Freel Tech's Energy Storage Technology: The Vacuum Capacitor (YT Video) This old video and PDF presentation recently caught attention on e-catworld.com discussion site. Vacuum Capacitor is able to store charges (electrons) inside a small vacuum chamber, under high electrical field in form of cluster-like structures: the "charge clusters" originally found by Kenneth Radford Shoulders
(March 7, 1927 – June 7, 2013) 1, 2.pdf), 3, 4, 5, 6. The company now runs out of Luxembourg (from tax reasons) and it is a European venture with research being extended now in France. The original Russian inventor Vladimir Georgievich Sapogin 1, 2 (in Russian) has became part of the research team. Most informative source is "Vacuum capacitor" patent 1, 2, 3
The vacuum capacitor represents an anode located outside the vacuum chamber, which contains a cathode, while a dielectric body is located between them. The design of the cathode allows for its direct heating by an electrically insulated filament. The cathode is located inside the vacuum chamber designed in the form of a hermetically sealed, dielectric cylinder, while the anode is installed on the outer surface of the cylinder. The cathode is designed as a cold cathode with a micropeak Surface, which emits free electrons without heat, while the anode is located on the outer surface of the dielectric cylinder with a high vacuum inside, and the cathode is located in that high vacuum.
The VC charging process: using a special charging device emitting free electrons (similar to the Voltage multiplier in vacuum tubes; not shown in the drawings), negative Voltage is generated on the cathode relatively to the anode, which causes an emission of free electrons from the cathode into the vacuum; the electrons, which tend towards the anode, cannot reach it because the hermetically sealed dielectric cylinder is on their path; therefore they accumulate in the vacuum, while new free electrons continue to arrive from the cathode, forming a bulk charge around the cathode. This process continues until the voltage of the electric field of the bulk charge becomes level with the voltage of the charging device. When this happens, the charging of the VC is complete.
To confirm theoretical ideas for a vacuum capacitor and to determine the electrical capacitance of the vacuum in it, an experiment was carried out, in which a 6D6A electro-vacuum diode with approximately an inner volume of vacuum of 2.3 cm was used as a vacuum capacitor. For this purpose, a 6D6A diode was placed into a metal beaker filled with transformer oil—to have its own anode insulated. The beaker formed the anode of the vacuum capacitor (VC). The cathode could be heated, using a filament transformer with an effective Voltage of 6.3 V. The capacitor was charged, using rectified mains Voltage (i.e. approximately 310 V) via a current-limiting alternative resistor and an ammeter. Using these devices, a direct 10 mA current was maintained for 8 hours. In 8 hours, voltage between the metal beaker (the anode) and the cathode of the 6D6A diode reached 28 V.
It is known that q Ixt CxUs, where I 0.01 A, t8 hours=28,800s, and U-28 V. Consequently, q=0.01x28, 800–288 coulombs; consequently, the capacitance is calculated as: C-q/U=288/28=10.2857 Farads, where I is the VC charging current, t is the VC charging time, U is the Voltage between the anode and cathode of the VC, q, is the size of the charge of the VC when its charging is completed, and C, is the calculated VC capacity. The electrical capacitance of one cubic centimeter of vacuum, measured with this method, is in excess of 5 Farads per one cubic centimeter, while the operating Voltage measures several tens of kilovolts. None of the existing capacitors can achieve this range.