WRT Dr. Richard's Snicker-bar comment, that everything now seems to be patented, please note that some relatively new information and clarity of old information from the NEPS team is in "Bridging the Gaps: An Anthology on Nuclear Cold Fusion" (June 2021). For example, the book starts (pages 1-2) with a concern expressed by cold fusion critics that "If the experiments had produced high-energy neutrons from deuterium-deuterium (d, d) fusion, then capture of the neutrons by protons (i.e., hydrogen) in the calorimeter's surrounding H2O cooling water would have produced detectable 2.22 MeV gamma radiation, which was not observed." This concern expressed by critics of cold fusion was unfounded, as the cross section for the reaction would be insignificant unless neutron energy were less than about 0.1 eV. The neutrons might have been slowed down, or moderated, by heavy water near the center of the cold fusion experiments. The lower-velocity neutrons may not have been able to traverse the internal container to each water in the calorimeter. This explains a possible reason that gammas were not observed.
The Snicker candy-bar comment from Dr. Richard opens the door for discussing new information and clarity of old information from the NEPS team in "Bridging the Gaps: An Anthology on Nuclear Cold Fusion". As another example, page 20 says that one can assume that the three d+d reactions occur in somewhat the same manner, and that probabilities of two of the reactions are about the same due to their physical similarity. Detailed discussion of d+d reactions is on pages 504-510 and in the last paragraph on page 393 through page 394 of "Theoretical Nuclear Physics" by Blatt and Weisskopf, published by John Wiley and Sons, 1952. Equations I on page 505 indicate the third branch where He4 (an alpha particle) can be produced. Later, page 20 says the probability should be very low for "observing" the d+d reaction to produce He4. Reference 12 (and 13) indicates a cross section less than 10exp-31 cm2. Gammas are not emitted since He4 would not be in a 1P state.
When considering fusion pathways in cold fusion one should not overlook Schwinger's early thoughts. More than one pathway occurring should not be discounted in my opinion... consider all.
Rather, it is an HD reaction, which
feeds on the small contamination of D 2 0 by H 2 0 .
Cold Fusion: A Hypothesis
Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024
Z. Naturforsch. 45 a, 756 (1990);
received October 28, 1989
...the two chemists had written that
"the bulk of the energy release is due to a hitherto unknown nuclear process or processes (presumably ...due to clusters of deuterons)". The immediate - and thereafter unrelenting - reaction of the hot fusion community was disbelief based on the absence at the expected intensities, of the customary signs of a DD reaction, such as neutrons (d + d ->n + 3He) and high energy y-rays (d + d -*•y + 4He).
The hypothesis that I now advance has the following ingredients:
(1) The claim of Pons and Fleischmann to have realized cold fusion is valid.
(2) But, this cold fusion process is not powered by a DD reaction. Rather, it is an HD reaction, which feeds on the small contamination of D 2 0 by H 2 0 .
(3) The HD reaction p + d -> 3He does not have an accompanying y-ray; the excess energy is taken up by the metallic lattice of Pd alloyed with D. (Others have mentioned the possible importance of an HD reaction, but without reference to the lattice, and with no claim for its dominance over DD reactions.)
(4) The coupling with the Pd- D lattice that rapidly siphons off nuclear energy, as it becomes available, had previously acted to suppress the Coulomb repulsion between p and d, and, indeed, to overcome it with an energy of attraction that significantly ameliorates the effect of Coulomb barrier penetration.
(5) The asymmetry of the pd situation, compared with the symmetry of dd, enhances the HD reaction over DD reactions.
WRT Gregory Byron Goble's above comments about (p,d) fusion, please note the following information on page 24 of "Bridging the Gaps: An Anthology on Nuclear Cold Fusion": The (p,d) reaction has been discussed in the paper "A Source of Plane-polarized Gamma-rays of Variable Energy above 5.5 MeV" by D.H. Wilkinson of the Cavendish Laboratory (Ref 19). It indicates that a (p.d) interaction involves a direct radiative transition where the gammas are emitted perpendicular to the path between the proton and deuteron. The paper also indicates that gamma ray energy can be increased from 5.5 MeV by increasing energy of the bombarding protons, and the gammas produced can cause photodisintegration of other deuterons, with the resulting protons emitted along the electric vector.
