NASA’s updated Lattice Assisted Nuclear Fusion revamped site (Have Fleischmann and Pons been finally vindicated?)

  • For space enthusiasts like me, this is a great place to learn everything about advanced space propulsion systems that will be powered by emergent NASA CMNS energy technologies... Not "Cold Fusion" so to speak.. Yet the 'cold fusion' of Pons and Fleischmann never was cold in some nano spots was it, Lawrence? It was also 'lattice confinement fusion' in a wet cell rather than a dry cell electro chemical nano nuclear environment.


    Food for thought since before the days when Peter Gluck pushed the dry cell vs wet cell debate. He called it Nanoplasmonic LENR


    Anyways

    I'm sure the NASA and Global Energy Corporation researches all know that Pons and Fleischmann were clearly vindicated many, many years ago, by the U.S. Government energetics research community at large.


    It's time to bring folks up to date.


    This Atomic Rockets post is well worth reading in it's entirety. From way down in the Lattice Confinement Fusion section.


    Atomic Rockets

    Powerplant Introduction

    Power Generation

    Link

    Power Plant - Atomic Rockets


    Quote


    “What we did was not cold fusion,” says Lawrence Forsley, a senior lead experimental physicist for the project. Cold fusion, the idea that fusion can occur at relatively low energies in room-temperature materials, is viewed with skepticism by the vast majority of physicists. Forsley stresses this is hot fusion, but “We’ve come up with a new way of driving it.”


    (Not that new. Not proprietary certainly)


    “Lattice confinement fusion initially has lower temperatures and pressures” than something like a tokamak, says Benyo. But “where the actual deuteron-deuteron fusion takes place is in these very hot, energetic locations.” Benyo says that when she would handle samples after an experiment, they were very warm. That warmth is partially from the fusion, but the energetic photons initiating the process also contribute heat.

    There’s still plenty of research to be done by the NASA team. Now they’ve demonstrated nuclear fusion, the next step is to create reactions that are more efficient and more numerous. When two deuterons fuse, they create either a proton and tritium (a hydrogen atom with two neutrons), or helium-3 and a neutron. In the latter case, that extra neutron can start the process over again, allowing two more deuterons to fuse. The team plans to experiment with ways to coax more consistent and sustained reactions in the metal.

    Benyo says that the ultimate goal is still to be able to power a deep-space mission with lattice confinement fusion. Power, space, and weight are all at a premium on a spacecraft, and this method of fusion offers a potentially reliable source for craft operating in places where solar panels may not be useable, for example. And of course, what works in space could be used on Earth.-endquotes


    Post Script - Requested Reference

    Peter Gluck

    1937 - 2021

    In Memory of Peter Gluck - Infinite Energy Magazine

    Gluck, P. 1991. “Cold Nuclear Fusion in Thin Foils of Palladium,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 154, 153-161)


    Quote Infinite Energy Magazine


    Currently, Dr. Gluck’s blog website Ego Out is still active: http://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/.


    He posted from 2010 to 2018, with a final posting earlier this year, for a total of 1,408 posts over the years. The blogs are dedicated almost exclusively to various aspects of the LENR field. Dr. Gluck publicized his site widely and it became a sort of informal forum, with commentary and debate from readers.


    In 2020, Thomas Grimshaw and David Nagel started the Ego Out Documentation Project (EODP), a project of the LENR Research Documentation Initiative led by Grimshaw. As part of this project, they archived all of the pages of Dr. Gluck’s blog site, which will be useful in the future if the website goes defunct. See a report about this collection in Infinite Energy #151/152.


    As a testament to his ever-positive outlook, in one of our last communications with Dr. Gluck, he wrote: "During my next reincarnation I will solve the problem of cold fusion."-endquotes

    THHuxleynew  Ascoli65

    gbgoblenote-Peter Gluck published his paper in a peer reviewed journal in 1991.


    “The reproducibility problem and scale up practically cannot be solved for WET cold fusion systems- as the FP Cell. Wet systems are technologically dead."

  • I usually don't look for "lattice confinement fusion" when searching for new papers, but tonight I did and found these two that belong in this thread, because they are NASA Papers, and called my attention because they are proposals for Hybrid Fussion / Fission reactors based in the LCF concept.


    Molten Salt Lattice Confinement Fusion (LCF) Fast Fission Reactor for Lunar and Planetary Surface Power - NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    molten salt lattice confinement fusion (lcf) fast fission reactor for lunar and planetary surface power


    Abstract.


