Covid-19 News

  • Got a Case of the COVID-19 Marketing “Scaries?” ‘Use of Fear Can Actually Work’


    Got a Case of the COVID-19 Marketing “Scaries?” ‘Use of Fear Can Actually Work’
    The government has started using scare tactics in newly released advertisements to market the COVID-19 vaccine and Americans are eating it up. According
    trialsitenews.com


    The government has started using scare tactics in newly released advertisements to market the COVID-19 vaccine and Americans are eating it up. According to CNN, the new commercials are singing a different tune compared to past advertisements that pushed a positive message. The previous advertisements highlighted how getting vaccinated is the easiest way to get back to a normal life again and that the vaccine helps protect members of the community. In contrast, the new advertisements focus on the dire consequences of not getting the vaccine. In the meantime, little to no effort goes into helping the American public understand natural immunity nor the benefits of early-onset care.


    Quarter Billion Ad Campaign

    Recently the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) embarked on a $250 million HHS COVID-19 ad campaign to educate the public about the consequences of avoiding COVID-19 vaccination. Several new ads are distributed across various media channels from social media to mainstream media such as CNN. The ads include heads of some of the largest health systems in the country


    Seeking to draw out first-person experience the campaign’s sponsors seek to scare the other 60-70 million unvaccinated into the clinic for the jab.


    “When you pair that with optimism and a way to take action — vaccination — to avoid the negative consequences, you can really make a positive impact,” a Senior Official with the US Department of Health and Human Services who was involved with the ad campaign told CNN.


    President and CEO of the Kaiser Family Foundation Drew Altman said that real experiences have a greater ability to move people compared to informational advertising.


    “We believe these first-person accounts of people who have experienced COVID first-hand can really underscore the danger that COVID-19 poses,” the HHS official told CNN. “[It’s] really changing the messenger. We’re letting real people tell their own stories in their own words.”


    In a bid to elicit a faster response from more people, the new advertisements include videos that were posted on social media accounts by an intensive care nurse and two COVID-19 survivors.


    Terrell from St. Louis was one man featured in the video that survived COVID-19 and states that he was given a 5% chance of survival and that he had been in the hospital for 76 days. Kole from Monett, Missouri was the second survivor featured in the advertisement who said that he contracted COVID-19 two months prior, and nothing has been the same since. The ICU nurse named Felicia from Shreveport, Louisiana teared up as she spoke about her experiences caring for COVID-19 patients saying that she is seeing people her age and younger dying due to the Delta variant, told by CNN.


    Benefits…Now Fear

    Public health campaigns are stuck with the choice of either displaying the vaccination benefits or hitting it home by focusing on the consequences of not vaccinating, as told by CNN.


    “We have to make sure that if we’re putting a piece of creative information out into the world, that we’re not going to make the situation worse,” the HHS official told CNN. “As people are making up their mind about something, the use of fear can actually work both ways.”


    “I think this resonates more than ‘let’s sing kumbaya together and go to a concert together,’ CEO of the National Association of County and City Health Officials Lori Freeman said. “It’s a better approach to say ‘this is what you need to do to keep yourself alive’ rather than ‘this is how to help the world.’ “


    Conclusion

    TrialSite suggests that vaccination is critical, especially for cohorts at risk. But also, just as vital are investments in early treatment. What concerns many across America is the unilateral focus on vaccination as the only approach that can work. Several prominent scientists suggest the current vaccines are “leaky” and won’t protect everyone all the time. Moreover, a combination of leaky vaccine products and virulent highly transmissible Delta variant overpower the vaccines, hence the need for booster shots. In the case of Johnson and Johnson that can be just two months after the first shot for what is supposed to be a one-shot vaccine!


    The level of bias in the system is noticeable. Either focus solely on vaccination—including forced (coerced) mandates and leave early care to select pharmaceutical companies and their partners in the NIH. Too many smart, critically thinking people know something is off here. Why is there no study of natural immunity? Why is there so much resistance to probes into adverse events? Why was there such an orchestrated and concerted effort to discredit ivermectin and other approaches under investigation? Why is the current POTUS stalling on any serious investigation into the virus origins? These questions need to be addressed.

  • Glad to answer:

    Why is there no study of natural immunity?

    If someone, unvaccinated, gets COVID - you have already lost. You don't need to worry about the chances of their dying if they catch COVID again. the ones vulnerable will porbably die the first time! So no study needed


    Why is there so much resistance to probes into adverse events?

    I've only seem rejection of rubbish scientifically illiterate antivax propaganda and scare stories designed to increase vaccine hesitation. The AEs are minutely and examined and commented on, continuously, by the vaccine safetly bodies. Not juts in US. I don't see US as being an oulier ignoring stuff other people say is important.

    Why was there such an orchestrated and concerted effort to discredit ivermectin and other approaches under investigation?

    It would be better to ask - why was their such a concerted and fraudulent attempt to push ivermection - after HCQ failed. ivermectin has zero scientific credibility - in spite of that it is in multiple long-term large trails. Hardly discredited.


    The antivaxxers here want people to take ivermectin at home and think it makes them safe. That is dangerous, because we know now (enough evidence is in) that it won't make people safe. At best it will make them a tiny bit safer.


    I think that lies behind why many peopel don't want falkse miracle cures pushed to people - because it will make them careless about COVID in other ways, and will not help them with COVID itself. Which I guess is what the antivaxxers want.


    THH

  • Inventor of mRNA technology argues against vaccine-risk censorship, offers a dynamic approach to combatting COVID-19


    Inventor of mRNA technology argues against vaccine-risk censorship, offers a dynamic approach to combatting COVID-19
    Dr. Robert Malone has over 30 years of experience as an internationally recognized scientist of virology, immunology, and molecular biology. Malone holds
    trialsitenews.com


    Dr. Robert Malone has over 30 years of experience as an internationally recognized scientist of virology, immunology, and molecular biology. Malone holds numerous fundamental patents in those respective fields. His ground-breaking contribution to the development of the mRNA technologies give him an insightful perspective on the role of emerging vaccines in the fight against COVID-19. Recently, Malone had a conversation at the Global COVID Summit, to explain these ideas.


