Possible Theory of "Small Hydrogen"

  • A simple argument that small hydrogen may exist


    The only halve valid classical approach for "small hydrogen" is quite old and has been made by Aringazin(Santilli) http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0202049v1;


    The new paper is just repeating vaporware that has been presented dozens of times already.


    The electrons in atomic orbits do not behave as particles, they are bound EM mass. The usage of the viral theorem is thus nonsense and did never work for 90 years now.

  • Newly published paper that may support Brilliant Light Power's approach --

    A simple argument that small hydrogen may exist

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/…pii/S0370269319303624/pdf


    I was going to mention the very same stuff, the toroidal area of probable distribution of electrons in Santilli's Hadron Mechanic books, resulting from plasma arcing, as another version of the small hydrogen idea, Santilli calls this Magnehydrogen and sustains this can bind both chemically and magentically to form "magnecules". Santilli alleges he has proof that his "magnehydrogen" can be compressed to much higher ratios than normal hydrogen, and managed to publish in the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy a paper where he says he conclusively proves this is no normal hydrogen. There is another researcher that proposes all sorts of geometric areas of probability for Hydrogen related to LENR, but I can't recall his name other than it is from slavic origin.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Hydrino theory is already 33 years old - and this is first time it's emerged in mainstream journal publication, I guess. The existence of hydrino looks controversial even for me, who collects various anomalies and controversial topics. Before some time I started to speculate that phenomena which Randell Mills attributes to cold fusion are actually overunity effects analogous to cavitation heaters and magnetic motors. This aspect various observations (like the overunity of Langmuir atom hydrogen discharge and let say Chernetski and Papp's plasma generators) would have common with Randell Mills process. From both quantum mechanics, both dense aether model follows, that subquantum energy levels of hydrogen should be indeed possible, but they would require pumping of energy into it, i.e. hydrino - even if it could somehow exists - would be metastable. And its formation wouldn't definitely serve as a mean of energy production, neither as an explanation of dark matter and another phenomena, which Randell Mills routinely attributes to hydrino.


    The principal reason here is the omnipresent vacuum noise (so-called Zero Point Energy or ZPE) which leads into degeneracy pressure, i.e. the fact that vacuum behaves like water surface filled by Brownian noise, which wiggles with small particles and objects and takes them apart. This wiggling is for example the reason, why liquid helium doesn't freeze even at zero Kelvin temperature, i.e Zero Point. The finite diameter and fundamental quantum state of hydrogen atoms (and another atoms indeed) is thus result of equilibrium between degeneracy pressure and attractive Coulomb force. The same quantum noise would also prohibit the collapse of matter into singularities predicted by general relativity - so I believe that black holes behave merely like very dense stars with physical surface blurred with space-time up to higher or lower degree, which mostly depends on the speed of their rotation.


    Unfortunately the situation is not so simple and more detailed analysis will be still required. From dense aether model also follows that concentration of energy at some place makes vacuum more dense like soap foam shaken inside closed vessel. The increased vacuum density slows down the propagation of energy (it's common mechanism for both relativistic phenomena like gravitational lensing, both quantum mechanic phenomena, like pilot wave and probability function). In addition, increased vacuum density makes forces (including Coulomb force) weaker, because it essentially works like space-time dilatation (and distance increasing) for them. The situation gets even more complicated at the proximity of surfaces of normal matter, preferably within narrow cracks and cavities of metals, which would stabilize these subquantum levels even more, because the surface of refracting bodies also shield portion of ZPE noise.


    So that maybe - just maybe - some of sub quantum states could be actually more stable, thus allowing some subquantum atoms and/or even their compounds actually exist. Other than that the spectral lines attributed to hydrino in Randell Mills experiments could be also manifestation of Auger transitions, so that definite proof of hydrino is waiting for its publication.

  • Here's Santilli 2003 paper on the international Journal of Hydrogen Energy where he claims proof of his denser species of hydrogen.

    Files

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • A simple argument that hydrino, i.e. "small hydrogen" may exist This paper discusses a possible existence of subquantum levels and hydrino, i.e.  "small hydrogen", which may have been created during the Big Bang before formation of normal hydrogen.


    Author of the study J.Va’vra from Standford university argues, that spontaneous transition from normal level to small level is unlikely because of a large electron energy difference in both states (254.16 or 510.17 keV). But the small hydrogen may be formed differently; for example, using a relativistic electron with a correct wavelength latching on a proton. Such condition may have occurred during the Big Bang, or during other very energetic and luminous events in the Universe.


