Text (hand-written equations) and calculation simulations
Evans explanation of the Aharonov Bohm effect doesn't seem to involve virtual entities
In contrast to this rather lengthy and intricate explanation where the authors Li et al,2016
"argue that the underlying mechanism in AB effect can be viewed as interactions
between electrons described by QED theory where the interactions are mediated by
virtue virtual photons.
Virtual particles are a testimony to human ingenuity in the recent standard model model of the proton.
as described by Reimer,2016
"Over the last half century, an understanding of the proton has developed in which it contains three
valence quarks and an effervescing sea of antiquarks, quarks and gluons. The flavors of the three
valence quarks determine many of the characteristics, but the strong force and the sea of antiquarkquark
pairs are primarily responsible for its mass. Experimentally, this picture was established based
on a variety of probes, one of the most important being deep inelastic scattering (DIS). DIS, however,
lacks the ability to distinguish between antiquarks and quarks
is that it is rather difficult to establish 6 digit precise calculation
of proton parameters such as
mass, magnetic moment or proton charge radius.