    Good Science and Medicine Should Welcome Open Discussion of Risks

    While the COVID-19 vaccines play an important role during this pandemic, Malone finds it problematic to censor necessary (and previously customary) medical discussions regarding potential risks, evolving data, and other promising treatment options.


    Though Malone acknowledges the severity of the COVID-19 virus, that doesn’t compromise his standards when it comes to upholding the ethics surrounding the development of new vaccines.


    “Full disclosure of risks,” is the “fundamental pillar of bioethics” which must be communicated to the public in a way they can understand, says Malone. Individuals must be “free, unencumbered, and non-coerced.” In this manner, people can willfully consent to the experimental medical procedure. “I feel ethically bound to say no, this isn’t right.”


    “We are in the middle of the largest experiment on human beings that has ever been performed…” says Malone. A new vaccine being administered to an enormous portion of the world population should be a reason to exercise more caution.


    One main reason Malone is advocating for more selective-vaccine intake is those troublesome, evasive variants.


    COVID Variants: A Dynamic Virus Calls for a Dynamic Strategy

    Data on COVID-19 is evolving as rapidly as the virus itself. World health organizations that rely on firmly established data are “making decisions that are totally inappropriate during the dynamic environment of an outbreak,” says Malone, since firmly established data is usually about six months behind.


    Thankfully, other key players in science and medicine still embrace the concept of exploring newly emerging data on vaccine performance, potential risks, and perplexing variants, to better understand and overcome COVID-19.


    Geert Vanden Bossche, for example, is a leading advocate for the theory that variants of COVID-19 are being produced through vaccination. “I highly respect his insight,” says Malone.


    “Viruses that have evolved to escape vaccine effects, will only do so in response to having reproduced and been selected in the body of people who have received the vaccine. This is fundamental Darwinian evolution,” says Malone.


    Developing variants were tracked “largely in geographic regions and the time when the vaccine was being selectively deployed for clinical trials. Then, when we introduced the mass vaccination event, the divergents and evolution of those variants explode.”


    The difference in the efficacy regarding how traditional live-attenuated vaccines work, (such as Polio, Yellow Fever, and Smallpox,) as opposed to mRNA vaccines, is that the former are administered prior to a major outbreak, preventing opportunity to spread.


    “But once the virus is already embedded into a large fraction of the population, that logic fails.” Ultimately, vaccinating during an outbreak drives more potent mutations.


    Another advantage of traditional vaccines is that they express a robust variety of proteins to attack the virus. In comparison, mRNA and adenovirus vaccines use the same basic gene-therapy technology with the exact single-antigen protein: spike.


    “Logically what we’re doing is driving the development of viruses that can escape the immune surveillance associated with the spike.”


    This explains why natural immunity proves to be 10 to 20 times more powerful than vaccine immunity. “The data shows this clearly,” says Malone. Therefore, vaccinating people who have recovered from COVID-19 does not make sense from a scientific, immunological perspective. Yet, world health leaders ignore this information.


    Potential Dangers to Reproductive Health

    The CDC website discloses the fact that no studies were ever conducted on pregnant or breastfeeding women. Additionally, in the interest of time, the FDA bypassed several rounds of rigorous animal testing to screen for toxicity in vital organs.


    However, studies from Japan (in rodent testing) revealed that the synthetic chemical responsible for driving the vaccine, “accumulates paradoxically in the ovaries,” says Malone.


    For this reason, Malone says world health organizations should be transparent that risks to reproductive health are unknown, as opposed to saying they are definitively safe. “I object to this.”


    The native spike protein of the virus is a toxin, but to a lesser degree, so is the vaccine. Both can open the blood-brain barrier and producing coagulation.


    Potential complications during pregnancy may occur because the uterus and the placenta are very vascular organs. If micro-coagulation (small blood clots) develops all over these areas, it has the potential to disrupt the oxygen and food supply. This can lead to a multitude of complications with fetal development: spontaneous abortion, disruption of physical and neurological development, as well as posing additional risks to the mother.


    However, it is important to note, that the virus itself can create the same problems, and probably to a more severe degree. Those risks should be weighed by the patient and their OB.


    Here are Malone’s recommendations for family planning and risk mitigation during the pandemic:


    Find “a physician who is willing to give early treatment in case of infection.”


    For women who feel that the vaccine is still appropriate, (or mandated) get your doses before becoming pregnant.


    Already pregnant? Quarantine during the first and second trimesters, then vaccinate during the third trimester, or after delivery. Since mRNA products are shed in breastmilk, parents must consider the unknown risk as to how this will affect infant development.


    Malone’s Multi-Pronged Approach to Combatting COVID-19

    Vaccines for those who need it


    The limited supply of vaccines should be given to those who are most at-risk around the globe: the elderly, the immunocompromised, and the morbidly obese. Though the vaccines are not perfect, it is most valuable for these groups.


    Preventative drug treatments for the general population


    With promising new drugs, combinations, and treatments emerging, those need to be utilized (instead of discouraged) to keep people from hospitalization.


    Introduce easily accessible home testing


    At-home testing should be more accessible because it can speed up the time to get the necessary medication while helping those with a contagious infection to keep from spreading it to others.


    Empower people with tools to overcome fear


    “We need to have a way so that people can get a realistic assessment of what is their true risk, as opposed to what they fear based on the media. People are being driven crazy.” Malone references online apps that can help determine your risk to make an informed, rational decision.


    Our Future with COVID-19

    “The Director of the WHO fully concedes we cannot overcome this virus. This virus is going to be part of the human population for the rest of our lives…” says Malone. “Then let’s be intelligent about it. Let’s be strategic and tactical, and use all the tools that we have, and make sure we apply them in the right way.”


    “We should practice medicine based on the individual, and their risks, and their health. We should empower people to make decisions, not to dictate to them about what those decisions should be.”

