History of Deep Dirac Level

  • I studied the history of Deep Dirac Level because this can have impact on the fundamental Physics and many kind of fusion techniques.

    information is from Vavra, Jerry

    The following information is so important for ColdFusion Society.

    Two original papers pointing to a possible existence of Deep Dirac Levels used the Coulomb potentials outside of nucleus.

    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…ty/DDL/DDL_paper_I_FT.pdf

    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…y/DDL/DDL_paper_II_FT.pdf

    There was experimental work where I tried to find the small hydrogen during large discharges in hydrogen by observing a 510-511 keV signal. This is described in my talk at Siegen in 1998

    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…/DDL/1_st_talk_siegen.pdf

    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…ll_hydrogen_atom_2018.pdf

    My subsequent published work from 2019, based on the virial theorem, pointed out that the Coulomb potential is not strong enough to hold electron on the DDL level, and one needs to add (mu.B)-term, which is proportional to 1/r^2. This is described in this paper:

    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…Physics_Letters_paper.pdf
    The (mu.B)-term is already used to explain the hyperfine splitting, where it is only a tiny perturbance at large radius of normal atoms, but at small radius this term becomes a dominant and holds the small hydrogen together, and this enables to satisfy the virial theorem.
    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…/DDL/1_st_talk_siegen.pdf

    https://www.slac.stanford.edu/…ll_hydrogen_atom_2018.pdf

    As far as the astrophysics, the latest paper hints that the small hydrogen could be the dark matter and that it being constantly produced by the galaxy. I am writing another paper which will go into more detail how to find it. To find it is not a bench-top experiment any more, it is basiclly a high energy experiment, and that is why it was not found in 1920’s.


    added on 2020/08/07

    A simple argument that small hydrogen may exist.pdf

    Brodsky pointed out that one should not use the ”1930 quan-tum mechanics” to solve the problem of the small hydrogen; in-stead, one should use the Salpeter-Bethe QED theory [9].

    Spence and Vary attempted to find such electron-proton bound state using QED theory [10], which includes spin-spin, field retardation term and Coulomb potential, assuming the point-like proton.

    They sug-gest a possible existence of a bound state.

    There are two reasons why the small hydrogen idea was not investigated theoretically further:

    (a) nobody has found it experi-mentally, and

    (b) the correct relativistic QED theory is too compli-cated at small distances.1

    Our approach is a potential-based calculation. We propose to solve the problem using a simple equivalent model based on two basic physics principles:

    (a)Virial theorem, which is important consideration to judge a stability of bound systems. This requires to think in terms of attractive potentials and electron kinetic energy.

    (b)DeBroglie’s classical quantum mechanics principle,



    Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom.pdf

    Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom

    J.L. Paillet Aix-Marseille University, France

    A. Meulenbergy Science for Humanity Trust Inc., USA

    abstract

    This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom.

    An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain,

    and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs).


    COMMENTS ON EXOTIC CHEMISTRY MODELS AND DEEP DIRAC STATES FOR COLD FUSION.pdf

    Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 4: Theory and Special Topics Paper
    COMMENTS ON EXOTIC CHEMISTRY MODELS AND DEEP DIRAC STATES FOR COLD FUSION

    page-47

    Abstract

    Several models are examined in which it is claimed that cold fusion is the result either of tight binding of the electrons in H isotope atoms or molecules, or of an electron-H isotope resonance which allows a higher probability of Coulomb barrier penetration.

    In the case of models in which the electron is tightly bound to the H isotope atom, we show that states below the most deeply bound (-16.39 eV) are impossible in principle.

    We also present evidence against the possibility of the existence of electron-H isotope resonances.

    Finally, a lower bound is found for the binding energy of H isotope molecules which is above that calculated in the tightly bound electron-H isotope models.


    Reply from Vavra, Jerry

    I have these responses:

    1. Normal hydrogen atom is very non-relativistic problem. The small hydrogen is very relativistic problem. I do not think it makes sense that the final solution is a superposition of two wave functions, one for normal state and one for deep state. The normal atom does not make a transition to deep state because electron would have to become relativistic. I consider two atoms two different entities.
    2. The very relativistic case needs to be solved by the QED theory. There were attempts to do it but so far not very successful.
    3. That is why I wrote the paper last year based on the virial theorem, because it is the most basic treatment there is, in my opinion. I argue in that paper that the Coulomb potential is not strong enough to hold the electron on stable orbit. Therefore, even if our original papers are close to reality, such atom in deep state would not be stable. One has to add additional attractive force. Adding a (mu.B) term would make such atom stable. Is it right ? I do not know. So far, I did not get a response to this paper.


