Freel Tech's Energy Storage Technology: The Vacuum Capacitor

  • Freel Tech's Energy Storage Technology: The Vacuum Capacitor (YT Video) This old video and PDF presentation recently caught attention on e-catworld.com discussion site. Vacuum Capacitor is able to store charges (electrons) inside a small vacuum chamber, under high electrical field in form of cluster-like structures: the "charge clusters" originally found by Kenneth Radford Shoulders

    (March 7, 1927 – June 7, 2013) 1, 2.pdf), 3, 4, 5, 6. The company now runs out of Luxembourg (from tax reasons) and it is a European venture with research being extended now in France. The original Russian inventor Vladimir Georgievich Sapogin 1, 2 (in Russian) has became part of the research team. Most informative source is "Vacuum capacitor" patent 1, 2, 3


    The vacuum capacitor represents an anode located outside the vacuum chamber, which contains a cathode, while a dielectric body is located between them. The design of the cathode allows for its direct heating by an electrically insulated filament. The cathode is located inside the vacuum chamber designed in the form of a hermetically sealed, dielectric cylinder, while the anode is installed on the outer surface of the cylinder. The cathode is designed as a cold cathode with a micropeak Surface, which emits free electrons without heat, while the anode is located on the outer surface of the dielectric cylinder with a high vacuum inside, and the cathode is located in that high vacuum.


    Vaccum capacitor scheme according to invention


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    The VC charging process: using a special charging device emitting free electrons (similar to the Voltage multiplier in vacuum tubes; not shown in the drawings), negative Voltage is generated on the cathode relatively to the anode, which causes an emission of free electrons from the cathode into the vacuum; the electrons, which tend towards the anode, cannot reach it because the hermetically sealed dielectric cylinder is on their path; therefore they accumulate in the vacuum, while new free electrons continue to arrive from the cathode, forming a bulk charge around the cathode. This process continues until the voltage of the electric field of the bulk charge becomes level with the voltage of the charging device. When this happens, the charging of the VC is complete.

    To confirm theoretical ideas for a vacuum capacitor and to determine the electrical capacitance of the vacuum in it, an experiment was carried out, in which a 6D6A electro-vacuum diode with approximately an inner volume of vacuum of 2.3 cm was used as a vacuum capacitor. For this purpose, a 6D6A diode was placed into a metal beaker filled with transformer oil—to have its own anode insulated. The beaker formed the anode of the vacuum capacitor (VC). The cathode could be heated, using a filament transformer with an effective Voltage of 6.3 V. The capacitor was charged, using rectified mains Voltage (i.e. approximately 310 V) via a current-limiting alternative resistor and an ammeter. Using these devices, a direct 10 mA current was maintained for 8 hours. In 8 hours, voltage between the metal beaker (the anode) and the cathode of the 6D6A diode reached 28 V.


    It is known that q Ixt CxUs, where I 0.01 A, t8 hours=28,800s, and U-28 V. Consequently, q=0.01x28, 800–288 coulombs; consequently, the capacitance is calculated as: C-q/U=288/28=10.2857 Farads, where I is the VC charging current, t is the VC charging time, U is the Voltage between the anode and cathode of the VC, q, is the size of the charge of the VC when its charging is completed, and C, is the calculated VC capacity. The electrical capacitance of one cubic centimeter of vacuum, measured with this method, is in excess of 5 Farads per one cubic centimeter, while the operating Voltage measures several tens of kilovolts. None of the existing capacitors can achieve this range.

  • This is another patent from Roman Kholoshenko dealing with the transmission of energy previously accumulated in a vacuum capacitor.


    Before some time I proposed an artificial superconductor, consisting of insulating tube, to surface of which the free electrons would be attached/attracted by external charge. This device essentially works like flask or piston for electrons. Electrons repel itself mutually, but they can be attracted to an insulator surface by external voltage so they would pile up there like hungry chickens fighting for place around small feeder. My assumption is, when these electrons get compressed enough, the will not only store an energy, but their surface layer could even become superconductive. Such an effect would indeed require an insulator of very high dielectric strength, like boron nitride or diamond (on the surface of which this effect has been observed first). So it may be possible, that cathode of capacitor is also covered by etched or sputtered diamond, which has high emissivity even at low temperatures.