  • The Blaze also reports that physicians in all 50 states have noted pharmacist resistance to filling certain prescriptions. “It’s not just ivermectin,” said Missouri ICU doctor Mollie James. “I’ve had patients refused for any reason. Pharmacists have told them the scripts were ‘flagged’ as for COVID and ‘kicked out’ all of the scripts. I’ve had pharmacists refuse to fill an antibiotic for someone because they ‘think we’re using it to treat COVID.'”

    BBC just did a re-emission of the climagate event. 2009 the world wide Freemason mafia organized a blackmail campaign together with their R/ :) /B friends with the target to stop or delay any climate measures to ensure profits of the base industry and energy complex they control. Basically they invented crude lies the same way we see it today with CoV-19 and e.g. HCQ.


    Last year the same network of all world wide FM/R/ :( /B mafia owned newspapers and channels did focus on the famous Lancet story that claimed HCQ does not work in early treatment for CoV-19. This story was 100% fully invented with not a single case used that ever happened.

    The result of these FM/R/ 8o /B fascist action was the almost world wide banning of HCQ and the discrimination of doctors using it. The huge profit of this: Pfizer has been granted the right to start the Auschwitz II program. Pfizer got the right to damage 1.5 billion people so far with a crappy cancer chemo relabeled as vaccine...

    With an early treatment cure this would not have been possible by law.


    Now where it is clear that we need antivirals they try to repeat (In favor of Merck, Pfizer and others) the same black mailing for Ivermectin. Already countless young free mason candidates (White socks) had to construct fake papers that show the failure of Ivermectin.


    I just remind you that 2020 the Oxford free masons Dr. Mengele team did help to kill HCQ by directly killing patients with HCQ.


    If you ever did hate WWII fascists, then the today's FM/R/ X( /B version is a new, global unprecedented culmination of inhumanity. These folks are willing to kill anybody just for making money - what is their only fun.

  • Valneva Reports its COVID-19 Vaccine (VLA200) Candidate is Superior to AstraZeneca’s in Phase 3 Cov-Compare Trial


    Valneva Reports its COVID-19 Vaccine (VLA200) Candidate is Superior to AstraZeneca’s in Phase 3 Cov-Compare Trial
    Valneva reported results from its phase 3 trial, Cov-Compare designed to assess immunogenicity rates between VLA200 and active comparator
    trialsitenews.com


    Valneva reported results from its phase 3 trial, Cov-Compare designed to assess immunogenicity rates between VLA200 and active comparator vaccine, AstraZeneca’s AZD1222 (ChAdOx1-S). VLA2001 successfully met both co-primary endpoints, showing superior neutralizing antibody titer levels compared to AZD1222 and a neutralizing antibody seroconversion rate above 95%. Valneva has commenced rolling submission for initial approval with the UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and is preparing to commence rolling submission for conditional approval with the European Medicines Agency.


    The randomized, observer-blind, controlled, comparative immunogenicity trial enrolled 4,012 adults and 660 adolescents: 2,972 participants 30 years of age and older were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular doses of either VLA2001 (n=1,977) or AZD1222 (ChAdOx1-S) (n=995) at the recommended dose level, 28 days apart, on Days 1 and 29. One thousand forty participants that are under 30 years of age were recruited in a non-randomized treatment group and received VLA2001 28 days apart. The trial was conducted at 26 sites across the U.K.


    The trial met its co-primary endpoints: VLA2001 demonstrated superiority against AZD1222 (ChAdOx1-S), in terms of geometric mean titer for neutralization antibodies (GMT ratio=1.39, p<0.0001), (VLA2001 GMT 803.5, (AZD1222(ChAdOx1-S) GMT 576.6), as well as non-inferiority in terms of seroconversion rates (SCR above 95% in both treatment groups) at two weeks after the second vaccination (i.e., Day 43) in adults aged 30 years and older.


    T-cell responses analyzed in a sub-set of participants showed that VLA2001 induced broad antigen-specific IFN-gamma producing T-cells reactive against the S- (74.3%), N- (45.9%), and M- (20.3%) protein.


    VLA2001 was generally well tolerated. The tolerability profile of VLA2001 was significantly more favorable compared to the active comparator vaccine. Participants 30 years and older reported significantly fewer solicited adverse events up to seven days after vaccination, both with regards to injection site reactions (73.2% VLA2001 vs. 91.1% AZD1222) and systemic reactions (70.2% VLA2001 vs. 91.1% AZD1222). No unsolicited treatment-related serious adverse events have been reported.


    About VLA2001

    VLA2001 is a whole virus, inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine candidate against COVID-19. VLA2001 consists of inactivated whole virus particles of SARS-CoV-2 with high S-protein density, in combination with two adjuvants, alum and CpG 1018. This adjuvant combination has consistently induced higher antibody levels in preclinical experiments than alum-only formulations and shown a shift of the immune response towards Th1


    Valneva Reports Positive Phase 3 Results for Inactivated, Adjuvanted COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate VLA2001 – Valneva

  • I don't disagree but I think you are mistaken in they are doing this "just for making money".

  • Good article comparing Ivermectin vs Remdesivir, and lastly mentions Nitazoxanide:


    Horowitz: The $cience of remdesivir vs. ivermectin: A tale of two drugs – Politico Fire


    What caught my eye though was this comment about US hospitals getting an extra 20% payment to use Remdesivir:


    "However, remdesivir does have a lot of political science behind it. Aside from having the weight of Big Pharma pushing it (and it was concocted by UNC-Chapel Hill, curiously the same institution at the center of the coronavirus gain-of-function research), hospitals get a 20% bonus for using it!"

  • I agree remdesivir does not have great trial results.


    My best comparison (fairest) would be the Cochrane meta-analyses of the two:


    Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19
    Learn the findings of this recently published Cochrane review about the effectiveness of this treatment for COVID-19
    www.cochrane.org



    They are both quite out of date now, though. Also both negative.


    I have one respectable reason for being more positive (slightly) about remdesivir than about ivermectin: the lab (in vitro) antiviral evidence. Remdesivir is an effective anti-viral against related virusses at concentrations safely obtained. ivermectin is not, and the concentration required to knock out covod was much higher than that used by anyone.