Also see: "The Gamma Radiation from the Bombardment of Heavy Ice with Low Energy Protons," by Colin David Scarfe, University of British Columbia, October 1961.
The coupling with the Pd- D lattice that rapidly siphons off nuclear energy,
The coupling cannot be radiative,,as photons would show up.
Maybee it is direct electromagnetic where electromagnetic energy in the deuterium orbitals
couples directly with the nuclear orbitals in particular Palladium isotopes
According to the above information, Gregory Byron Goble's assumption Based on that of Schwinger) that "the HD reaction p + d -> 3He does not have an accompanying y-ray" conflicts with published results from nuclear physics.
Pages 17-23 of "Bridging the Gaps: An Anthology on Nuclear Cold Fusion" discuss at least nine nuclear reactions that need to be considered as operative in a cold fusion generator. The standard methodology for correlating heat and helium produced is also presented.
The common way of. getting rid of nuclear energy is as particle KE. Or as a photon. Eg gamma,
but another path via direct e-m transfer from one nucleus to another or between nuclear states in the same atom may be predominant in. cold. fusion. Difficult to.detect though
Aren't we allowed to make practical jokes regarding my Snicker's comment. I think Albert Einstein or Strernglass would have laughed at that one!! being practical jokers in writing the equation E = mc^2 when they really knew the real equation was E = mc^n where n could vary between + or - infinity. They could not prove or disprove the theory in any way so left it at an equal probability (ie 50 : 50) of being probabilistic correct ie 2. The same rational applies to space-time dilation ie from zero on planet Earth to eternity in outer space to the ends of the Universe. All we need for cold fusion to work is devise a slow release version of the hydrogen bomb.
In the above, Robert Bryant mentions characteristics of a couple types of nuclear reaction (some ways that nuclear energy could be emitted). By comparison, critics of cold fusion focus upon the early part of the fusion process, and many still hold a view that the force between two positively charged nuclei (Coulomb repulsion) cannot be overcome in cold fusion. As far back as 1995, there were already about two dozen theories attempting to explain how the cold fusion reactions might occur. The best one, however, was developed by Professor K.P. Sinha in about 1999, and discussed in "A Theoretical Model for Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions," published in the Infinite Energy Magazine, January/February 2000. This was the first theory that seriously viewed cold fusion as occurring in cracks, crevices and crevices of the cathode reaction material (instead of the bulk between atoms of the material. Subsequently, similar theories were developed by Widom and Larsen (2005) and Ed Storms (2014).
The above Snicker-bar comment by Dr. Richard misses the point that everything under the sun regarding cold fusion has NOT now been patented, (i.e., just waiting for cold fusion to be shown to work in a system). A lot of cold fusion patents are still being submitted and processed both by the USTPO and overseas.
Gregory Byron Goble's assumption Based on that of Schwinger)
It was Schwinger's idea written in a 1990 paper to explain nucleus energy transfer without gamma
Nuclear Energy in an Atomic Lattice
but the tritium product could also be helium
change the Hamiltonian slightly.?.
Surely, if something new is taking place, it ought to be associated with what —
from a nuclear point of view — is new in the electrochemical arrangement.
And that is the atomic lattice environment within which the putative nuclear reactions occur.
Apart from a brief period of apostasy,
when I echoed the conventional wisdom that atomic andnuclear energy scales are much too disparate,..
Now consider a particular D2 pair in the heavily loaded lattice. When the two deuterons
are so close that fusion can occur, one is far outside the phonon domain ..."
its a pity Schwinger died in 1994....
