• Have you tried putting a puff of airborne particles (e.g., smoke) through the system? I suppose it would only yield a minimum estimate of airspeed but it would be a good sanity check on your other measurements.

    Well, for sure the velocity is too high at 6.38 m/s, since that would result in overunity (roughly COP 2) with an ohmic heater. The velocity does drop a little bit with increasing temperature based on a quick test last night. But it does not drop enough.

    One possibility is there are jets of high velocity in the air stream that spin the anemometer blades much faster than the average velocity would. So a longer tube or some diffuser may be required to allow the air flow to even out.

  • Have you tried putting a puff of airborne particles (e.g., smoke) through the system?

    Yes. Mizuno did this with incense (which is everywhere in Japan). He did this when there was no insulation and you could see inside the box. He said it is difficult to know exactly when the smoke clears out completely. Some of it swirls around while clear air comes in. That may indicate dead areas in the box. This does not give an exact measurement but it is a good reality check.

  • One possibility is there are jets of high velocity in the air stream that spin the anemometer blades much faster than the average velocity would.

    That seems unlikely to me. There may be some streamlines, and some may be a little faster than others, but I do not think they could make a difference as large as this.

    Streamlines in flowing water are common. They can make thermocouple readings inaccurate. An in-line mixer or a Venturi is recommended to prevent this. I do not think they can affect liquid flow meters. All the liquid flow meters I am familiar with measure the entire volume of water.

  • Holmlid's Rydberg matter and UDD is a room temperature superconductor and exhibits the Meissner effect. There's evidence that the UDD builds up next to the emitter, which makes sense if it is pinned there by the Meissner effect. He has a high current wire right next to the emitter to heat up the platinum and KFeO2. Anyway, a magnetic field could be useful for keeping the UDD clustered together. The van der waals force between Rydberg atoms scales as n^11 (principal quantum number), so the clusters have highly coherent electron oscillations occuring.

    Perhaps the difference between low COP and high COP Mizuno chambers is magnetization of the outer steel wall.

    I think I will use both DC and AC current in my cartridge heater (not at the same time).

    In my chamber, at least for initial experiments, the mesh will be wrapped around a silicon carbide tube which is around the cylindrical cartridge heater. The mesh is inside an alumina cylinder. So, all the action is within about 3/4" radius of the cartridge heater.

    There might be some magnetic field from the cartridge heater. Otherwise, I would need to either put a high current low voltage solenoid around the alumina (primarily for the magnetic field, and only secondarily for heating), or a simple solution might be to put a rare earth magnetic in or near the central axis of the setup.

  • Arun Luthra

    For what it's worth (since it might be off-topic here), in a study the effect of temperature on ultra-dense hydrogen/deuterium was observed. As expected for all superconductors and superfluids, a critical temperature exists above which these properties are not observed (in reality, inferred here) anymore: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4947276 (open access). So at the temperatures typical of where excess heat is observed in gaseous LENR experiments, the material would not be a room temperature superconductor.

    It has been suggested that the presence of a magnetic field might be deleterious to the formation of ultra-dense hydrogen clusters. See here https://iopscience.iop.org/art…02-4896/ab1276#psab1276s6 (open access), in section "Magnetic properties of H(0)", from the paragraph beginning with:


    A magnetic field stronger than 0.05 T prevents the formation of H(0) (Andersson et al 2012). Thus the formation of the chain clusters is inhibited by the magnetic field. Since these clusters possibly are involved in the formation of the small clusters H3(0) and H4(0), the density of small clusters may also decrease strongly in a magnetic field. [...]

    However it is possible that a weak uniform magnetic field may promote the formation the precursor Rydberg matter due to the exaggerated properties of the Rydberg atoms it is formed from. When the weak magnetic field is removed, condensation to the ultra-dense form could occur; therefore, intermittent/pulsed application of a magnetic field might be desirable. This one is just my hypothesis, though.