    Remdesivir and its antiviral activity against COVID-19: A systematic review
    The aim of this study was to summarize the antiviral activities of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19.Available publications were…
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov


    And a respectable reason for being more negative. Its side effect profile is not fully understood and definitely not great (ivermectin is much safer).


    The UK guidelines allow it in some circumstances https://app.magicapp.org/#/guideline/L4Qb5n/section/ERYAXn


    THH

  • Remdesivir is an effective anti-viral against related virusses at concentrations safely obtained. ivermectin is not


    The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
    Although several clinical trials are now underway to test possible therapies, the worldwide response to the COVID-19 outbreak has been largely limited to…
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov


    Abstract


    Although several clinical trials are now underway to test possible therapies, the worldwide response to the COVID-19 outbreak has been largely limited to monitoring/containment. We report here that Ivermectin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic previously shown to have broad-spectrum anti-viral activity in vitro, is an inhibitor of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2), with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2 h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48 h. Ivermectin therefore warrants further investigation for possible benefits in humans.


    As we have observed previously (Lundberg et al., 2013; Tay et al., 2013; Wagstaff et al., 2012), no toxicity of ivermectin was observed at any of the timepoints tested, in either the sample wells or in parallel tested drug alone samples.

  • Association of Vitamin D, Zinc and Selenium Related Genetic Variants With COVID-19 Disease Severity


    Association of Vitamin D, Zinc and Selenium Related Genetic Variants With COVID-19 Disease Severity
    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be an unrelenting health threat for more than a year now. The emerging amount of data indicates that vitamin D,…
    www.frontiersin.org


    1Laboratory for Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

    2Clinic of Pulmonology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

    3Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

    4Children's Hospital for Lung Diseases and Tbc, MC Dr Dragisa Misovic, Belgrade, Serbia

    5Faculty of Pharmacy Novi Sad, Business Academy, Novi Sad, Serbia

    6Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

    Background: COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be an unrelenting health threat for more than a year now. The emerging amount of data indicates that vitamin D, zinc and selenium could be important for clinical presentation of COVID-19. Here, we investigated association of genetic variants related to the altered level and bioavailability of vitamin D, zinc and selenium with clinical severity of COVID-19.


    Methods: We analyzed variants in genes significant for the status of vitamin D (DHCR7/NADSYN1 rs12785878, GC rs2282679, CYP2R1 rs10741657, and VDR rs2228570), zinc (PPCDC rs2120019) and selenium (DMGDH rs17823744) in 120 Serbian adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients using allelic discrimination. Furthermore, we carried out comparative population genetic analysis among European and other worldwide populations to investigate variation in allelic frequencies of selected variants.


    Results: Study showed that DHCR7/NADSYN rs12785878 and CYP2R1 rs10741657 variants were associated with severe COVID-19 in adults (p = 0.03, p = 0.017, respectively); carriers of DHCR7/NADSYN TG+GG and CYP2R1 GG genotypes had 0.21 and 5.9 the odds for developing severe disease, OR 0.21 (0.05–0.9) and OR 5.9 (1.4–25.2), respectively. There were no associations between selected genetic variants and disease severity in pediatric patients. Comparative population genetic analysis revealed that Serbian population had the lowest frequency of CYP2R1 rs10741657 G allele compared to other non-Finish Europeans (0.58 compared to 0.69 and 0.66 in Spanish and Italian population, respectively), suggesting that other populations should also investigate the relationship of CYP2R1 variant and the COVID-19 disease course.


    Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that vitamin D related genetic variants were implicated in severe COVID-19 in adults. This could direct prevention strategies based on population specific nutrigenetic profiles



    Selenium has also been recently linked to dementia, brain fog!


    Selenium deficiency: The mineral deficiency found in 76 percent of adults | Express.co.uk

  • Covid 19 spread is the result of vitamin and mineral deficiency that seems to be at pandemic levels yet no alert from the Ivory tower, it's even been debated here as to simple an explanation. 40 years of vitamins and mineral studies have all pointed to deficiency in the majority of autoimmune disease. Here is one more recent study on zinc.


    Zinc as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Health


    Zinc as a Biomarker of Cardiovascular Health
    The importance of zinc (Zn) for cardiovascular health continuously gains recognition. As shown earlier, compromised Zn homeostasis and prolonged inflammation…
    www.frontiersin.org


    The importance of zinc (Zn) for cardiovascular health continuously gains recognition. As shown earlier, compromised Zn homeostasis and prolonged inflammation are common features in various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Similarly, Zn biochemistry alters several vascular processes, and Zn status is an important feature of cardiovascular health. Zn deficiency contributes to the development of CVDs; thus, Zn manipulations, including Zn supplementation, are beneficial for preventing and treating numerous cardiovascular (CV) disorders. Finally, additional long-term, well-designed studies, performed in various population groups, should be pursued to further clarify significant relationships between Zn and CVDs.

    Introduction

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the most essential micronutrients involved in numerous crucial biological functions, i.e., cell differentiation and proliferation, cellular transport, DNA synthesis, endocrine, immune, and central nervous system functioning, reproduction, gene expression, and homeostasis (1). With the capacity to bind more than 300 enzymes and over 2,000 transcriptional factors, it is often regarded as a multipurpose trace element (2). Zn is a major antioxidant mineral responsible for inhibiting expansion and negative effects of free radicals and regulating the oxidant-antioxidant balance of cells (3). Zn deficiency significantly affects the functioning of biological systems, creates dysfunctions in humoral and cell-mediated immunity, consequently, increases the vulnerability to infections—predisposing people to disturbances in gut microbiota activity, increases the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, and leads to the progression of chronic and degenerative diseases, i.e., type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cancers (3). CVDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2016, representing 31% of global deaths (4). CVD-related deaths are projected to reach 23.6 million annually by 2030 (1). Three-quarters of these deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries (4). The deficiency of Zn affects 17% of the global population, up to 35% in low-income populations, i.e., South Asia and Africa (1). An association between Zn intake and Zn status with the pathogenesis of CVDs is demonstrated by several experimental and clinical studies (5, 6). Imbalances in Zn homeostasis contribute significantly to the development of CVDs, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), congestive heart failure (HF), ischemic cardiomyopathy (CM), myocardial infarction (MI), sudden cardiac death (SCD), and CVD mortality, in general (5). Antioxidant and prooxidant functions of Zn may have various positive effects on CV health and could prevent the development of CVDs (6).


