adiabatic compression, but it also greatly dilutes and scatters energy during mutual collisions of its particles.




    Piston fusion schematic

    https://i.imgur.com/l6l1sQk.gif



    But what if we would exclude the 3D concept from 1D fusion completely and leave atom nuclei colliding along long rigid chains like sorta miniature pistons? And this is IMO just what the cold fusion is actually all about: the miniaturized one-dimensional piston fusion, arranged with single rows of atoms! I collected multiple indicia for this mechanism already, but IMO the most prominent one is the Unified Gravity approach to cold fusion, which consists of shooting protons into surface of molten lithium (BTW note how thorough and specific this particular patent application actually is!). During this the fusion readily runs in high yield under formation of alpha particles according two main reactions:




    p+6Li ? 3He (2.3 MeV) + 4He (1.7 MeV) and p+7Li ? 4 He (8.6 MeV) + 4He (8.6 MeV)




    This type of fusion resembles many unsuccessful attempts for hot fusion in colliders, but the spectacular point here is, only very low energy of protons is actually required here for to have fusion running - just about one thousand of Volts or even less - so that we can really talk about "cold" fusion here, despite it's still classical "accelerator" based approach like the fusor.




    But the most spectacular aspect of this arrangement is in point, it runs only when the surface of lithium remains tightly bellow its melting point - not less, not more. Here we have nuclear reaction running at MeV scale which not only requires input energy just at one keV scale, but this reaction can be even modulated by energy changes at the milielectronvolt scale - which is simply unbelievable according to laws of thermodynamics and all activation energy theorems, which follow from it. Which also enforces me in conviction, that this way of fusion is not fake, because you couldn't invent such an insight ad-hoc: one must really observe something like it for being able to bring it up.




    My explanation of this fascinating subtlety is, the surface of molten lithium bellow its melting point remains semicrystalline due to surface tension forces with planes of atoms perfectly arranged in sort of crystal lattice. So that once proton hits some lithium atom at the surface, this energy is mediated and transferred along long line of adjacent lithium atoms - but not to neighboring atoms, which would dilute and scatter the energy of impact into an outside. The classical thermodynamics developed for large atom ensembles colliding in 3D thus cannot be applied here.







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    How do you convince a skeptic?


    #375


    Zephir_AWT wrote:

    But what if we would exclude the 3D concept from 1D fusion completely and leave atom nuclei colliding along long rigid chains like sorta miniature pistons? And this is IMO just what the cold fusion is actually all about: the miniaturized one-dimensional piston fusion, arranged with single rows of atoms!




    This is exactly what I postulated several years ago with my V1DLLBEC theory. Vibrating 1Dimensional Lutinger Liquid Bose Einstein Condensate Theory.


    https://www.google.com/search?…0j33i299j0i13.o6fTuxqca1w


    https://www.google.com/search?…0j33i299j0i13.o6fTuxqca1w


    Zephir_AWT and steppenwolf like this.

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    Thursday, 2:57 am

    #376


    Zephir_AWT wrote:

    p+6Li ? 3He (2.3 MeV) + 4He (1.7 MeV) and p+7Li ? 4 He (8.6 MeV) + 4He (8.6 MeV)




    This type of fusion resembles many unsuccessful attempts for hot fusion in colliders, but the spectacular point here is, only very low energy of protons is actually required here for to have fusion running - just about one thousand of Volts or even less - so that we can really talk about "cold" fusion here, despite it's still classical "accelerator" based approach like the fusor.


    Zephir, I like this approach very much. We should start a thread for this 1 dimensional theoretical approach.




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    How do you convince a skeptic?


    Zephir_AWT

    Member

    Likes Received757

    16 hours ago

    #382

    Quote

    This is exactly what I postulated several years ago with my V1DLLBEC theory. Vibrating 1Dimensional Luttinger Liquid Bose Einstein Condensate Theory.

    http://sjbyrnes.com/cf/can-deu…dium-condense-into-a-bec/



    Well, it isn't - but your theory goes actually deeper. Please note that mechanism which I proposed above has actually no quantum mechanics involved - it's solely mechanical. But I agree it's not the whole story - I'm myself proponent of many quantum and scalar physics anomalies occurring along long chains of compact matter. I think, that cold fusion is synergy of multiple phenomena - just some mechanisms are more dominant and some less, some are primarily and some others are derived from them. I actually believe, most of cold fusion theories are actually relevant at the same moment.




    Quote

    We should start a thread for this 1 dimensional theoretical approach.