    Molten salt fission reactors (MSR) have been suggested for lunar and planetary surface power systems. They have the advantage of operating at high temperature, for efficient thermal-electrical conversion, low pressure, long-lived with high nuclear fuel burnup. MSR are often designed to breed fissile 233U from natural 232Th by neutron capture and  decay via: 232Th(n,)233Th(,)233Pa(,)233U Unfortunately, this process requires 233Pa isotope separation and segregation to decay to 233U. This requirement prevents additional neutron capture that interferes with 233U breeding. Instead, Wooley’s sub-critical, fast fission, molten salt reactor would use externally generated tokamak fusion neutrons1,2 to fission all actinides.We propose a simpler fusion-fast-fission sub-critical reactor that generates fast neutrons in situ from lattice confinement fusion (LCF) to fission fertile and fissile actinides. This hybrid reactor doesn't require enriched 235U fissile pins to initiate fis-sion reactions, nor 233Pa separation and segregation during operation. Like Wooley’s, this hybrid reactor “burns” natural uranium (238U) or thorium (232Th) which avoids uranium enrichment and additional fissile material launch safety and security costs. The LCF neutron source is initiated by bremsstrahlung photoneutrons (Fig. 1)3 or isotopic neutron sources in electron-screened lattices (Fig. 2)4,5. Alternatively, the electrolytic Pd-deuterium co-deposition6protocol fast fissions7 both 232Th and 238U. However, an aqueous electrolyte-based system, without pressurization similar to conventional pressurized water fission reactors, is incapable of high temperatures due to the boiling point of the electrolyte slightly over 100 C. Molten salts can be used instead as was demonstrated at the University of Hawaii8 using a variety of Ni and Pd cathodes in lithiated, hydrided and deuterated salts. These salts have melting points often exceeding 500C making them suitable to efficiently produce electrical power9 through either Advanced Stirling Genera-tors (< 100 kWe) or closed-Brayton Cycle (> 100 kWe). This hybrid reactor could power a wide range of lunar or Martian applications from unmanned in-struments, to charging vehicles and entire facilities such as human habitats or in situ resource utilization. The power conversion cycles are Carnot Cycle limited, but generally 30% efficient at best. However, waste heat on the moon or Mars is important to surviving either two-week lunar nights or Martian nights as well as providing process heat for mineral extraction and “living off the land”

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • https://ntrs.nasa.gov/api/citations/20210026340/downloads/White%20Paper%20regarding%20LCF%20and%20Fusion-fast-fisson.pdf


    White Paper

    Lattice Confinement Fusion and Fusion-Fast-Fission Energy Source Development

    L.P. Forsley 1,2 , T. L. Benyo 3 , P. A. Mosier-Boss1 and B. Steinetz3

    Abstract

    NASA and the US Navy have demonstrated Lattice Confinement Fusion (LCF) and the Fusion-Fast-Fission of natural uranium and thorium. Both methods build upon decades of research, and the latter benefits from conventional nuclear fission and fusion results. However, this nascent technology doesn’t require fissile isotopes and avoids nuclear weapons proliferation concerns from uranium 235 U isotopic enrichment or plutonium 239 Pu separation. Of particular note, LCF doesn’t need power hungry magnets, lasers, or particle beams. Potentially, it could provide watts to hundreds of kilowatts of electrical power and process heat suitable for space power and high Isp nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) as well as distributed terrestrial power. Finally, there are indications that LCF fast-fission products are more benign than those of conventional fission reactors. Our goal is to scale the reactions and increase the power output through higher temperature operation and increased material masses.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • "doesn’t require fissile isotopes"...

    Still ,,,,10 g of depleted uranium,thorium may have some interesting emissions,,with deuterium/hydrogen

    Dash found a few..

    .. (The normal residual U-235 content in depleted uranium is 0.2–0.3 percent, with U-238 comprising the remaining 98.7–98.8 percent.)


    "We anticipate scaling the actinide co-deposition system from < 100 mg [MOSI19] of depleted uranium or thorium, to 1 and then 10 grams."

  • Skeptics like me hope that the (good science) NASA attempts to get useful fusion or fission power from lattice confinement will succeed. The likely technological solutions are less attractive than classic LENR (it it were to work), but still could be very important - especially under the conditions required by spacecraft.