    This study provides a concise and thorough overview of the relationship between Zn homeostasis and CVDs. The importance and potential suitability of Zn status as a biomarker of CV health are discussed, highlighting present controversies and research gaps that entail further research studies.


    Zinc Deficiency—A Contributing Factor for Developing CVDs

    Zinc is a major component of numerous enzymes within the human body. It controls the functioning of metalloenzymes, transcription factors, angiotensin-converting enzymes, desaturases, superoxide dismutases, and many others (1). Consequently, deficiency of Zn leads to apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all well-acknowledged risk factors for the development of CVDs (7). Perturbations in Zn homeostasis affect the vascular endothelium (8). Zn deficiency weakens vascular health, impairs appropriate fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism, and negatively impacts the cell structure of the aorta (9). Impaired Zn homeostasis is associated with common genomic and proteomic modifications that relate to CVDs (10). Zn controls the arteriosclerotic process, and inadequate Zn intake leads to increased oxidative stress, disrupted nitric oxide (NO), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-kB) signaling and contributes considerably to endothelial damage and development of arteriosclerosis (ARS) (6). The rate of ARS, ischemic injuries, ischemic CM, and ischemic HF amplifies in line with decreasing plasma Zn levels (11, 12). Likewise, dietary Zn intake and Zn deficiency are adversely linked to subclinical ARS as demonstrated through carotid intima-media thickness (13, 14). Heart development is sensitive to Zn deficiency, and maternal Zn deficiency is linked to a high incidence of fetal heart abnormalities (15). Furthermore, Zn inadequacy prevents adequate development of cardiac tissues and increases blood pressure in fetuses and infants (16). Excessive embryonic cell death occurs after episodes of Zn deficiency (15). Proatherogenic factors, released during Zn deficiency, increase the incidence of arrhythmias, strokes, CM, and many other CV system pathologies (5, 17). There is an inverse relation between the serum Zn concentrations and the risk of CVDs in high-risk populations (18). Besides, lower serum Zn levels are associated with a higher risk of CVDs, with the greatest relations reported in most vulnerable populations, i.e., patients with diabetes and coronary angiography (18). Stimulated expression of inflammatory cytokines, i.e., interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and increased oxidative stress are aggravated under Zn deficiency conditions (19). Similarly, cytokines can upregulate or downregulate the expression of particular cellular Zn transporters (20). Twenty-four Zn transporters are found within the human heart muscle tissue, so disturbances in Zn homeostasis may lead to CVDs (21). Turbulences in Zn homeostasis contribute to the development of hypertension (HT) (22). Through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, Zn regulates arterial pressure and plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of arterial HT (23).


    Adequate Zn levels are a critical component in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling during atherosclerosis (ATS) (23). Furthermore, patients with coronary heart disease have poor Zn status (17). Zn deficiency contributes to the thickening of the vascular wall due to enhanced proliferation and hypertrophy (24). Low serum Zn levels are measured in people with HF (25, 26). Zn also has a role in redox signaling pathways, and it improves antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities (27). Deficiency of Zn can degenerate essential proteins like protein creatine kinase (C kinase), stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive proteins, and may trap constituents in monocytes and macrophages (19). Serum Zn levels are considerably diminished in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and a significant inverse relation is seen between Zn status and LVH (5). Patients with ischemic stroke have lower serum Zn levels than healthy subjects (13). Similarly, lower serum Zn levels are seen in patients with HF and patients with left ventricular diastolic function (28). Besides, serum Zn levels are inversely associated with diminished glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance (29). Low serum Zn concentration predicts mortality in patients that need coronary angiography (30). What is more, serum Zn levels could be a valid diagnostic indicator for acute MI (31). According to the meta-analysis data, an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) is linked to a lower dietary Zn intake, with a direct association between Zn status and MI (31).


    Zinc Interventions Alleviate Risk Factors for CVDs

    Cohort studies, randomized trials, and meta-analyses of these studies propose that higher consumption of dietary Zn is linked to reduced risk of CVDs. Administration of Zn stimulates myocardial healing and improves arrhythmias (32). Besides, Zn is a wound-healing agent that supports cardiac steam cell survival, a critical element of cardiac healing (12). Zn supplementation has an atheroprotective effect (20) and contributes to a higher concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoproteins, and lower total cholesterol (TC) levels (33). Higher serum Zn concentrations are associated with a decline in relative risk of death of CVDs (12). Reduced prevalence of CAD and T2DM is correlated with higher dietary Zn intakes (34, 35). Additionally, higher plasma Zn concentration is associated with a diminished risk of mortality of vascular disease (VD) (30, 36). Zn supplementation could potentially increase the effectiveness of currently used therapeutic drugs for managing CVDs (37). Finally, recently presented data of a systematic review and meta-analysis point out that low-dose and long-duration Zn interventions are of identical or in some instances of even larger magnitude and with even more beneficial effects compared to high-dose and short-duration interventions. Long-duration Zn studies, for 12 weeks or longer, alleviated risk factors for T2DM and CVDs, such as blood glucose, total fats, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while the longer duration of low Zn doses affected a larger number of risk factors (38).


    Limited Knowledge on Vascular Roles of Zinc Transporter Proteins

    Twenty-four Zip transporters are present within human heart muscle tissues, so disturbances in Zn homeostasis are strongly related to CVDs (21). Zrt, Irt-like protein2 (Zip2), Zip12, Zip14, and Zn transporter1 (ZnT1) and ZnT2 are linked to the vascular biology of CVDs (37).


    For example, Zip2 has a beneficial role in the post-conditioning cardioprotective process (32). Zip2 polymorphism is associated with human carotid artery disease in the elderly (39). In addition, Zip12 is involved in the uptake of Zn into the vascular wall (22). Yet, limited information is available on vascular roles of Zip14, ZnT1, and ZnT4 (37).