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    Apparently this effect could be modulated by external voltage, which would allow construction of switch or "transistor", ideally superconductive at charged state and perfectly insulating in its free state. This principle has many other interesting applications. For example, one can imagine usage of protons or alpha-particles instead of electrons (which still penetrate surfaces easily). It could lead into construction of balloons, which would be kept in shape not by pressure of gas, but by repulsive forces of charged particles inside it. Such a balloon could be as lightweight as a vacuum, but it would be still perfectly resilient against its collapse.


    So I don't understand, why this company's talking about EVO's so much on its website, when even patent description doesn't mention EVO's at all. This device clearly utilizes only repulsive energy of electrons - nothing else. It's not also clear for me, why it couldn't work even under atmospheric pressure up to degree, limited by dielectric strength of air.

  • David Swenson from 3M Corporation describes an anomaly where workers encountered a strange "invisible wall" in the area under a fast-moving sheet of electrically charged polypropylene film in a factory. This "invisible wall" was strong enough to prevent humans from passing through. A person near this "wall" was unable to turn, and so had to walk backwards to retreat from it. Some people think, that this effect is merely related to plasma window technology, but I presume, it could be of certain relevance here.


    Arrangement of David Swenson's effect according to this source

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  • There are another approaches for manipulation and storage of charged particles within closed volume. For example Bert Hickman creates stunning sculptures by blasting an acrylic block with a 2.5 million volt electron accelerator. The electrons get shotted into insulator and they reside there in strongly repulsive state. When grounded conductor is attached to such black, an avalanche-like discharge of electrons occurs. My point is, electrons trapped inside insulator block could attract another particles of opposite charge to its surface and occasionally create conductive or even superconductive layer there. When we arrange such an insulator along long channels, then the electrons trapped inside them would form conductive or even superconductive paths along them.


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    This approach isn't already theoretical only: for example AERI Co. in the UK provides polymer room temperature superconductors. Their conductors formed by polymeric filament with a critical temperature above 900K (630°C). At room temperature, the critical current density of the polymers is around 6x109 A/cm2 (for details, see Experimental Data page). The engineering critical current density of the wires and cables at room temperature is above 5x105 A/cm2 and operating temperature range is between 0 K and 520 K (250°C).

  • @Nozin: we already have macroscopic analogy of this mechanism in so-called freak Draupner waves. These ripples can actually grow into account of their surrounding (which is powered by wind). If waves interact in a non-linear way, it might not be possible to calculate the height of a new wave by adding the originals together. Instead, one wave in a group might grow rapidly at the expense of others. It's an example of stochastic resonance. In dense aether model space-time represents analogy of water surface, the Brownian noise of which manifest itself as so-called zero-point energy, i.e. quantum noise of vacuum which keeps elementary particles and atoms in neverending motion (which prohibits atoms in their collapse, between others). In this model the light waves are surface waves of space-time, photons are analogy of Russel's solitons at the water surface, neutrinos are Falaco solitons, pilot wave of quantum mechanics is analogy of Kelvin wake wave, dark matter are magnetic turbulences and vortices of vacuum and so on. So that the overunity phenomena existing at the water surface should have their counterpart in the physics of vacuum as well.


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    In electromagnetics we have duality of electric and magnetic fields, so for example for every electromagnetic motor/dynamo we have electrostatic analogy of it. In my opinion Testatica is electrostatic analogy of DePalma machine based on Faraday homopolar generator, which is also claimed to generate overunity. Their common trick is, at the surface of charged conductors or magnetized ones the speed of electromagnetic field is lowered due to law of induction. The electromagnetic field "cannot catch" witch motion of conductor and it delays, which exposes quantum fluctuations of vacuum by its pilot wave, which compensate this delay by their Unruh radiation. The analogy of this behavior at water surface are whirligig beetles, which are moving in circles and save energy in this way by utilizing capillary waves at the water surface. It requires to move by exact speed: not smaller nor higher.