    Peter Gluck was a prolific and opinionated LENR blogger. His judgement in areas I know about was severely flawed. He supported Rossi very strongly at a time when it was obvious Rossi was a liar and almost everyone realised this - to the extent that he posted vituperative, personalised, and incorrect conspiracy theories about people who provided detailed technical arguments that Rossi's experiments were wrong. He had a sort of "high level" view of LENR where he did not engage with the specific technical details of experiments - this IMHO made his judgement subjective and inaccurate.


    So Peter Gluck on Ego Out: (1) Personalised conspiracy theories - not my thing. (2) Did not engage with technical details - again not my thing.


    Gluck was not positive when contradicting people he did not agree with.


    THH

  • IMHO made his judgement subjective and inaccurate.

    (1) Personalised conspiracy theories

    (2) Did not engage with technical details

    Humble opinions of value to you. Your opinions have yet to hold value to me.


    My opinion of Peter Gluck isn't humble. In many ways he was a better man than you or me.

    Benyo says that when she would handle samples after an experiment, they were very warm.

    Certainly not 'cold fusion'... just warm enough to hold in my hand. Like HOT fusion. Ok... warm fusion.


    NASA and the US Navy have demonstrated Lattice Confinement Fusion (LCF) and the Fusion-Fast-Fission of natural uranium and thorium

    Two types of LENR non-fissile and fissile

    “What we did was not cold fusion,” says Lawrence Forsley

    Bull Shit

    Both methods build upon decades of research, and the latter benefits from conventional nuclear fission and fusion results.

    Quote

    "the latter benefits from conventional nuclear fission and fusion results"-endquote note- results i.e. meaning fission and fusion research


    LCF is the former of the two types of LENR mentioned. My guess is it benefits from years of research in nano plasmonics. Transmutation and much much more... self organizing plasma on a nano femto scale is my guess.


    Which is why I invite you to read Peter Gluck 1991 in regards to Solid State

    His early article is relevant here today.

    Molten salts can be used instead as was demonstrated at the University of Hawaii 8 using a variety of Ni and Pd cathodes in lithiated, hydrided and deuterated salts.


    Curbina

    Hawaii? Nice lead. Thanks


    I find it difficult to stay up to date on this nascent technology.

    CMNS energy technologies, not only one for sure.

  • Which is why I invite you to read Peter Gluck 1991 in regards to Solid State

    His early article is relevant here today.

    Published: May 1991

    Cold nuclear fusion in thin foils of palladium

    Evelina Palibroda & P. Glück

    Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry volume 154, pages153–161 (1991)

    Abstract

    Positive evidence for cold nuclear fusion in an electrochemical cell with a palladium thin foil cathode was obtained. After adding thiourea to the cell, seven successive emissions of neutrons (detected as thermal neutrons) alternating with inactive periods were registered. The maximum intensity (300 times the background) and duration (12.7 h) were attained in the fifth emission.

  • THHuxleynew  Curbina


    In 1993 Peter Gluck's published (ANS peer reviewed) a second paper of greater relevance to NASA LCF and Solid State LENR.


    Article


    The Surfdyn Concept: An Attempt to Solve (or Rename) the Puzzles of Cold Nuclear Fusion

    Peter Glück

    Journal: Fusion Technology, 1993, Volume 24, Number 1, Page 122

    DOI: 10.13182/FST93-A30180

    Abstract

    The lack of reproducibility of the cold fusion experiments, aggravated by the great diversity and inconsistency of the positive results, implies that these nuclear phenomena are hypersensitive, i.e., correlated to a “chaotic” factor. All the factors considered so far, such as structure, transformations, or defects of the crystal lattice; bubbles of deuterium; dendrites, etc., are insufficiently chaotic to explain the known facts.


    Experimental data suggest that nuclear reactions take place in active sites on the surface of the lattice, that they are stimulated by dynamics factors, and that they represent an extreme form of heterogeneous catalysis. Consequently, according to modern ideas concerning catalysis, the desired chaotic factor is the surface dynamics of some metallic deutendes (hydrides).


    This hypothesis, called the surfdyn concept, is compatible with all published data, explains the peculiarities of cold fusion, and must be supported by an adequate theory describing the nature and mechanisms of the different nuclear processes.


    ANS / Publications / Journals / Fusion Science and Technology / Volume 24 / Number 1 / Pages 122-126

  • Curbina THANKS

    Yes The Forsley NASA team has diverse CMNS research developed by the Navy over many years and brought together in a nice package at NASA and GEC today.


