I studied the history of Deep Dirac Level because this can have impact on the fundamental Physics and many kind of fusion techniques.
information is from Vavra, Jerry
The following information is so important for ColdFusion Society.
Two original papers pointing to a possible existence of Deep Dirac Levels used the Coulomb potentials outside of nucleus.
There was experimental work where I tried to find the small hydrogen during large discharges in hydrogen by observing a 510-511 keV signal. This is described in my talk at Siegen in 1998
My subsequent published work from 2019, based on the virial theorem, pointed out that the Coulomb potential is not strong enough to hold electron on the DDL level, and one needs to add (mu.B)-term, which is proportional to 1/r^2. This is described in this paper:
The (mu.B)-term is already used to explain the hyperfine splitting, where it is only a tiny perturbance at large radius of normal atoms, but at small radius this term becomes a dominant and holds the small hydrogen together, and this enables to satisfy the virial theorem.
As far as the astrophysics, the latest paper hints that the small hydrogen could be the dark matter and that it being constantly produced by the galaxy. I am writing another paper which will go into more detail how to find it. To find it is not a bench-top experiment any more, it is basiclly a high energy experiment, and that is why it was not found in 1920’s.
added on 2020/08/07
Brodsky pointed out that one should not use the ”1930 quan-tum mechanics” to solve the problem of the small hydrogen; in-stead, one should use the Salpeter-Bethe QED theory .
Spence and Vary attempted to find such electron-proton bound state using QED theory , which includes spin-spin, field retardation term and Coulomb potential, assuming the point-like proton.
They sug-gest a possible existence of a bound state.
There are two reasons why the small hydrogen idea was not investigated theoretically further:
(a) nobody has found it experi-mentally, and
(b) the correct relativistic QED theory is too compli-cated at small distances.1
Our approach is a potential-based calculation. We propose to solve the problem using a simple equivalent model based on two basic physics principles:
(a)Virial theorem, which is important consideration to judge a stability of bound systems. This requires to think in terms of attractive potentials and electron kinetic energy.
(b)DeBroglie’s classical quantum mechanics principle,
Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom
J.L. Paillet Aix-Marseille University, France
A. Meulenbergy Science for Humanity Trust Inc., USA
This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom.
An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain,
and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs).
Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 4: Theory and Special Topics Paper
COMMENTS ON EXOTIC CHEMISTRY MODELS AND DEEP DIRAC STATES FOR COLD FUSION
Several models are examined in which it is claimed that cold fusion is the result either of tight binding of the electrons in H isotope atoms or molecules, or of an electron-H isotope resonance which allows a higher probability of Coulomb barrier penetration.
In the case of models in which the electron is tightly bound to the H isotope atom, we show that states below the most deeply bound (-16.39 eV) are impossible in principle.
We also present evidence against the possibility of the existence of electron-H isotope resonances.
Finally, a lower bound is found for the binding energy of H isotope molecules which is above that calculated in the tightly bound electron-H isotope models.
Reply from Vavra, Jerry
I have these responses:
- Normal hydrogen atom is very non-relativistic problem. The small hydrogen is very relativistic problem. I do not think it makes sense that the final solution is a superposition of two wave functions, one for normal state and one for deep state. The normal atom does not make a transition to deep state because electron would have to become relativistic. I consider two atoms two different entities.
- The very relativistic case needs to be solved by the QED theory. There were attempts to do it but so far not very successful.
- That is why I wrote the paper last year based on the virial theorem, because it is the most basic treatment there is, in my opinion. I argue in that paper that the Coulomb potential is not strong enough to hold the electron on stable orbit. Therefore, even if our original papers are close to reality, such atom in deep state would not be stable. One has to add additional attractive force. Adding a (mu.B) term would make such atom stable. Is it right ? I do not know. So far, I did not get a response to this paper.
Experimentally Study the Deep Dirac Levels with High-Intensity Lasers
added on 20200807
The larger the electrical field, i.e. the closer to the nu-
clear, the higher the possibility is. Therefore, the elec-
trons in the e+e− pairs produced near the nuclei have
higher chance to be bounded to be DDLs. Because the
electron in the DDL is very closer to the nucleus, it has
higher possibility to be caught which results in a short
Electron Capture life time, if the EC decay model is allowed.
The changing of the nuclear EC life time may be used as an
indicator of the DDLs.
When an e+e− pair is created near an nuclei, the positron
escapes due to the coulomb field, and the electrons may
be caught to the DDLs.
This paper was on Dated: March 27, 2017 and NO paper after this Si I think they could not find DDL.
I hope this project will show the clear evidence of DDL
added on 08/05
the only way to believe any theory is to provide a direct experimental evidence, where there is no doubt that the measurement is right.
I strongly propose that we will start project to find DDL' eveidence by ourselves because this DDL is a key to understand Cold Fusion.
This may be the reason why it is so difficult to find them directly, a’la 1920 measurements of optical lines. Probability of transition is small and one has to measure all photons to get ~510 keV line.
The changing of the nuclear EC life time may be used as an indicator of the DDLs. from
"Experimentally Study the Deep Dirac Levels with High-Intensity Lasers"