    Furthermore, ZnT1 is involved in cardiac electrophysiological effects of Zn and increased ZnT1 expression is seen in patients with atrial fibrillation (40, 41). Zn has a central role in the generation of NO and actions that have multiple implications for vascular endothelial and smooth muscle functions, i.e., vascular smooth muscle relaxation, antiplatelet properties, and protection of vascular endothelium against oxidative damage (42). The availability and function of NO are disturbed in Zn deficiency (37). The action of NO is controlled by both Zn and metallothionein (MT), so an insufficient supply of endothelial Zn will make NO ineffective as a CVD therapeutic agent (37).


    Investigation of the genetic polymorphism of Zn transporters gains more and more attention. The polymorphism of Zn transporters confers a predisposition to various chronic and age-related diseases, such as chronic CVDs (43, 44). A common polymorphism in the ZnT8 gene, on the C allele, is associated with a higher risk of developing T2DM and metabolic syndrome (45, 46). Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms modulate Zn intake and status (47). There is an interaction between certain dietary components (i.e., omega three fatty acid intake) with Zn transporters in relation to the risk factors for CVD development (48). MT polymorphisms, MT1A, MT1B, MT2, and MT4, are often associated with dietetic neuropathy, blood pressure, inflammatory cytokine levels, DM, and CVDs (49–51). Similarly, there is an indirect involvement of uncoupling proteins in the MT-dependent reduction in the free radical-induced cardiac toxicity (52). Finally, ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5, ZnT6, ZnT7, and ZnT9 polymorphisms are linked to T2DM, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, all well-known CVD risk factors (53, 54).


    Zinc and Independent Risk Factors of CVDs

    Several risk factors (i.e., T2DM, obesity, and HT) that predispose to VD are linked to irregularities in Zn homeostasis in individual organs or the whole body (55). A direct association between serum Zn and metabolic risk factors for the development of CVD, i.e., serum lipids, T2DM, and obesity, is shown (35, 55, 56). Zn plays an important role in insulin synthesis, crystallization, storage, and secretion in the pancreatic β-cells (57). Oxidative stress, a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM), is aggravated under Zn deficiency states (58). Zn has insulin-mimicking properties, stimulates glucose uptake in insulin-dependent tissues, and regulates gluconeogenic enzymes (59).


    ZnT8, located on dense core vesicles in β-cells, has a central role in the transportation of Zn into insulin secretory granules of β-cells and is identified as a novel therapeutic target in patients with diabetes (18, 60). Diabetes is often accompanied by hypozincemia and hyperzincuria (33, 61). Furthermore, Zn stimulates insulin binding to hepatocyte membranes and low Zn status considerably decreases the reaction of tissues to insulin (62). There is an inverse correlation between femur Zn and serum glucose concentrations (63).


    Interestingly, a moderately high Zn intake could reduce the risk of diabetes by 13%, up to 40% in people living in rural areas (64). Zn supplementation improves glycemic control and reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients with T2DM (63, 65). Besides, Zn improves glucose metabolism and contributes to glucose uptake into the relevant tissues (66). By inhibiting the activation of cytokines, Zn deficiency contributes to apoptosis and insulin resistance of β-pancreatic cells (57). The highest amount of Zn within the human body is stored in the pancreatic β-cells, so Zn ameliorates the consequences of immune-mediated free radicals in pancreatic islet cells (67). In addition, Zn stimulates phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates and improves insulin sensitivity (68). Insulin resistance of adipocytes increases the release of fatty acids into the circulation and consequently improves fatty acid flux to the liver leading to hypertriglyceridemia (63). Similarly, Zn affects lipid metabolism directly. Zn maintains adipose tissue functioning via the activity of Zn finger proteins involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism (69). Zn-α2-glycoprotein inactivates hormone-sensitive lipase and accordingly reduces lipogenesis and increases lipolysis in adipose tissues (66). Zn modulates postprandial lipemia, and Zn deficiency markedly reduces the absorption rate of TGs, brings compositional alterations of chylomicrons, and reduces their production rates and uptake by the liver (70). Thus, Zn deficiency is often linked to obesity, due to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Zn levels in obese subjects are lower than in controls (71–73), and supplementation of Zn reduces plasma insulin resistance, leptin, and inflammatory biomarkers in obese individuals (74, 75).


    Zinc Homeostasis and CVDs—the Existing Controversies

    The link between HT and Zn status is not decisive, and contradictory findings are reported over the years. Some studies demonstrate an inverse association (76, 77), while others found a direct positive link between serum Zn levels and blood pressure (57, 78). There are also data signifying no association between the two variables (74–81). Similarly, discrepancies in findings are reported for the risk of developing ARS in relation to serum Zn levels, and certain data reveal a direct link (6, 82), while others show no association between the serum Zn concentrations and ARS (83). The first randomized controlled trial (RCT) in humans shows adverse effects of Zn supplementation on HDL-C in healthy subjects (20). However, opposite findings exist, and a positive relation between serum Zn and HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations is observed (79). Lower consumption of dietary Zn is related to low HDL-C levels (31).


    In addition, Zn supplementation has a beneficial effect on plasma lipid parameters, and it noticeably reduces TC, LDL-C, and TG levels in healthy individuals (10, 33). The benefits of Zn supplementation are more evident in non-healthy population groups. The meta-analysis data show that Zn supplementation leads to a significant reduction in LDL-C, TC, and TG levels in non-healthy patients, while in healthy people a noteworthy decline in TC levels is seen (33). HDL-C levels increase under Zn supplementation (20, 33, 77). Large longitudinal prospective cohort studies provide inconsistent findings on the association between supplementary Zn intake and risk of T2DM, showing both a direct, beneficial (34, 49, 83, 84), an inverse (85), and no relation (86, 87).


    Likewise, there are no definitive conclusions on the relationship between Zn status and T2DM: no association (88) and an inverse link are reported (89) but, lower serum Zn levels are generally associated with an increased risk of T2DM (43, 90).