    There is already thread about this theory

    The general cold fusion theory aka the broad view of LENR


    and another ones about additional aspects of it. The problem of this forum is, it doesn't support coherent discussion both technically (it's linear and even Google search works better than the one on this forum), both from its liberal moderation perspective (despite Alan does his very best, too many people clutter threads with their divergent or even openly hostile posts here). The streamlined low-dimensional approach is the key of success not only for cold fusion - but also for discussion about it.


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  • Zephir wrote:

    My point is, such a temporal condensation of atom nuclei occurs during low-dimensional collisions,

    ***Do you mean "temporary condensation"? Such a condensation could be a BEC, or a kind of pre-BEC, a LINEAR Bose Einstein Condensate. It's been shown that Luttinger Liquids form at higher temperatures when they are aligned unidimensionally, so why not a BEC when its components are aligned unidimensionally? When those atoms are trapped inside a lattice, their range of motion could be linear, and indeed two linear BECs slamming into eachother could overcome the Coulomb barrier. Just by the nature of being a BEC, the Coulomb barrier is already reduced, according to Y.E. Kim. The problem with BECs is that they form at such cold temperatures but a linear BEC, like a linear Luttinger Liquid , might form at much higher temperatures.



    when multiple atom nuclei collide against each other along long stacks, which is just enabled by perfect lining of atoms within metal lattices.

    ***Ring ding ding! This is the ESSENCE of why Condensed Matter Physics is different from plasma physics, where the range of motion of atoms that are colliding by virtue of their Coulomb barriers collapsing is caused by extremely high gravity and temperature and pressure conditions.



    The thermodynamics get broken the more, the more distant the system is from random arrangement. Just the factor of geometric regularity is what violates the thermodynamical probability of Coulombic barrier breaking,

    ***Yes. Very eloquent.


    which is based on solely random arrangement of particles instead. In layman terms, the probability of regular crystal arrangement inside the hot plasma is as improbable, as the fusion of hydrogen in this plasma by Lawson criterions

    ***Unfortunately, once we cite Lawson criteria we are no longer using "layman terms".


    - so that inside the metal lattice these two extremely low probabilities cancel each other mutually.

    ***Yup. And by using H1 gas rather than H2 gas when loading a lattice, the first thing the H1 gas wants to do is become H2 gas. That is an endothermic reaction, cooling down the surrounding lattice. In my view this could set up a linear Bose Einstein Condensate.

  • Zephir wrote:

    The formation of long condensate tubes may also explain various esoteric phenomena connected with cold fusion, like the formation of spiral-like beams and particle jets or magnetic monopole field observed during cold fusion experiments occasionally, because these chains of ionized atoms decay faster, than the lines of electric field (which is propagating rather slowly inside the condensate) can be completed.

    ***Yet another inductive touchpoint for 1 dimensional approaches to the theory.

  • https://www.mail-archive.com/v…@eskimo.com/msg89434.html

    RE: [Vo]:"energy driven superconductivity" and IR coherence for LENR

    Jones Beene Sun, 26 Jan 2014 13:37:51 -0800

    Code
    1. Well kudos to Kevin nevertheless for bringing it up.
  • Zephir wrote:

    In quantum physics all objects in motion are surrounded with deBroglie wave of vacuum, which is behaving in similar way, like the wake wave around boat at the surface of river. The intensity of this wave is proportional to the relative speed of particle and also its acceleration and higher derivations (jerk, cusp, etc.) Therefore the atom nuclei colliding along line during cold fusion are surrounded with particularly strong density wave of vacuum, which makes the vacuum around them more dense and which also forces these nuclei to move in synchrony with this wave in phase. I.e. in similar way like the electrons along charge stripes within superconductors, when the so-called charge wave applies. The speed of charge propagation is faster than the motion of individual electrons and it gets independent on it. It's similar effect like during motion of railcars attached tightly in train: these railcars move only slowly, but their density wave propagates much faster. Therefore the atom nuclei packed during cold fusion collisions move like the entangled wave, being driven by volume area of dense vacuum around them.

    Kevmo:

    https://www.mail-archive.com/v…@eskimo.com/msg89692.html

    Re: [Vo]:"energy driven superconductivity" and IR coherence for LENR

    Kevin O'Malley Fri, 31 Jan 2014 15:11:51 -0800

    Code
    1. I actually have been thinking about this for couple of days and the
    2. Luttinger Liquid CONCEPT rings a bell, although I probably never read the
    3. original report.
  • The general motivation follows from dense aether model. In this model the 4D spacetime is formed like the mesh of foamy density fluctuations inside luminiferous aether (actually false vacuum concept of mainstream physics). This model is analogical behavior of supercritical fluid, which forms density fluctuations during its condensation.