  • This thread is dedicated to vacuum capacitor, so I wouldn't want to discuss another overunity devices here. Electrons attached to a surface of dielectric by external field exhibit many interesting aspects of behavior anyway as they behave as so-called Dirac fermions with time-reversed component, which is also source of surplus of energy in overunity apliacation, because it reverses thermodynamic time arrow. In this respect they're similar to electrons within superconductors, graphene and topological insulators. which are also constrained in spatial motion by their attaching to charge stripes within superconductors or graphene planes. With compare to superconductors the Dirac electrons inside capacitors manifest itself even at room temperature and their behavior can be easily modulated by changing voltage of capacitor simply by discharging it. The dense aether model illustrates again why it is so:


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    As I told above, vacuum fluctuations are source of omnipresent "Brownian motion" of atoms and particles in general. But when we constrain particle motion in two or more directions, the this motion would manifest itself in remaining directions the more. And remaining direction of space-time is temporal dimension. The electrons attached to a surface of insulator just wiggle in time dimension in such a way, their pilot wave periodically expands and collapses in so-called quantum zitterbewegung: they literally travel in time back and forth. And particle travelling backward in time violates time arrow of thermodynamics automatically. Testatica thus also contains electrons attached to a surface of insulator by electrostatic charge in similar way, like vacuum capacitor. As I explained above, vacuum capacitor enables to modulate its properties easily simply by discharging it. Once we discharge capacitor in the moment when electrons are doing motion forward in time, then we break the time symmetry and negentropic state of electrons will prevail, these electrons would thus generate surplus of energy.


    In addition, Dirac electrons at the surface of charged capacitors exhibit number of violations of another physical laws, because they cannot interact with light waves easily (they're unmovable). They absorb and interact with scalar i.e. longitudinal waves of vacuum instead, which serves as a basis of antigravity phenomena, radiation and absorption of scalar wave beams in Podkletnov/Poher/Meyl/Hodowanec etc. experiments and so on. It's really subject of very long discussion.

  • For example this is so-called Woodward drive, reportedly utilizing Mach effect. But when we look at it, it actually contains pair of flat ceramic capacitors which are charged and discharged with high frequency. Once the capacitor gets charged, then electrons in it change into Dirac fermions and they will interact with (fluctuations of ) vacuum like fin/paddle with gas. When we move these electrons at one side, they will shift whole column of vacuum fluctuation at opposite side and reactive force of vacuum would move the capacitor forward. We of course must move electrons back sooner or later, but we can do it during discharged state of capacitor, when they don't interact with vacuum in scalar way. This would introduce an asymmetry into motion of vacuum.


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    Prof. Woodward first utilized piezoelectric effect for periodic wiggling of his capacitors - but later he realized, that one doesn't have to wiggle with whole capacitor, once he wants to move just with Dirac electrons in it. So that he replaced the mechanical piezoelectric motion with electromagnetic one and he placed his capacitors inside of magnetic circuit powered by torroid ferromagnet coil. When we introduce magnetic field into it, then the Dirac electrons would move due to Lorentz force and they will jerk with capacitor instead. When we phase-in motion of electrons with charging of capacitor, then we can achieve asymmetric motion and seeming violation of inertial law. Actually we would propagate through vacuum like jellyfish through water by pumping vacuum fluctuations in opposite direction periodically. Their motion should be detectable like DC signal propagating around such a "reaction-less" drive for example by another charged capacitor, which would serve like detector instead of generator.

  • Searching for Scalar Dark Matter with Compact Mechanical Resonators These experiments have no chance to success because dark matter particles interact mostly magnetically. Nevertheless mainstream physics gradually converges from building of expensive underground detectors to table top experiments in Gregory Hodowanec style.