    Different health status of participants, dissimilarities in the design, assessed outcomes across studies and influence of confounding factors and their appropriate adjustments, (i.e., medication, duration of the disease, dietary habits, and physical activity), differences in Zn assessment methods, lack of distinction in dietary Zn sources, variations in dietary data collection, and the inconsistency in utilized statistical models may all be potential reasons for observed discrepancies in findings among studies.


    Research Gaps and Recommendations for Further Research Studies

    The precise role of Zn deficiency mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CVDs is still not known. The biological properties of Zn, playing a role in the physiology and pathology of CVDs, should be examined further. Additional community-based observational cohort studies may be useful for obtaining more precise and evidence-based conclusions on the relation between Zn and CVDs. It is essential to clarify the instances when inadequate dietary Zn intake and low Zn status are a result rather than a cause of CVDs. Particular attention should be paid to exclude the negative effects of medications of CVDs, i.e., diuretic furosemide, angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, on Zn status. Larger, well-designed randomized clinical trials are necessary to thoroughly examine the effect of Zn intake on CV health. Potential interactions with other dietary factors and micronutrients that could modulate Zn intake should be considered. Benefits, clinical applications, risks, and contraindications of dietary and supplemental Zn intake on main CV events should be examined further. The impact of the baseline Zn status on the efficacy of Zn interventions on CVD risk factors is of great importance and should be appropriately assessed and reported. Risk factors related to CVDs should be examined as primary outcomes of these interventions, and they should aim to examine the development and progression of these conditions. Further research studies should investigate the interaction between Zn intake and Zn status data with present preventative schemes and currently employed treatment methods that could help in the prevention and management of many ensuing CVDs.


    As Zn status is affected by various factors, a careful selection of confounders should be made. Zn deficiency may not only be caused by an inappropriate dietary intake and/or bioavailability but also by factors such as age, physical activity, and alcohol or drug addictions. Further research studies should explore molecular mechanisms that support the sensing and distribution of Zn in various tissues. The interaction between Zn and inflammation deserves further research studies. The limitations of biomarkers of Zn status should be taken into consideration. Circulating plasma/serum Zn concentrations are affected by inflammation, time of the last meal, infections, and some other factors. All these elements have to be suitably deliberated. Newly proposed biomarkers of Zn status should be taken into consideration and investigated to CVD-related factors.


    The mechanisms of action of Zn transporter proteins require additional research studies. Detailed and careful analysis of the activities of these transporters is required to improve our knowledge on the pathogenesis of CVDs. The transfer of information from Zn intake/status to cellular functions needs further extrapolation. New studies are needed to provide a more thorough understanding of MT and ZnT roles and the effects of their common genetic variations. Additional studies are required to explain the interactions between specific genetic profiles and zinc status. Further research studies should clarify gene-nutrient interactions and their relationship with Zn status and CVDs. It would be beneficial to develop suitable methods for measuring endothelial Zn as a biomarker of vascular Zn deficiency. The interplay between Zn and NO levels should be further investigated. The expression and functions/dysfunctions of Zn transporters in vascular tissues and genetic risk factors associated with Zn transporters should be additionally tested. Zn homeostasis is altered early in CVDs, so an intervention with Zn-related therapy could provide significant benefits. Preventative CVD actions should include programmed Zn nutrition approaches. The possibility of therapeutic manipulations of CVDs by Zn-based treatments exists; however, further low-dose short- and/or long-duration well-designed studies, across a variety of populations, are needed. The role of Zn supplementation in the process of recovery from CVDs should be more intensively investigated to find safe and desirable levels of Zn supplementation and, additionally, to determine the dose and duration that would be most beneficial primarily for the prevention of and, if need be, for the treatment of various ensuing CVD-related pathologies. Appropriate dietary recommendations, food fortification, and agronomic biofortification strategies should all be investigated and employed so that majority of people, both in developing and developed countries, can attain sufficient levels of dietary Zn in daily diets and potentially diminish the risk of developing CVDs.


    Author Contributions

    MK conceptualized and wrote the manuscript and prepared the manuscript for submission. MG revised the final version of the manuscript. Both authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.


    Funding

    This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Contract 451-03-9/2021-14/200015.


    Conflict of Interest

    The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


    The handling editor disclosed a past co-authorship with the authors MG and MK.


    Publisher's Note

    All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

  • World's First COVID-19 Pill ready to treat, As Merck Seeks Emergency Approval


    Once Ivermectin would get approved as a COVID-19 cure, then Merck would be forced to wait for approval of its Molnupravir in normal safe regime, because Ivermectin already has FDA safety approval for many years and emergency regime wouldn't be needed anymore. The ignorance of safe Ivermectin thus not only delays treatment of Wuhan pandemics, but it also drags mRNA vaccines and another overpriced carcinogenic drugs at the market. Which also explains, why FDA and Big Pharma fight against Ivermectin so furiously 1, 2, 3.... See also:

  • many here have defended big pharma and in Mercks statement on Ivermectin. They do lie and they do try to destroy researchers and their studies. This from 2009, I don't think much has changed


    Merck Created Hit List to "Destroy," "Neutralize" or "Discredit" Dissenting Doctors


    Merck Created Hit List to "Destroy," "Neutralize" or "Discredit" Dissenting Doctors
    Merck made a "hit list" of doctors who criticized Vioxx, according to testimony in a Vioxx class action case in Australia. The list, emailed between Merck…
    www.cbsnews.com


    Merck made a "hit list" of doctors who criticized Vioxx, according to testimony in a Vioxx class action case in Australia. The list, emailed between Merck employees, contained doctors' names with the labels "neutralise," "neutralised" or "discredit" next to them.

    According to The Australian, Merck emails from 1999 showed company execs complaining about doctors who disliked using Vioxx. One email said:


    We may need to seek them out and destroy them where they live ...

    The plaintiffs' lawyer gave this assessment:

    It gives you the dark side of the use of key opinion leaders and thought leaders ... if (they) say things you don't like to hear, you have to neutralise them ... It does suggest a certain culture within the organisation about how to deal with your opponents and those who disagree with you.

