• This remains my biggest fear .. if Alan or Jed aren't able to sell another Mizuno's hands, many will encounter replication problems probably ..

    This is why i should try rather by electron beam sputtering.

  • If your source is better please cite it so I can use that data.

    The problem with "use that data." using any current data is that the atmosphere inside the reactor.. is hydrogen.

    and specifically deuterium

    We don't know what the emissivity is after reaction with deuterium at 500C.


    It is known that hydride formation in austenitic stainless steels will modify the surface greatly.

    " these hydrides form a hard and brittle surface layer, several mu m thick with numerous microcracks,

    and it is probable that these hydride phases play an important role during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steels."

    The emissivity and surface condition of 316 ss under these special R20 conditions

    should be the subject of further research.

    For those doing replication a cursory examination of the 'shininess' of the heater surface

    before and after would be a good thing to to do.

    But for replicators

    The fact that Mizuno is doing many hour long multiple experiments shows that

    the postulated early failure of the heater due to too high temperature is not occurring.

  • Got it. You are saying we really can't know what the emissivity is on the inside and that it changes depending on the hypothesized Ni metal hydride (actually deuteride) on the inside.

  • You are saying we really can't know what the emissivity is on the inside and that it changes depending on the hypothesized Ni metal hydride (actually deuteride) on the inside.

    Not exactly..we don't know.

    There is some evidence to suggest that the 316 ss surface gets microcracks in hydrogen atmosphere.

    316ss is 18,8,2 Cr,Ni,Mo which gives ~72 Fe as balance.

    The'hydride, deuteride??is of unknown chemistry.. and what austenitic phases do at 500+C with hydrogen is unknown.

    But probably the reactor/heater 316ss has a different surface from non hydrogen conditions( whether reducing or oxidising)

    which affects emissivity among other things

    Paradigmoia prompted this discussion by asserting that the heater would fail early..

    Which may be a useful. comment.. because the reactor wall itself may be part of the mechanism

    I assume that Mizuno has not experienced early heater failure due to high temperature..

    perhaps Jed could confirm

  • What I suggested is that the sheath heater may fail early if encapsulated within a stainless steel tube.

    What I find interesting is that the sheath, with its currently unspecified composition, does not seem to affect the reaction.

    Who knows, maybe the palladium evaporates (a tiny bit?) from the nickel mesh and coats (to a low degree probably) the sheath of the heater, and that is where the reaction occurs.

    Anyways, the exact composition of the heater sheath should be determined, since it appears to be of a reactor-safe composition. That means that, post pure replication, items of, or contained/sealed within, that material (ie: a thermocouple) could be added to the interior of the apparatus without fear of poisoning a reaction.

  • I assume that Mizuno has not experienced early heater failure due to high temperature..

    perhaps Jed could confirm

    He did not mention anything like that. But the longest runs have not been all that long with these reactors. 2 or 3 months, I think. And the temperatures are well within the specified operating temperatures for the heaters.

  • The only temperature limit given in the manufacturer's info is 200°C for the end "sleeve" where the lead wires are fastened. The sheath is steel, with MgO insulation. The heater wire is Ni or perhaps a Ni alloy like nichrome, so all the parts are pretty good for high temperature. As long as the "sleeve" end of the heater is outside the cell, the sheath should be OK up to 500°C at least. I suspect that could be easily exceeded in vacuum, so conservative application of power will be needed during the bake-out. Start low and beware of the long thermal time constant of the cell, while watching the outer surface temperature.

    Regarding the power supply, I'm using a HP/Agilent 6555a, which has fully isolated output and both current and voltage limiting. It's an old-school analog supply, so lower risk of the residual output noise often seen from a switching supply.


  • Ad nauseum calorimetry discussions have started in the other thread... Please, someone do a dummy (without the nickel mesh) versus active reactor replication with both reactors operating simultaneously with sheath heaters in series and with a tube connecting them together (same interior gas and pressure)!!! With the expected COP, difference of temperature between reactors will confirm excess heat (or not...).

  • Here's some information collected by a well-known researcher on the toxic nature of nickel, and in particular nickel dust. Read before swallowing.

    more info: https://blogs.cdc.gov/niosh-sc…g/2014/05/28/nickel-nano/




    Nickel oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary fibrosis via TGF-β1 activation in rats


    Pulmonary and systemic toxicity following exposure to nickel nanoparticles.


    Occupational toxicology of nickel and nickel compounds.


    Nickel-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity

  • Would a Pd-Pt or Pd-Ag alloy tend to be harder or softer than Pd alone? It is sometimes suggested that the Pd cathodes used in successful cold fusion experiment are actually Pd-based precious metal alloys. Perhaps it might turn out that Mizuno's Pd rod is one such material. From a Wikipedia data page, Pt or Ag on their own are respectively about as soft or softer than Pd alone.

    Furthermore, from the report it looks as if the Pd rod has been modified into a more convenient shape and not an "as-received" sample. It might be of interest to know more about its history and to have more detailed photos, or also if the apparent surface features are there for any specific reason.

  • Bob Greenyer of MFMP has been arranging the supply of nickel mesh panels with JedRothwell and Dr. Mizuno. The price suggested was $400 plus shipping, and the hope is that supplying mesh already cleaned burnished with Pd by Mizuno helps replicators and the money helps hisresearch efforts. If you are interested in making a purchase, please click on the link below.


    When do I hear something back on my desire to receive processed nickel mesh? I filled out the request at serveymonkey.com