    Experimentally Study the Deep Dirac Levels with High-Intensity Lasers

    added on 20200807

    The larger the electrical field, i.e. the closer to the nu-

    clear, the higher the possibility is. Therefore, the elec-

    trons in the e+e− pairs produced near the nuclei have

    higher chance to be bounded to be DDLs. Because the

    electron in the DDL is very closer to the nucleus, it has

    higher possibility to be caught which results in a short

    Electron Capture life time, if the EC decay model is allowed.

    The changing of the nuclear EC life time may be used as an

    indicator of the DDLs.

    When an e+e− pair is created near an nuclei, the positron

    escapes due to the coulomb field, and the electrons may

    be caught to the DDLs.

    This paper was on Dated: March 27, 2017 and NO paper after this Si I think they could not find DDL.



    https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.07837

    I hope this project will show the clear evidence of DDL

    added on 08/05

    the only way to believe any theory is to provide a direct experimental evidence, where there is no doubt that the measurement is right.

    I strongly propose that we will start project to find DDL' eveidence by ourselves because this DDL is a key to understand Cold Fusion.

    This may be the reason why it is so difficult to find them directly, a’la 1920 measurements of optical lines. Probability of transition is small and one has to measure all photons to get ~510 keV line.

    The changing of the nuclear EC life time may be used as an indicator of the DDLs. from

    "Experimentally Study the Deep Dirac Levels with High-Intensity Lasers"


  • This topic reminds me of my discussions dating back more than a quarter of a century with our master the Professor Vigier, in his office at the Faculté Pierre & Marie Curie (Paris Sorbonne). He was always available to receive and listen to students like me. It was on his advice that I started publishing on the field of Cold Fusion.

  • Hello Fabrice,

    I'm happy with your return :)

    Vigier and Rambaut worked mainly on fusion by capillarity, of memory ?


    DF

  • Yes, Professor Vigier was interested in Ampère's force. Weren't we in the Latin Quarter of Paris, not far from the apartment where André-Marie Ampère had wrote the equations of electromagnetic forces? Not far from there, in the same university, another of my masters, Professor Chemla was also doing experiments on Cold Fusion. They were both disciples of Joliot-Curie, they had worked with him at the College de France but I believe they did not exchange their results obtained at Jussieu. (Paris Sorbonne)


    Both had encountered all the monuments of physics, Joliot, Majorana, Fermi, Pontecorvo, and all those serious and pensive faces that we see in the photographs of the Solvay Meetings.


    Jean-Pierre Vigier no longer had a laboratory, he only kept his office at the university, but he had many former students who could do experiments for him in secret in their laboratories.


    What a pity that all of this work was never published. I would have to go do an investigation to get the lab notebooks back, before they are destroyed, or buried in the archives.


    Professor Vigier was mainly working on the problem of deep Dirac levels, and also on the problem of neutrinos.


    Perhaps the very interesting results of Alexander Parkhomov are the manifestation of new properties of neutrinos, which the founders of modern physics had not even dreamed of.




    PS: Li / ND3 liquid is an excellent conductor, deep blue with bronze reflections. Of course it has a hight deuterium level, far over palladium. But he is very sensitive to oxygen. It must be burst into glass capillaries. But one could imagine cartridges made of plastic catheter, or an automatic unwinding system with two automatic copper clamps which would pierce the catheter after each shot.

  • This topic reminds me of my discussions dating back more than a quarter of a century with our master the Professor Vigier, in his office at the Faculté Pierre & Marie Curie (Paris Sorbonne). He was always available to receive and listen to students like me.


    He was also a character, and a trained assassin. He killed German officers during WWII in the Resistance. I asked him how you do that. He said: You find a deserted street where you expect the German to come. You park your bicycle at one end, and walk to the other end. You wait around smoking a cigarette inconspicuously. The German comes walking up the street toward you. You walk toward him, not looking at him or doing anything suspicious. The moment he passes, you reach back over his shoulders with one arm and jerk him backwards, off his feet. That surprises him for a moment. In that instant, with your other hand you reach into the pocket of your coat, take out your revolver, and shoot him the back of the head. He demonstrated this technique on me. He was a lot smaller than me and much older, but he could have killed me in an instant.


    He said you keep walking as if nothing had happened, get on the bicycle, and peddle away.