    0wTJadq.jpg FhG6DXI.gif


    That means that Universe is actually hyperdimensional, but the energy inside it is preferably spreading along surfaces of its density fluctuations in a way, which is much slower, which creates an impression of immensely huge Universe for us. The spreading of light and quantum waves can be thus modeled by spreading of ripples along water surface while ignoring the rest of underwater. Also elementary particles and massive objects are floating along surfaces of foam forming vacuum for us. The directions parallel with water surface play a role of spatial dimensions in this 2D analogy, whereas the remaining direction perpendicular to them is the temporal dimension of general relativity. Water surface can thus serve as an easy to imagine 3D (2S+1T) analogy of 4D (3S+1T) space-time.


    The point is, if we constrain the motion of particles in spatial dimension(s), then the energy of vacuum fluctuations doesn't disappear, it will manifest itself along remaining temporal dimension. Which can be illustrated by this animation. The constraining motion of particles in space will thus lead into their attempts to travel across temporal dimension and to break thermodynamical limits - both overunity, both activation energy of cold fusion. In my theory the utilization of overunity is the very same effect like utilization of cold fusion. Observable matter is metastable in contact with vacuum, because it has been formed by fast undercooling of product of supernova explosion. The elements should spontaneous fuse to most stable iron, but they were cooled before they managed to do it. Therefore if we succeed with its fusion with vacuum fluctuations and/or another massive objects at various distance and energy scales, we get the remaining trapped energy which is waiting for its release out.


    The general memo therefore is, we shouldn't separate cold fusion research from overunity research, because at certain distance/energy density scales these two sources of energy may become indistinguishable each other.

  • Another common aspect of cold fusion and overunity is the reversal of thermodynamical arrow of time, which proceeds once we constrain the propagation of matter or energy in spatial dimensions, as explained above. The mainstream thermodynamics is actually only about reversible phenomena, which run spontaneously and smoothly. But the nature all around us is full of metastable systems and irreversible processes (overheating, undercooling, oversaturation, etc.) The fusion is also irreversible process requiring the overcoming activation energy of Coulomb barrier.


    My point is, once the reversibility gets broken by activation energy, then we are also crossing thermodynamic time arrow back and forward again, because we are forced to overcome energetic gradient, forming temporal dimension. This routinely occurs during catalysis of metastable chemical reactions, which require activation energy (heating) for its running. If we constrain molecules in one dimension, for example by their absorption to a surface of palladium catalyst, these molecules will start to vibrate across temporal dimension and they will bypass activation energy barrier during it. As the result the chemical reaction will run way the more smoothly and reversibly, the more the catalysts constrain particles in three dimensional motion.


    The conclusion therefore is, cold fusion and overunity phenomena are example of catalysis of strongly irreversible phenomena, which thus require extremely low-dimensional arrangement of catalytic system: surfaces, dislocations, nanocracks and dense chains of atom nuclei and the energy exchange running along one dimension only. The thermodynamic time arrow of 4D space-time gets strongly reversed during it.

  • Superconductivity and low-energy nuclear reactions, Possibility of cold fusion in palladium deuterides: Screening effects and connection to superconducting properties


    The connection of cold fusion and superconductivity may look improbable or even bizarre for mainstream physicists, because superconductivity is fragile effect which requires extreme cooling whereas fusion research struggles to achieve as high temperatures as possible. But in dense aether model both phenomena have common basis in low-dimensional arrangement of particle involved. In particular, the superconductivity emerges when the motion of electrons gets constrained to a narrow charge stripes, whereas cold fusion runs when atoms collide along long chains. This brings the rational basis to observation of heat and neutron evolution inside cooled palladium deuterides of Ed Storms and others.


    We can actually see, than in many times the cold fusion remains limited to low temperatures too, the extreme example is Lipinski fusion which runs in few Kelvin range. The thermal motion makes linear arrangement of atoms and electrons less probable, in other cases the character of cold fusion changes into hot one with increasing of temperature and the evolution of neutrons can be observed after then.

  • Quote

    what is the reason having hyperdimnesionality other than a life support for QM and other crack theories?


    Infinite-dimensional symmetry opens up possibility of a new perspective of old physics. With increasing number of dimensions the ratio of surface/volume area of hypersphere increases fast, so that we can imagine them like spiky hedgehogs residing in hyperspace. Such a hedgehogs would penetrate our 3D space in array of 3D spheres, i.e. just in the way, in which massive bodies composed of atoms and molecules look for us. With increasing distance the cosmic space gets highdimensional too because of light scattering on quantum fluctuations, so that we can observe them in shape of galaxies surrounded by spikes of dark matter filaments. Large massive galaxies also look like clusters of smaller ones.


