The 2006 Z machine experiments, a mostly overlooked major science hit, and the potential link to LENR

  • I have commented many times, whenever "Cold Fusion" talks get into the "Hot Fusion" development, that IMHO the Z machine experiments on Sandia Labs and the published results by the late Malcolm Haines, while stunning and ripe with implications, have been mostly and completely overlooked and ignored.

    The experiments are within the realm of what is mostly labelled "Inertial confinement fusion", and basically consist in driving a huge amount of energy stored electric energy in a pulse through an array of wires (normally Tungsten, but in the famous experiment, replaced by stainless steel) that happens in fractions of a second, and generates a plasma burst and X rays emissions.

    The 2006 experiments created what held the record of highest man made temperature for several years (until CERN experiments scored much higher), at astonishing 3.600.000.000 degrees Kelvin. But the scientist in charge could not believe that, because the energy in the pulse could not account for that thermal increase. The computations, performed several times after several experimental repetitions, to be sure and to discard any measurement errors, were of 4X overunity. That is 4 times mor energy in the thermal output than the electrical energy pulse used to ignite the Z machine.

    This experiment was not even trying to achieve those results. This was a complete surprize, I cannot emphasize this any more.

    I am opening this thread to bring back discussion on this achievement and analyze in the light of what is now more or less known or guessed about LENR, as I think there is a relation, as we are looking at overunity in a plasma, which is a theme already known to us in cases like the hydrino of Mills, the Ultradense hydrogen of Holmlid and the magnecules of Santilli, to name a few.

    I will leave here some introductory material and an in depth analysis of the Haines paper, and also a link to the Haines paper.

    Hope you enjoy and we can discuss this together, if it interest the readers enough to do so.…/2006/11/061103104056.htm…ments_on_haines_paper.pdf…ds/pdf/article_Haines.pdf (2006 Haines paper on Journal of Physics Letters).

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • I think Haines never developed his embryonic theory . He died in 2013, 7 years later.

    The Boltzmann ion-ion collisions were not high enough to account for the energy transfer.

    These are dense plasmas with something like ~1 nanometer separation between the metal ions.

    Perhaps the instantaneous magnetic flux transfer and induction heating of the metal ion electron clouds of Wyttenbach's NPP2 applies.…Vaw3zYvgeddLSKu29X_mukEIF

    I don't know whether the 1 nanometer separation is too far for this magnetic transfer to operate

    The Zpinch with its megaAmps are really capital and energy intensive.

    There appear to be cheaper, solid state methods for LENR.

  • There is a whole spectrum of alternative "hot fusion" approaches, based on known d+t, d=d or p+B11 cross sections, and scaling temperature, pressure, containment lifetime in different ways.

    It is fascinating. Nearly all of the possible under-explored points on this spectrum are smaller/easier than traditional torus ITER fusion. Some have easier near wall probems. Unfortunately, there are (different) challenges to achieving break-even, let alone X10 or more energy production.

    Points to watch:

    Eric Lerner's crowd (similar to Z-pinch - with a clear remit to achieve useful fusion in a compact machine, and an outside chance of getting this. there scaling says they can but only if they conquer some technological problems about electrode life, high Z ion impurities.

    TAE (used to be Tri-Alpha, well funded by google and others) go for a different point on the spectrum with FRCs - not sure quite which version of FRC work they are now trying for. FRCs are great ways to contain plasma. You can then squeeze them with magnetic fields. You can also add energy to them with electric fields and collide. So there are many different ways to achieve fusion at useful levels.

    General Fusion have always had good funding for their morphing (because original ideas did not work) steam-punk version of fusion. Personally I see their stuff as more spin than reality but they are doing a lot of good work and deserve their shot at the prize.

    Polywell have more or less disappeared in spite of having a uniquely interesting way to do fusion that theoretically might scale well and work.

    Then of course there is Hora's well publicised in 2016 p-B11 laser fusion stuff. i think they should be funded by google to do more investigation but no signs of this. Maybe they are just getting bad reviews from anyone who looks at their science? It seems a plausible possibility with some experimental backing looking at the papers with not much expertise?

  • @wyttenbach's theory shows the magnetic fields- though at atomic scale to be extraordinarily powerful

    Haines observed the anomalous energy output as soft Xrays..I,e >250 kEV.

    I'm not sure whether the magnetic flux transfer can cause this.