    The Australian:

    The court was told that James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University, wrote to the then Merck head Ray Gilmartin in October 2000 to complain about the treatment of some of his researchers who had criticised the drug.

    "Even worse were allegations of Merck damage control by intimidation," he wrote, ... "This has happened to at least eight (clinical) investigators ... I suppose I was mildly threatened myself but I never have spoken or written on these issues."


    The allegations come on the heels of revelations that Merck created a fake medical journal -- the Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine -- in which to publish studies about Vioxx; had pop songs commissioned about Vioxx to inspire its staff, and paid ghostwriters to draft articles about the drug.

    Previously:

    New Merck Allegations: A Fake Journal; Ghostwritten Studies; Vioxx Pop Songs; PR Execs Harass Reporters

  • many here have defended big pharma and in Mercks statement on Ivermectin. They do lie and they do try to destroy researchers and their studies. This from 2009, I don't think much has changed


    Merck Created Hit List to "Destroy," "Neutralize" or "Discredit" Dissenting Doctors


    Merck Created Hit List to "Destroy," "Neutralize" or "Discredit" Dissenting Doctors
    Merck made a "hit list" of doctors who criticized Vioxx, according to testimony in a Vioxx class action case in Australia. The list, emailed between Merck…
    www.cbsnews.com


    Merck made a "hit list" of doctors who criticized Vioxx, according to testimony in a Vioxx class action case in Australia. The list, emailed between Merck employees, contained doctors' names with the labels "neutralise," "neutralised" or "discredit" next to them.

    According to The Australian, Merck emails from 1999 showed company execs complaining about doctors who disliked using Vioxx. One email said:


    We may need to seek them out and destroy them where they live ...

    The plaintiffs' lawyer gave this assessment:

    It gives you the dark side of the use of key opinion leaders and thought leaders ... if (they) say things you don't like to hear, you have to neutralise them ... It does suggest a certain culture within the organisation about how to deal with your opponents and those who disagree with you.

    The Australian:

    The court was told that James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University, wrote to the then Merck head Ray Gilmartin in October 2000 to complain about the treatment of some of his researchers who had criticised the drug.

    "Even worse were allegations of Merck damage control by intimidation," he wrote, ... "This has happened to at least eight (clinical) investigators ... I suppose I was mildly threatened myself but I never have spoken or written on these issues."


    The allegations come on the heels of revelations that Merck created a fake medical journal -- the Australasian Journal of Bone and Joint Medicine -- in which to publish studies about Vioxx; had pop songs commissioned about Vioxx to inspire its staff, and paid ghostwriters to draft articles about the drug.

    Previously:

    New Merck Allegations: A Fake Journal; Ghostwritten Studies; Vioxx Pop Songs; PR Execs Harass Reporters

  • Don't forget they want to microchip us, too...

    Don't laugh about that Thomas as stupid as it may be. Remember every time you step out of your home you are under some sort of video surveillance all available to authorities through judicial process. Your private life while out in public is under surveillance and no longer private. More to the point, it's 1984 prophecy in action!

  • Once Ivermectin would get approved as a COVID-19 cure, then Merck would be forced to wait for approval of its Molnupravir in normal safe regime, because Ivermectin already has FDA safety approval for many years and emergency regime wouldn't be needed anymore.

    Yes, well if we had a COVID cure we could wrap up this thread, for a start.


    Ivermectin is not a COVID cure, and if you look at other similar viral diseases none of them have "cures".


    Best we can hope for is a drug that reduces harm a bit. Ivermectin, based on the large RCTs we know about, does not prevent harm and death, nor make a large difference to probabilities, or multiple ongoing big trials would have picked it up by now.. It might help a little bit (e.g. prevent 10% of deaths etc).


    THH

  • Don't laugh about that Thomas as stupid as it may be. Remember every time you step out of your home you are under some sort of video surveillance all available to authorities through judicial process.

    This is no problem from him. Free masons agree to the supervision, when they join the fascist death cult sect. They also agree to be punished by death for misbehavior. The Sword in your neck is real for free masons. If the Queen does it on you it's an honor.


    May be this helps to understand the soulless behavior of these people, that do not believe in any higher level of human existence. All is matter = money and power to get money.


    What you currently see in USA is a 1:1 picture of a free masons hell. A large number of Doctors that treat you only to make most money out of you. Helping you :P , currently would be punished by the sword....

  • This is no problem from him. Free masons agree to the supervision, when they join the fascist death cult sect. They also agree to be punished by death for misbehavior. The Sword in your neck is real for free masons. If the Queen does it on you it's an honor.


    May be this helps to understand the soulless behavior of these people, that do not believe in any higher level of human existence. All is matter = money and power to get money.


    What you currently see in USA is a 1:1 picture of a free masons hell. A large number of Doctors that treat you only to make most money out of you. Helping you :P , currently would be punished by the sword....

    Should I assume they are coming to chop my head off? I'm a member of the local masons lodge and have posted against the mafia, or as I like to say, controlling iinterests. Sometimes you crack me up.

  • Best we can hope for is a drug that reduces harm a bit. Ivermectin, based on the large RCTs we know about, does not prevent harm and death, nor make a large difference to probabilities, or multiple ongoing big trials would have picked it up by now.. It might help a little bit (e.g. prevent 10% of deaths etc).

    You means like these on going trials?


    Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 63 studies
    Ivermectin for COVID-19. Early treatment - 72% improvement, p < 0.0001. All studies - 68% improvement, p < 0.0001. 1 in 1 trillion probability results of the…
    ivmmeta.com



    StudiesProphylaxisEarly treatmentLate treatmentPatientsAuthors
    All studies6386% [75‑92%]66% [52‑76%]36% [21‑48%]47,461625
    Peer-reviewed4486% [74‑93%]71% [54‑82%]38% [16‑55%]17,126466
    With GMK/BBC exclusions4784% [69‑91%]73% [63‑80%]45% [22‑61%]37,558518
    Randomized Controlled Trials3084% [25‑96%]62% [43‑75%]20% [-6‑39%]6,368357
    Percentage improvement with ivermectin treatment