    2exRSiU.gif WTcmJkc.gif


    In dense aether model the Universe is infinite, dynamic but steady-state and the galaxies are evaporating to photons and dark matter particles (scalar waves and neutrinos), whereas they condense from photons and dark matter somewhere else. This recycling of matter into radiation and back again can be also understood like passage of matter from one set of dimensions into another in context of hyperdimensional multiverse. When some droplet condenses or evaporates, it essentially travels along time dimension into another higher dimensional space-time.

  • I agree with the reflections outlined above. You will forgive me for explaining my molecular biologist's point of view, but "out of the box" ideas are often interesting: The DNA molecule is a good model of our "NAE" alloys. A deoxyribonucleic acid molecule is a chain of anharmonic oscillators. The speed of each atom does not obey the Riemann-Boltzman statistic, as in a gas. It is shown that there are "warmer" zones where atomic movements are faster (Breathers). I think that to respect the laws of thermodynamics (do not create energy from nothing) there must be colder areas that I call "Freezers". Obviously, 14 billion years of biological evolution have used this phenomenon. But it is another story.

    This phenomenon also exists in our alloys, in particular in palladium hydride, but also in other alloys. Hot spots are useless for LENR, but in the freezers, the isotopes of hydrogen are a few Kelvins. They can condense to form a Bose-Einstein Condensate.

  • The low-dimensional model of cold fusion can also explain the strong influence of magnetic field to yield of cold fusion observed. When charged particles move along narrow layers (crystal grains boundaries and dislocations), then the magnetic field struggles to curve their path. As the result, the motion of particles will get constrained to a narrow stripes across layer and its dimensionality decreases. This again increases the probability of low-dimensional collisions of atoms and their mutual entanglement, i.e. condensate formation.


    The magnetic field effect is most apparent once the protons and/or hydride ions are constrained to planes, like during co-deposition experiments with palladium, when crystal grains contain many surfaces and dislocations. Once the atoms are already constrained to 1D stripes and/or they're moving freely (3D), then the magnetic field has nothing to add to dimensionality of their motion and its influence is not so prominent.

  • "Crackpot theory" has deeper symbolism here, because these theories often deal with low-dimensional artifacts, i.e. with the "cracks" of mainstream physics understanding. One prominent low-dimensional effect is Allais effect observed during solar eclipses and planetary conjunctions. Once massive bodies emerge along single line, then the lensing area of vacuum emerges along this line, which leads to dilatation of time and various gravitational anomalies. In dense aether model this line is formed with so-called warp field and we can observe it directly like filaments of dark matter connecting the collinear galaxies. Occasionally these filaments tend to align the axis of galaxies and their magnetic jets, because they interact strongly with magnetic field.


    In dense aether model similar effect could emerge at small scale, once single row of atoms gets compressed. These atoms will attenuate the shielding of virtual photons of vacuum along connection line, so that such an atoms get glued by attractive force, which behaves like Casimir force on steroids. This model could explain observation of long filaments of Rydberg hydrogen atoms by Holmlid. Of course the delocalization of electron orbitals and electron screening along connection line of atom nuclei would contribute to this effect too.


    3OU0VOQ.gif


    The condensation of atom chains during their low-dimensional entanglement could promote cold fusion process in multiple ways. First of all their "entanglement of steroids" would act like additional attractive force, acting against repulsive Coulomb barrier. At second, it would establish something like dark matter filament (miniature worm hole of negative space-time curvature) connecting atom nuclei, which would behave like waveguide prohibiting the energetic particles to escape. The neutrons contain negative space-time curvature and they should be particularly affected by this waveguide and its warp field. The area of dense vacuum along connection line would give meaning the slow neutron theory of Widom and Larsen. And finally the decay of this warp field could explain emanation of anomalous particles resembling magnetic monopoles with spiral tracks.

  • Bringing us back to more focused LENR theories are these two more recent papers by V Dubinko, His analysis is restricted to simple NiH cubic crystal structures - it would be interesting to apply similar analysis to more complex crystal structures of transition metal oxides and perovskites and maybe establish some structural link between superconductive and LENR - catalysing crystal structures.