". The correct treatment of cold fusion
will beis not free of
the collision-dominated mentality of the hot fusioneers."
In the above, Robert Bryant says that Schwinger's view was that the lattice environment is important for cold fusion and that for d + d fusion one of the deuterons is outside the "domain" to produce gammas. By comparison, cold fusion scientists now seem to think that cold fusion occurs in cracks, crevices and defects of the cathode reaction material (instead of the bulk between atoms of the material), and (more specifically) that gammas are not emitted since He4 would not be in a 1P state (ref. "Investigations of the Capture of Protons and Deuterons by Deuterons," By W.A. Fowler et al., Physical Review, vol. 76, no. 12, pgs. 1767-68, December 15, 1949.
Please note the following related information from page 8 of "Bridging the Gaps: An Anthology on Nuclear Cold Fusion": High-energy gamma radiation was not observed from the experiments, but little attention was given to the possibility of internal conversion and pair production as alternative processes for an excited nucleus (e.g. helium-4) to reach its lower-energy ground state by emitting high-energy electrons.
Internal conversion and pair production are discussed on pages 614-622 of "Theoretical Nuclear Physics," by Blat and Weisskoff, John Wiley and Sons, 1952.
See above post. According to page 312 of "Too Hot to Handle: The Race for Cold Fusion," by Frank Close (Princeton Legacy Library, 1991), internal conversion is believed to have been mentioned to Pons and Fleischmann in 1989 by a couple of scientists from the University of Utah.
Snicker candy-bar comment
Grab a SNICKERS and Turn Things Around. Let's Face It, You're Not You When You're...
So far that's all I've found when pasting "snicker candy-bar comment" into different search platforms... Anything else?
What does it mean and where its first usage arose from escapes me.
The first usage of "Snicker-bar" as far as we know was by "Dr. Richard" on January 6, 2022, but we have no idea what is meant by it. Maybe someone on the LENR-forum staff could ask "Dr. Richard" to explain what is meant.
d + d fusion one of the deuterons is outside the "domain" to produce gammas. By comparison, cold fusion scientists now seem to think that cold fusion occurs in cracks, crevices and defects of the cathode reaction material (instead of the bulk between atoms of the material), and (more specifically) that gammas are not emitted
that gammas are not emitted appears to be the approximate realityin expts.
viable hypotheses why energy transfer nuclear (Mev,kev) to heat (< 1 Ev)
can occur without gammas or other er HE photons or kinetic particles
are not tested so far AFAIK
Schwingers approach was to develop a testable hypothesis
not to EXPLAIN with theory
Incidentally, I did not advance the HD hypothesis as something to be proved
theoretically — that is not the nature of a hypothesis — but as the basis for obvious
critical experiments in which the H2O/D2O ratio is altered in small steps and heat
production is monitored. To my knowledge, no systematic tests along these lines have yet
However there are some exptal evidences from other fields which suggest some kind
of nonphoton transfer at the gamma energy level..
My God, you Americans are so serious we Brits have even to explain our jokes. e.g. you mentioned that wading through @Wyttenbach's new S(0)4 physics is like running a MARATHON but the candy bar which type2 diabetics take when their sugar level dips to avoid comas is NOW CALLED A SNICKERS. Sorry for wasting your time! Or ask John Cleese (another manic depressive) to explain his funny walk whilst saying 'don't mention the Germans' in Fawlty Towers. Its for the same reasons why good old Jeremy Corbyn was labelled as being anti-semitic when nothing could have been further from the TRUTH. My apologies for your taking my joke so seriously!
Anyway we now have some evidence (I realise it is somewhat thin) that Gamma radiation was recently detected in our experiments at Ecalox. Real evidence that cold fusion, LENR, or CMNS or whatever label you want to give it, is occurring.
Dr. Richard: Your apology is accepted. We would be very pleased to send you and your associates at Ecalox copies of "Bridging the Gaps: An Anthology on Nuclear Cold Fusion, if you can send your mailing address to [email protected].