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    Gregory Hodowanec did use flat charged capacitor, which contains electrons attached to one of its electrodes by electrostatic force. Such a "Dirac" i.e. time-reversed electrons are particularly sensitive to dark matter and scalar waves fluctuations and they can be also used like their detector. Their motion can be detected by minute noise generated by capacitor, because this DC component can be easily separated from high voltage be means of another smaller capacitor. Because planetary conjunctions and eclipses generate superluminal shadows in dark matter distribution (Allais effect), Hodowanec was capable to capture various cosmic events happening at large distances in this way. See also:

  • From patent given


    It is known that q Ixt CxUs, where I 0.01 A, t8 hours=28,800s, and U-28 V. Consequently, q=0.01x28, 800–288 coulombs; consequently, the capacitance is calculated as: C-q/U=288/28=10.2857 Farads, where I is the VC charging current, t is the VC charging time, U is the Voltage between the anode and cathode of the VC, q, is the size of the charge of the VC when its charging is completed, and C, is the calculated VC capacity. The electrical capacitance of one cubic centimeter of vacuum, measured with this method, is in excess of 5 Farads per one cubic centimeter, while the operating Voltage measures several tens of kilovolts. None of the existing capacitors can achieve this range.


    5 Farads/cm3 is capacity, which modern supercapacitors also achieve - but their nominal voltage is only 2.6 Volts i.e. thousand-times less. It's because vacuum capacitor doesn't utilize just polarization of dielectric, but also compression of electrons above it: it's pressurized electron gas storage in essence. Its patent doesn't talk anywhere about self-discharging speed which I guess will be rather high. But as I did show above, this concept looks promising for way more applications, than just plain storage of energy. So you should be interested about more things regarding it.

  • A ninety terranewtons? This sturdy Chinese capacitor can handle it. Electrons mutually repel at distance instead of collide, so that they exert pressure even at zero temperature. But one can estimate charge and energy density of electrons from capacity and volume of capacitor. Once this density will get higher than Fermi energy density of degenerated electron gas, quantum condensation will occur and electrons will get gradually entangled. Instead of this compressed electrons will form so-called Wigner crystal (video simulation). When this lattice will get compressed, the electrons will gradually condense into Fermi fluid and subsequently stripped superconductive phase similarly to electrons within superconductors. But I agree, that the capacity of capacitors should be measured by discharging current, not by this charging one. We even don't know, how long vacuum capacitor is capable to keep its charge.


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  • Would you be open to discussing some of this stuff? I am particularly interested in the relation of reaction (including nuclear reactions in stars) to the torsion field. I see a relevant connection to fusion.

  • How very perceptive you are on the right track Drgenek. I think it's a matter of reconsidering e=measured in a different way. This may seem incomprehensible to you but Wyttenbach has all the right theory if you can get to grips with multidimensional reality. The SO to the power n is the correct model, the standard model of nuclear physics only merely scratches the surface of the complexity.:)

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    Would you be open to discussing some of this stuff? I am particularly interested in the relation of reaction (including nuclear reactions in stars) to the torsion field. I see a relevant connection to fusion.


    It's widely recognized that scalar waves and low energy neutrinos can catalyze nuclear reactions. I was told, that Parkhomov experiments are now tested for detection of neutrinos in IceCube neutrino detectors. Nuclear fusion runs like merging of mercury droplets of extremely high surface tension. So that atom nuclei have to overcome activation barrier, which requires temporal formation of neck of negative space-time curvatures. Which are just scalar waves and their solitons, i.e. neutrinos which behave like small magnetic bubbles of space-time. Some neutrinos can resonate inside atom nuclei, which increases probability of this mechanism by many orders of magnitude. My geothermal theory of global warming is based on this mechanism too 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Note that cold fusion research has started with Dr. Steven Jones observations of hellium-3 content around volcanoes and hydrothermal vents. According to catastrophic 2012 movie (not accidentally labelled as most "unscientific movie ever" both by MIT both NASA) has been initiated by "bewildered" neutrinos, which "melted" Earth crust.