    The post was edited 2 times, last by can: Small but important correction. Only higher states of RM are present in a magnetic field. ().

  • It has also been my conclusion that the presence of a magnetic field has a possible negative influence on the LENR reaction

    I once questioned Rossi on this on his blog on the subject, his answer was that he could not give an answer since it was part of a patent application

    The report

    Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder.

    of the ECAT HT test had several versions, in the last one some additional information was added in the appendix. In figure 3 of the appendix the harmonic patterns for all three phases where shown. The third phase shows no harmonics which means that this phase was not used.

    If the magnetic fields of the other two phases are opposite they cancel which would mean that in such case the ECAT did run without a magnetic field.

    This could als been the case in the Lugano test. If the dummy run was run with all three phases on and the active runs with two phases, it can also explain the large drop in heater resistance which some calculated (wrongly assuming that the active runs where also run with three phases)

    In addition it gives a possible explanation why so many replications failed.

    A long time ago I discussed with Alexander Parkhomov on the subject and he stated to me that indeed the influence of the magnetic field needed further investigation.

    So you might be right

  • Dr Richard

    Then it would not be a Mizuno replication, but a different experiment. Furthermore that iron oxide compound (the active phase of K-Fe oxide catalysts), which is already metastable on its own and probably cannot practically really be supplied when installing the meshes but only formed in-situ at relatively high temperatures, doesn't like to be reduced too much and Mizuno wants a clean, oxide- and carbon-free environment.

    Perhaps what can be done in Mizuno-analogues without altering too much the principle of the original experiment could be burnishing Ni and Pd onto partially oxidized Zr sheets (instead of meshes), going along previous suggestions by Edmund Storms. ZrO2 is resistant against reduction (although things could be different when in contact with hydrogen-active transition metals) and has been used already as support for Ni-Pd nanoparticles in experiments by Brian Ahern, Takahashi and others, albeit in a different configuration.

  • therefore, intermittent/pulsed application of a magnetic field might be desirable

    If magnetic poles of atoms need to be aligned before condensation then intermittent, alternating magnetic fields might serve to

    jostle the atoms into the same alignment rather than constant magnetic fields .

    The question is,, what magnitude works,, 1 tesla ,,, 10 tesla?

  • RobertBryant

    I don't think the magnitude in the initial step would need to be very large, but to be honest I am not able to quantify this in practical terms. In Leif Holmlid's experiments the amount of Rydberg atoms desorbing from the surface of the catalysts appears to be such that statistically speaking some will eventually be aligned in the proper way to form Rydberg matter clusters; magnetic fields have never been deliberately used for this purpose.

    Besides that strong magnetic fields appear to be counterproductive for the second condensation step to the ultra-dense form and should be avoided, I'm aware that alternating magnetic fields (e.g. from AC resistive heating) can too be harmful in their own way, but I don't recall reading this in the papers and so I cannot provide a reference.

    In the end, pulsed DC might turn out to be best for a practical system. I have to stress that this is my own opinion however.

    While this might seem at first off-topic, it can be related to the fact that the arrangement of the heater in Mizuno systems could potentially have a role in how easily excess heat will be observed or its magnitude.

  • While this might seem at first off-topic, it can be related to the fact that the arrangement of the heater in Mizuno systems could potentially have a role in how easily excess heat will be observed or its magnitude.

    If indeed a magnetic field is harmfull to the reaction, then the (cartridge) heater used in Mizumo systems shoud have a bifilair wound coil to minimize the magnetic field.

  • LDM

    In doubt, I believe that might be the safest choice. This specific subject is complicated by the possibility that the presence of a uniform magnetic field might not be unconditionally harmful, and certainly there have been reports or suggestions by LENR researchers of their presence (to varying extents) improving the observations.

  • Another photo of the PCE-830 from a visitor to the ecat ‘test’ reported in Indication of.., shows the ecat producing >1 kW of electricity (and a negative power factor) and a three wire AC connection when there were 4 wires hooked up to to it. Obviously the PCE was hooked up wrong.