    One could try to use a high intensity electron beam of precisely tuned energy, and look for a sign of e-p bonded state formation. If the small hydrogen is formed, it would appear as a neutral object from some distance. Such object might be able to enter the boron nucleus in boron-based detectors, destabilize the nucleus, which may produce alpha particle, which then would be detected. However, this process might turn out to be very unlikely because the small hydrogen does have a fairly large size compared to nucleus size, and it has an electric dipole moment, which may prevent entry into the nucleus.

  • Perhaps also of interest is this paper exploring whether electron-positrons can form very tightly bound positronium --


    "Do particles and anti-particles really annihilate each other?"

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.06428


    Also of interest may be the following paper by the same author --

    "On the Schrödinger spectrum of a hydrogen atom with electrostatic Bopp-Landé-Thomas-Podolsky interaction between electron and proton"

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.07546

  • Here's Santilli 2003 paper on the international Journal of Hydrogen Energy where he claims proof of his denser species of hydrogen.


    On a very broad view, to me Santilli's looks like an "intuitive" interpretation of a magnetic type of bonding that could possibly arise if electrons could be configured to form stable large circular (toroidal or "classical") orbits. He might be seeing what Leif Holmlid calls Rydberg matter, which is formed from atoms in a coherently excited circular Rydberg state (not necessarily of H) bonded together into metastable clusters. On their own, circular Rydberg states are already known and studied in mainstream physics, but there are not many groups claiming the observation of special clustering.


    Similarities between Santilli's and Holmlid's theories seem to stop at this point; curiously there's no mention of Rydberg atoms at all in the Santilli paper you posted, even though plasmas are the most likely place where to find them.

  • "Do particles and anti-particles really annihilate each other?"


    This is one of the biggest mental gaps in SM: Matter/antimatter... If we would use the same logic for electron/proton then the proton has an anti charge or contains anti matter.

    The discussion is simply strange. The charge forming magnetic flux can have a right or left winding - nothing else. If an electron/positron pair meet, then the binding forces are exactly opposite and the energy gets freed. This does not happen when an electron hits a proton because the metric of the charge, ergo the forces are different.

    Annihilation is the wrong term for such a phenomenon.

  • I see models as much like tinted glasses they highlight some aspects and hide others. But In doing so give us useful information we would not otherwise be aware of so long as we don’t assume they explain the whole reality and In doing so add complexity to try and fit actual reality. For me this is OK and can be useful.


    Once in a while something different comes along a pair of glasses that instead of tints brings things inti new and clear focus. Typically these are Eureka moments or E=mc^2 moments usually distinguished by their simple elegance once understood. And usually considering things in a new and elegant space.


    I think Wyttenbach is on the track if one moments. Other not fully correct models are still incredibly useful though and give useful insight when applied in the scope they were originally conceived and sometimes beyond that.

  • Quote
    Other not fully correct models are still incredibly useful though and give useful insight when applied in the scope they were originally conceived


    George Box: "All models are wrong, but some are useful". What I think is, Randell Mills theory is apparently in contradiction with well proven quantum mechanics, but its focus to subquantum physics still has some merit. For not to have phenomenology so simple, some aspects of Randell Mills theory overlap with scalar models of overunity (noradiative condition of spherical orbitals allows only scalar wave "dark photon" transitions), and Holmlid's Rydberg matter theory of metallic hydrogen filaments. The question is thus at least four-fold with probability of physical relevance diminishing at each level:


    1. Can subquantum levels exist / be detectable at all?

    2. If they do exist, could they apply to hydrogen? Could they also apply to another symmetric orbitals (i.e. noble gases, like argon catalysts of BLP, Quark-X, Papp's engine)?

    3. If they do apply to hydrogen, could they make hydrino stable? Could they make its formation exothermic?

    4. If the hydrino is really stable, how it does apply to dark matter, Rydberg matter and metallic hydrogen cases..

  • A simple argument that hydrino, i.e. "small hydrogen" may exist Author of the study J. Va’vra from Standford university argues, that spontaneous transition from normal level to small level is unlikely because of a large electron energy difference in both states (13.6 eV + 254.16 or 510.17 keV). But the small hydrogen may be formed differently; for example, using a relativistic electron with a correct wavelength latching on a proton. Such condition may have occurred during the Big Bang, or during other very energetic and luminous events in the Universe. Compare also:


    Mystery dark matter may be ordinary neutrons that have decayed The electrons released by protons wouldn't be accelerated by Coulomb barrier - on the contrary, they could remain trapped at subquantum levels.