  • It's weird, in my memory it was someone very tall. I remember Marius Chemla was quite short, but I thought I remembered Vigier was tall. This is probably because of the "presence" (prestance) of a former member of the great headquarters, allied with the authority of a great man of science.


  • Deep electron levels are a seductive idea as these sound logical and are simple to understand. The real problem is that the electron has two faces, being a small carrier of charge and a very tiny EM-mass structure.

    If you just look at the charge nature of the electron, what physicists did do including SM/QED etc.. then you end up where we stay today. (rotten SM)

    There is some mathematical justification for deep electron levels but already the classic Hydrogen model fails if you only use the charge nature of the electron!


    Why do people want to go on with extrapolating a failed model even further??

    So deep electron orbits are nonsensical and can only occur as resonances under kinetic conditions. Also Mills has been captured in the same trap. But he was lucky to find one new deep magnetic bond that looks very similar to a charge bond because this bond is based on a topological charge!

  • I have a question about what you mean.

    Can Quantum electrodynamics find DDL ???

    In case of DDL, the experiment data to verify the existance is the most important and we are waiting for the paper of

    Experimentally Study the Deep Dirac Levels with High-Intensity Lasers.pdf
    >So deep electron orbits are nonsensical and can only occur as resonances under kinetic conditions.

    I think it is OK that DDL can occur under specific condition. I explained that the hypo is that compressed D2 can create small D2 with DDL.

    I think you tend to think on the nature of Phyics but this(Cold Fusion) is a kind of materials science.


    Review of TSC Theory and DDL based theory

    It shows that TSC has not explain the latest experiment on the location of Hydrogen.

  • Just the consept of that H deep magnetic paring bond is more of a big deal or paradigm shift than some people think!

  • I would like to confirm the current hydrogen electron orbit theory.


    here is the hydrogen spectral series

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_spectral_series

    and my question is that are there a uninterpreted week spectral caused by DDL in this line?


    DDL need the multiple photon


    This may be the reason why it is so difficult to find them directly, a’la 1920 measurements of optical lines. Probability of transition is small and one has to measure all photons

    to get ~510 keV line.

  • Stable deep electron orbits are completely screwed up nonsense. We would see them in electron scattering experiments as resonances --> NOP!


    The other problem is that the Dirac equation cannot be used below the Bohr level due to a physical mismatch between the dominating forces.


    You can always postulate mathematical correct physical nonsense like Mills stable Hydrinos or deep Dirac levels.


    Even worse all QM approaches miss the second spin axes and thus are an oversimplification of the physical situation.

  • I know some researchers are suspicious about DDL who insisted your way. But I do not find any other theory to predict Cold Fusion, and only DDL is the more reasonable explanation than other theories. Physicas always need the experiment and so why have not you(reseracher of cold fusion and fundamental physics) run experiments for a long time ????

    I think we Must think of the impact of DDL. This can offer the cause of ColdFusion and nore importantly the heydrogen is the abundant element in space and on earth so its fundamental property must be understood by the experiment without discussion.It is OK to insist the opinion of your theory of cold fusion

    but please think about the impact of DDL.Hydrogen electron orbit is so fundamental in physics and so we must fix the issue if it exists.

    It is not easy to discuss this kind of issue because everyone believed the standard theory just like”E pur si muove” by Galileo.


    Experiment first discussion next if we consider the impact.

  • the Dirac equation cannot be used below the Bohr level

    Dirac tried to use maths to model the electron to explain the muon..

    After a few years he produced a model.. in 1962.

    Dirac's conclusion is misleading..


    "The present theory has no electron spin, so it cannot agree accurately with experiment."


    https://royalsocietypublishing…bs/10.1098/rspa.1962.0124


    Dirac should have written


    ""The present theory has no electron spin, so it does not agree with reality. at all"

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirac_membrane

  • Physicas always need the experiment and so why have not you


    Why not contact Zhang , Fu and Dai in Shanghai..

    physics experiment always needs finance and equipment.. maybe they have some

    "

    In this work we provide a new experimental method to
    explore the deep Dirac levels. The DDLs may be populated by high intensive lasers

    through the mechanism of e+e − pair or the NEET,

    Because the DDL orbit is very close to the nucleus,

    the electron capture (EC) rate can be enhanced greatly.

    We estimate that the EC rate will be about 108 times higher if the DDL exist.

    The characteristic EC decay γ-ray could be used as the indicator of the DDL’s existence

    "

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.07837.pdf