    For the Lugano report, a change from a wye connection for the Dummy to a delta connection for the Active runs (requires only swapping input cable positions around after ‘fuelling’ the device) explains the apparent resistance change perfectly, and is consistent with all reported input power levels.

  • Quote

    Obviously the PCE was hooked up wrong.

    And with Rossi involved, does anyone think the "wrong" connection was an accident or an honest error? With input power considerably less than 2kW, why would three phase power be used anyway, if not to benefit opportunities for subterfuge and deception? Always remember, in any scam, the part you don't get is what gets you. In this case, one of those parts is likely to be the use of 3 phase power with four wires and that the power source and/or metering gear were probably connected incorrectly.

  • I have determined that the Extech 407123 anemometer is the same as the Custom CW-60 anemometer. I will have some data on the calibration specifications for it shortly.

    Interestingly, the user manual says to insert the anemometer tip into the air flow to be measured long enough for the probe to reach the air temperature being measured, before opening the hot wire cover and beginning measurements.

    User manual in Japanese: https://www.esco-net.com/wcs/e…A_MNL_JPN_MAK_OUT(01).pdf

    Extech 407123 manual: http://cegroup-lb.com/wp-conte…_407123_EXTECH_MANUAL.pdf

  • Here' a progress report as of 7 November 2019.

    The Mizuno R20 experiment is deceptively difficult, unlike what most casual commentators might think. The difficulty starts in these simple directions from Jed's summary:

    "11. Close reactor and install in calorimeter. Evacuate the reactor to 7.5 × 10-5 torr (0.01 Pa).
    Hold for 2 hours.
    12. While pumping, heat with sheath heater to 100° - 120°C for 5 - 20 hours. Pressure must
    reach 7.5 × 10-5 Torr (0.01 Pa).
    13. Increase temperature to 200°C with sheath heater while pumping for 1 - 2 hours. Most of
    the water should be out of the sample and reactor at this point.

    Reaching 0.01 Pa is not difficult with all-new components and a good turbo pump, but rather tricky lacking those. Not hard to remedy, all it takes is money and time....

    I started with a collection of used conflat 1.33 parts and a decent two-stage rotary pump. After finding several leaks with 2 bar H2 and a leak sensor, I replaced several defective components and added a nice MKS 356 full-range vacuum gauge. The system now reliably pumps down to 0.1 Pa, the limit of the pump I have. But there is still some leakage (as always) - once the pump is turned off and isolated, it's about 1 Pa / minute which I think is through the main valve to the pump manifold. I ordered a new valve which should arrive today. Only once the system is vacuum tight long-term, will it be ready for a turbo pump.

    Why is this level of vacuum stability so important although not mentioned by Jed? The Mizuno protocol requires maintaining 300-1000 Pa of D2 in the reactor for days or weeks, without any contamination of oxygen (air) getting in. I know from my past Glowstick work that this is the real challenge of the experimental protocol and must be correct. I'm not shy about buying good equipment, and have invested around $3k so far in building the apparatus. The turbo pump system will be around $10k new or $5k used for a known good system with low hours. Definitely not interested in junk parts for this important piece of the system!

    OK now for some results. My reactor is 1/2 scale of Mizuno's (1/4 volume). The heater is a 300 watt cartridge in an axial thermowell. At full power with vacuum it only heats the reactor outside wall to ~80C, even with 1 inch of insulation over the entire tube. The thermal rise time is about 30 minutes. This result suggests that the temperatures quoted by Jed in the report are not possible with the 500 watt heater he specified. The Chinese replication reported in August used a 1500 watt heater element, and the cell was in a well-insulated calorimeter box. So my next improvement will be a 600 watt heater element installed naked through the 3/8" swagelok fitting in place of the thermowell. Then more leak checking and hopefully a proper bake-out of the cell.


    Magicsound Lab