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  • But it's not really conceivable because as you know neutrinos pass through all matter, very few collisions with nuclei so their energy is rarely released That's why they are so hard to detect, and need nearly the whole polar ice cap sized detector! No unfortunately there's seems no escape from the present reality of the greenhouse effect due to CO2 emissions which have to be cut drastically if we are to survive. Either that or one another planet to live on once this one is burned out. There is a theory that this once happened on mars, civilization once lived there billions of years ago, but they instead blew it up with a nuclear war but managed to save a few species and transferred to planet Earth. Quatermass. That's it. Forms the basis of the Thetan ideology of L Ron Hubbard who if you subtract any religious ideas (which we cannot talk about here) was a brilliant Sci Fi writer. While I have no thoughts on it either way, the scientologists saved the life of my brother in law when otherwise he would have died of heroin addiction. I visited them once in East Grinstead and they seemed a friendly bunch and like any other strange religion suffered a lot of unnecessary persecution But let people believe in what they want. Now be is gravely ill because, unfortunately they don't trust the NHS, which is just daft, so don't seek medical attention at the early sign of illness. (which is why the royal family still use homeopaths, just to detect the early signs whether it works or not ) He has seven children and a wife to support. I wish I could have helped him earlier, he might have listened to practical medical advice. But what can you do?

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    But it's not really conceivable because as you know neutrinos pass through all matter, very few collisions with nuclei so their energy is rarely released That's why they are so hard to detect

    Well, this is how the catalyst is usually working: it passes through reaction environment seemingly unchanged, unaffected..


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    unfortunately there's seems no escape from the present reality of the greenhouse effect due to CO2 emissions which have to be cut drastically


    It's impossible with classical sources of energy, but with cold fusion source we would have enough energy even for projects like CO2 sequestration. Not to say about more meaningful ones, like large scale desalination of marine water and irrigation of deserts, etc...

  • BTW Neutrinos and scalar waves aren't so inert as they look at the first sight: they're heavily affected by magnetic fields, for example. You may imagine the neutrino like parachute spread over parachutist or seed of dandelion. The neutrino itself thus looks quite small and inert, but even subtle "magnetic wind" can affect its behaviour a lot. This can have consequences to neutrino mediated low energy nuclear reactions (1, 2), both to behaviour of solar corona above sunspots or atmosphere above Jupiter vortex. The neutrinos can be therefore seen as a macroscopic magnetic handles of extradimensional world inside the atom nuclei and connecting points between classical and scalar physics of Nicola Tesla.

  • How very perceptive you are on the right track Drgenek. I think it's a matter of reconsidering e=measured in a different way. This may seem incomprehensible to you but Wyttenbach has all the right theory if you can get to grips with multidimensional reality. The SO to the power n is the correct model, the standard model of nuclear physics only merely scratches the surface of the complexity.:)


    Gibbs free energy equation balances the expected energy from reaction to the measured heat and to work ( a volume, temperature and entropy function). This energy measured in a different way (work) is energy bound to atoms ( ie. the average temperature, kinetic energy). The accepted basis for energy transfer is by light, by kinetic energy or by fields. Adding dimensions makes dealing with fields mathematically doable but does not make the interpretation of the solution any more real that Mills below the ground state solutions. These solutions mean something but the models have faults that a broader look at solutions can help us find.


    Gravity, neutrinos and entropy seem involved in a broader solution. Weak interacting states provide connection. A quote from Kozyrev in a reference cited by Zephir "

    “There are pairs of stars we call double stars. At first the two stars are not the same, but gradually over a period of time the secondary star comes to resemble the

    primary star. It develops the same brightness, develops the same radius, becomes the same spectral type. At such enormous distances this mirroring couldn’t be

    happening through force fields. It would seem the principal star is affecting the satellite star through the energy of time. It’s almost as if the stars communed by

    telepathy,’ he said with a grin.” (Ostrander, 1970). I don't accept Kozyrev interpretation. Rather, given weak interacting states which I proposed cause local effects via special relativity that dilates time and contracts space using a coupling of neutrinos to electrons, then general relativity for a star would have parts. One part is classical gravity. Another part could then be the local effect of weak interacting states. The mass of a star is assumed by the effect of classical gravity, if the apparent gravity is in part due to energy in weak interacting states and that energy via entropy equalizes across the double stars, then it would appears as if the mirroring were happening though time. Rather the assumed mass based on classical gravity is wrong because part of the apparent gravity was caused by local gravity which is caused by weak interacting states, the same states that cause cold fusion. The stars may not start out the same but energy transfers between stars, energy coverts to mass and the stars become the same.