Dr. Ed Storms - the role of burnishing etc. in NAE/LENR studies

  • Ed has given permission for me to publish his short and very readable paper on the part that burnishing operations can play in the production of active sites in LENR systems, and how in general they work and can be created.

    Relationship between the burnishing (final) (1).pdf

  • While access permissions in the version uploaded in the opening post are in the process of getting fixed, I can upload the version I was forwarded earlier (see attached).


    Relationship between the burnishing (final).pdf





    Basing on his ideas on the NAE (nuclear-active environment) and experience, Storms makes interesting predictions in his paper on pages 4-5, some of which might make, if verified, iterating through different materials suitable for a Mizuno analogue much simpler and cheaper:


    Edmund Storms wrote:

    PREDICTIONS

    1. Use of Ni that has been slightly oxidized by being heated in air to a temperature sufficient to cause thickening of the oxide layer will be more nuclear active than clean Ni.
    2. Use of Ni sheet rather than a mesh will increase the effectiveness of the process by increasing the surface area of the deposited Pd.
    3. Use of other metals that form an oxide surface layer, such as Ag, Cu, Ti, and Fe, will be suitable as a substrate to which Pd is applied.
    4. Application of surface layers other than oxide to the substrate can be expected to improve the effectiveness of the process.
    5. Other metals that form hydrides, such as Rh, Ti, Zr, or Hf, should cause LENR when used as the burnished material.
    6. Use of softer alloys of Pd, such as Pd-Li, are expected to produce a more effective burnished layer compared to pure Pd. This alloy might also be more effective because it is more reactive to hydrogen than pure Pd.
    7. Burnished Pd can be expected to produce LENR when used as the cathode during electrolysis and gas discharge, as well as when the gas loading method of Mizuno is used


    I found interesting that he suggests slightly oxidized materials (1) in the form of sheets (2) as the substrate, that a possible substrate material could be Fe (3), and that not necessarily surface layers in the form of oxides (4) can work as inclusions that might be included when burnishing a secondary software materials. By using a flame-heated substrate like he does to obtain a NiO-covered sheet that he will test his hypotheses with, not just oxides but also carbon impurities might be added in the process, which I thought still would fulfill point 4.


    It almost sounds like one could use flame-heated plain steel as a substrate, which according to some sources (e.g. here, see excerpts below) would have the advantage of having a higher permeability to hydrogen than Ni.



    Tadahiko Mizuno suggests this to be a more important characteristic than hydrogen loading itself (solubility).


    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MizunoTincreasede.pdf


    Permeability, not high loading, is necessary

    The results in Table 1 suggest that high permeability is necessary for excess heat, but high loading is not. On the contrary, high loading apparently reduces excess heat.

    Nickel subjected to the treatment described in this paper can be loaded much higher than pure nickel [2]. This appears to be a necessary condition to produce excess heat. However, it also appears that it is not highly load ed deuterium itself, but rather the ability to load (permeability) that is necessary.


    However point (5) in Storms' list seems to be in contrast with the above from Mizuno. Besides, palladium at the temperatures and especially pressure range used in the R19 and R20 reactors shouldn't be forming hydride phases.



    The possible process Storms describes for NAE preparation would be the almost the opposite approach of keeping materials perfectly clean. If the samples will show excess heat under electrolysis in his subsequent test (to be performed), then that might be an argument against keeping conditions ultra-purified.

  • can With regard to loading, a specific treatment of Ni can help Ni to load more H than pure Ni. However an important isotopic effect is known to exist between H (protium) and D (deuterium). I would be very surprised if the specific treatment that Mizuno applies to Ni can also lead to a high loading of D.


    That said, this doesn't change the fact that permeability may be more important than loading. In the case of Mizuno R20, it may be Pd permeability to D, and not Ni permeability to D, that is important. In that context, oxidation of Pd may help, whereas oxidation of Ni could be detrimental and may require flushing with D at a high temperature, either to create cracks of a size required for the NAE, as Storms is proposing, and/or to favor D spillover and the creation of Rydberg Matter of D at the Ni surface (my favorite theory).