    This was Haines embryonic idea which he never finalised

    "In this Letter a new approach

    to the rapid conversion of magnetic energy to radiation via short wavelength m=0 interchange MHD,instabilities,

    the subsequent ion viscous heating,

    then equipartition to the electrons,

    and finally to soft x-ray radiationis proposed.

    Maybe he could never justify all the steps.

  • Haines observed the anomalous energy output as soft Xrays..I,e >250 kEV.

    The intermediate D*-D* field couples to all available magnetic gamma states if the coupling distance is OK! But gamma's only occur if no internal magnetic down-scaling is possible. This is what the experimenters now try to optimize.

  • The results were, and still are, baffling. That's why I am so interested in this issue, and also intrigued about it's virtual dissapearance from the field of research. I don't like to resort to conspiralandia, but such impressive results, completely absent from the spotlight? One can only wonder why.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • but such impressive results

    Its hard to know if there was "over unity".

    The total energy input in.. gross V x I x not stated.

    the energy input into the plasma is based on assumptions but I assume it is a small fraction of the gross energy.

    No conspiraladia...just wrong assumptions...

    Posthumous Haines info needed

  • Robert, I think the overunity of the experiments is out of the question, every press release and analysis states it was detected and the surprise was so big that it took the people doing the experiments 14 months of further experiments and checks and double checks to confirm this.

    This article has some key statements:…ron/hottest-z-output.html

    What happened and why?

    Z’s energies in these experiments raised several questions.

    First, the radiated x-ray output was as much as four times the expected kinetic energy input.

    Ordinarily, in non-nuclear reactions, output energies are less — not greater — than the total input energies. More energy had to be getting in to balance the books, but from where could it come?

    Second, and more unusually, high ion temperatures were sustained after the plasma had stagnated — that is, after its ions had presumably lost motion and therefore energy and therefore heat — as though yet again some unknown agent was providing an additional energy source to the ions.

    Sandia’s Z machine normally works like this: 20 million amps of electricity pass through a small core of vertical tungsten wires finer than human hairs. The core is about the size of a spool of thread. The wires dissolve instantly into a cloud of charged particles called a plasma.

    The plasma, caught in the grip of the very strong magnetic field accompanying the electrical current, is compressed to the thickness of a pencil lead. This happens very rapidly, at a velocity that would fly a plane from New York to San Francisco in several seconds.

    At that point, the ions and electrons have nowhere further to go. Like a speeding car hitting a brick wall, they stop suddenly, releasing energy in the form of X-rays that reach temperatures of several million degrees — the temperature of solar flares.

    The new achievement — temperatures of billions of degrees — was obtained in part by substituting steel wires in cylindrical arrays 55 mm to 80 mm in diameter for the more typical tungsten wire arrays, approximately only 20 mm in diameter. The higher velocities achieved over these longer distances were part of the reason for the higher temperatures.

    (The use of steel allowed for detailed spectroscopic measurements of these temperatures impossible to obtain with tungsten.)

    Haines theorized that the rapid conversion of magnetic energy to a very high ion plasma temperature was achieved by unexpected instabilities at the point of ordinary stagnation: that is, the point at which ions and electrons should have been unable to travel further. The plasma should have collapsed, its internal energy radiated away. But for approximately 10 nanoseconds, some unknown energy was still pushing back against the magnetic field.

    Haines’ explanation theorizes that Z’s magnetic energies create microturbulences that increase the kinetic energies of ions caught in the field’s grip. Already hot, the extra jolt of kinetic energy then produces increased heat, as ions and their accompanying electrons release energy through friction-like viscous mixing even after they should have been exhausted.

    High temperatures previously had been assumed to be produced entirely by the kinetic flight and intersection of ions and electrons, unaided by accompanying microturbulent fields.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Interesting Product of Energetic Hydrino Reaction

    Notice the thread like nature of the silver ash. This structure is much like nano tubes.

    Magnetism of Hydrino Hydrogen

    Silver has changed it nature to super paramagnetic, a hybrid of ferromagnetism and para magnetism. This is probably due to the formation of silver Rydberg clustering in a ultra dense form.

    The same enclosed experiment could be performed with tungsten as in z-pinch to see if the same cluster formation occurs with the attendant development of super paramagnetism.

    There are similar LENR based experiments using the application of high powered arcs such as

    Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole

    Georges Lochak*, Leonid Urutskoev**

    Here, remote at a distance transmutation of uranium (U238) is produced.