    Nuclear catalysis mediated by localized anharmonic vibrations


    Vladimir Dubinko
    (Submitted on 18 Oct 2015)

    Quote
    In many-body nonlinear systems with sufficient anharmonicity, a special kind of lattice vibrations, namely, Localized Anharmonic Vibrations (LAVs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons) that determine the system temperature. Coherency and persistence of LAVs may have drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1930. These effects have been applied to the tunneling problem by a number of authors, who demonstrated a giant increase of sub-barrier transparency during the increase of the correlation coefficient at a special high-frequency periodic action on quantum system. Recently, it has been proposed that discrete breathers (a sub-class of LAVs arising in periodic systems) present the most natural and efficient way to produce correlation effects in regular crystals due to time-periodic modulation of the potential well (or the Coulomb barrier) width and hence to act as breather nano-colliders catalyzing low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in solids. It has been shown that the tunneling probability for the D-D fusion under electrolysis of heavy water increases enormously with increasing number of oscillations resulting in the fusion rates comparable with those observed experimentally. In the present paper, we discuss possible ways of engineering the nuclear-active environment (NAE) and catalyzing LENR in NAE based on the LAV concept. We propose some practical ways of catalyzing LENR that are based on a special electro-magnetic treatment or electron irradiation, which trigger LAVs in crystals and clusters.
    Quote

    Journal of Micromechanics and Molecular PhysicsVol. 01, No. 01, 1650006 (2016)No Access

    Radiation-induced catalysis of low energy nuclear reactions in solids

    Vladimir Dubinko

    https://doi.org/10.1142/S2424913016500065Cited by:1

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    Abstract

    The Schwinger model of nuclear fusion extended with account of localized anharmonic vibrations (LAV) has been applied to the nuclear reaction presumably taking place in the metal hydrides/deuterides. LAV excited in NiH lattice can enhance the fusion rate by 25 orders of magnitude. New method of the low-temperature catalysis of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) is proposed, which is based on the excitation of LAV in solids by Bremsstrahlung gamma and Characteristic X-rays produced by accelerated electrons hitting a metallic converter. The main advantage of the high-frequency electromagnetic irradiation is its deep penetration into the reactor material as compared to the electrons of the same energies. Upon entering the metal hydride/deuteride lattice, Characteristic X-rays are converted to the electrons of the same energies throughout the crystal bulk due to the photoelectric effect. The keV electrons produced in this way interact with heavy (metal) and light (H/D) ions resulting in significant displacements of the light ions while leaving the heavy metal ions essentially unperturbed. In this way, it is possible to excite LAV in the H/D sub-lattice in the whole volume of fuel mixture, which act as catalysts of LENR due to the time-periodic modulation of the potential wells, in which protons or deuterons are trapped. Experimental evidence of irradiation effect on the rate of chemical and nuclear reactions in solids is discussed and new experiments based on the present method are proposed.


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    One of the advocates of breather theory and its role in LENR is Vladimir Dubinko.


    Frank Znidarsciac proposed similar theory before some time: in his theory electron orbitals behave like elastic balls in resonance with their longitudinal (bulk) and transverse (surface) undulations (which is also the model of elementary particles in dense aether model, BTW). He derived resonance frequency, which roughly agrees with radiowave frequency used in devices of Piantelli, Defkalion, Rossi for initiation of cold fusion. I've nothing against such a theories, but these could apply to whatever system thinkable and after them we have problem, that many hydrogen loaded systems don't fuse. It's apparently complementary mechanism, not driving one.


    This doesn't make this mechanism impossible, though. Apparently when entangled orbitals of linear chains of atoms would condense and undulate as a single body, then the breather solitons could form along them easier and they would get more energetic. Such a massive undulations could contribute to electron screening: in certain phase of oscillation these electrons would pile up at the connection line of atom nuclei and their attractive force would compensate the Coulomb repulsion of atom nuclei. On the other hand, Lipinski fusion is very simplistic, it comprises only lithium and protons without metal lattice and these solitons would have no time to form there.

  • Nuclear catalysis mediated by localized anharmonic vibrations

    Abstract

    The Schwinger model of nuclear fusion extended with account of localized anharmonic vibrations (LAV) has been applied to the nuclear reaction presumably taking place in the metal hydrides/deuterides. LAV excited in NiH lattice can enhance the fusion rate by 25 orders of magnitude.

    Sounds like this cool animationhttps://www.mail-archive.com/vortex-[email protected]/msg77444.htmlRe: EXTERNAL: Re: [Vo]:Explaining Cold fusion -IV Jed Rothwell Fri, 01 Mar 2013 14:52:18 -0800Kevin O'Malley wrote:> >
    > > About 3:40 into the animation. I found it at Superwaves's site >That is a good animation.I believe all of the claims up to 3:40 are based on conventional electrochemistry. At that point the narrator claims that that D ions at high concentration in the lattice begin moving together "like a school of fish," and then they fuse. That may be true but it is not conventional.- Jed