  • Post by can ().

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  • Yikes, folks! If Mizuno's work is to be replicated as soon as possible, as it should be, please reproduce Mizuno's work by doing exactly what he recommends. Do not try variations of which there are innumerable versions until you are sure it works as specified! Of course, you can do whatever you want but, for example, using sheet instead of mesh seems counterproductive as a first try. The trite old saying is: if it works, don't fix it!

  • seven_of_twenty


    Ed's comments are based on decades of observation, experiment and theoretical development about LENR phenomena. While following his ideas does not give rise to an exact TN replication, they are the distilled wisdom of his considerable experience. I don't for one moment think he is suggesting than anybody planning a replication should immediately abandon it, he is 'fleshing out' the ideas and the environment they are used to create which he thinks make it work

  • My post was not a critique of Dr. Storms nor of his paper. It was rather a reflection on the activities of so-called replicators who, perhaps based on Dr. Storms' remarks, want to "improve" Dr. Mizuno's process before they have even managed to duplicate it.


    I wish they would not do that!


    In the upcoming presentation, I plan to say:


    "If you wish to replicate this experiment, you should follow this recipe as closely as you can. Please do not think I am saying: we are the experts, we know what is best, so shut up and do as you are told. I mean just the opposite. I mean we don’t know what we are doing. This is more art than science. We can’t tell you why it works, and if you vary the method, we can’t help. If you wish to try a variation, I strongly recommend you start with an exact replication. If it works, then you can try a variation, and return the original if that does not work. Use that as a baseline."

  • Post by can ().

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  • and might not be burnished easily on plain Ni

    Storms suggested these metals not as burnishing but as burnished as an alternative to Ni mesh


    "Other metals that form hydrides, such as Rh, Ti, Zr, or Hf, should cause LENR when used as the burnished material"


    of course its important to get ""Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" correct first with Pd/Ni mesh


  • Storms suggested these metals not as burnishing but as burnished as an alternative to Ni mesh

    "Other metals that form hydrides, such as Rh, Ti, Zr, or Hf, should cause LENR when used as the burnished material"


    Ni on its own doesn't normally form hydrides, but does oxidize easily. Pd easily forms hydrides, but does not oxidize easily. Why would Storms write as follows if he meant the ones you listed to be in alternative to Ni?


    Quote

    1. Use of Ni that has been slightly oxidized by being heated in air to a temperature sufficient to cause thickening of the oxide layer will be more nuclear active than clean Ni


    3. Use of other metals that form an oxide surface layer, such as Ag, Cu, Ti, and Fe, will be suitable as a substrate to which Pd is applied

  • Cydonia

    Surely more advanced methods than elbow grease will exist for achieving similar results. The burnishing I believe was intended to be a very accessible, low-cost alternative to them. Mizuno used it in alternative to an expensive Pd plating solution he used in previous experiments.


    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MizunoTincreasede.pdf on page 12:


    Quote

    In the tests reported in this paper, the nickel meshes were prepared by rubbing rather than electroless deposition, to save money. The plating solution is expensive.


    In any case a possible question related to the ideas suggested by Storms is why would the extensive surface cleaning mandated by Mizuno be necessary if the reaction occurs within cracks/voids developed at the interface between the substrate and the burnished material(s), which should be relatively well isolated from the external environment.

  • can i feel Storms too vague about NAE explanation since his earlier papers.

    If we talk about nuclear reaction, it should happen at atomic scale.

    Now, adding, some oxide or Argon should have another function as for example disrupt electrons movement.

    We can do an atomic gap when you remove oxide from iron for example, so why in this case need of largest cracks ?

    Take care when you say " plating " because it isn't the same as "sputtering" which can do more heterogeneous layers if you want .

  • Post by can ().

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