    Source

    apps.dtic.mil was first indexed by Google more than 10 years ago

    Link

    Molten Salt Techniques for Reproducible Excess Heat
    Summary of Major Accomplishments Experimental Results Electrochemical characterization of Ni electrode system in the hydride- containing molten salts.…
    apps.dtic.mil

    Your connection to this site is secure


    ELECTE Office of Naval Research

    JAN, 5 1994 SA

    Grant No: N00014-92-J-1673

    R&T Code: 413z004srp01

    Project Title: Molten Salt Techniques for Reproducible Excess Heat

    Project Period: June 1992 to December 1993

    Scientific Officer: Dr. Robert J. Nowak, Chemistry Division, Code 1113, ONR

    800 North Quincy St., Arlington, VA 22217-5000

    Grant Officer: Ms. Carlena C. Leufroy, Resident Representative N47092,

    ONR, 565 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91106-3212

    Principal Investigator: Dr. Bor Yann Liaw

    Hawaii Natural Energy Institute

    University of Hawaii at Manoa

    2540 Dole Street, Holmes Hall 246

    Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

    Tel: (808)956-2339, Fax (808)956-2336


    Abstract

    Summary of Major Accomplishments Experimental Results

    Electrochemical characterization of Ni electrode system in the hydride- containing molten salts. Calorimetry measurements of anomalous temperature excursion in the electrolysis of the Ni-H-based molten salt systems. Overview and Conclusion The excess heat generation in molten salt systems are progressing well through the increasing understanding of electrochemical behavior of the cell and the availability of a variety of electrode materials used in the cell. Several issues are still open for improvements the control of the cell behavior, the integrity of anode materials, the role of impurities in excess heat generation, and the threshold loading at elevated temperatures - just to name a few. We are more confident than ever that we can repeat the excess heat phenomenon more frequently, if funds are available to support this effort.


    2. Overview and Conclusion

    The excess heat generation in molten salt systems are progressing well through the increasing understanding of electrochemical behavior of the cell and the availability of a variety of electrode materials used in the cell. Several issues are still open for improvements: the control of the cell behavior, the integrity of anode materials, the role of impurities in excess heat generation, and the threshold loading at elevated temperatures - just to name a few. We are more confident than ever that we can repeat the excess heat phenomenon more frequently, if funds are available to

    support this effort.

    From numerous reports in the recent 4th International Conference on Cold Fusion, it seems dear (clear) to me that D-D fusion was not the origin of the anomalous effects that we have observed in this field. The excess heat effect would be difficult to attribute to any chemical origins. If nuclear origins were the cause of anomalies, many possible reactions are then prevailing in various temperature ranges, generating an array of signatures in both heat and nuclear products, not conforming to any single mechanism. This is a tremendously hard task for the experimentalists and theorists

    to verify each and every of them. This scenario also prohibits a consensus to what have happened to each positive experiments.

  • Got to Wondering


    The history, skill sets of these two researchers, and the part 'Molten Salt Techniques for Reproducible Excess Heat' has played in the development of the GEC SMG molten salt GeNie Reactor, Circa 2012.

    What might this...

    LCF concept.


    Molten Salt Lattice Confinement Fusion (LCF) Fast Fission Reactor for Lunar and Planetary Surface Power - NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ...also what does Molten Salt Techniques for Reproducible Excess Heat have to do with the NASA GEC Space Act Agreement announced by Lawrence Forsley at ICCF-21? Is this the culmination of its successful conclusion. Of course we know Larry did not talk about it at ICCF-24.


    History 1988


    Robert worked with Stan and Pam. Raman Scattering I have learned is in the realm of spin and plasmonic surface effects. Finally in 2002 we began to have a unified theory for MRI. I've thought this is relevant to understanding CMNS. I'll look into what Robert went on to do.





    Project Title: Molten Salt Techniques for Reproducible Excess Heat

    Project Period: June 1992 to December 1993

    Scientific Officer: Dr. Robert J. Nowak, Chemistry Division, Code 1113, ONR

    Dr. Robert J. Nowak

    Office of Naval Research


    "Electrochemical Charging of Pd Rods"

    Jul 1991 S. Szpak, C.J. Gabriel, J.J. Smith, R.J. Nowak


    "Effect of Electrode Material on SOCl2 Reduction"

    Nov 1990 Pamela Ann Boss, S. Szpak, J. J. Smith, R. J. Nowak


    "LiCl-AlCl3-SOCl2 System. Structures, Species and Equilibria"

    May 1989 Pamela Ann Boss, S. Szpak, J.J. Smith, R.J. Nowak


    "ChemInform Abstract: Raman and IR Spectroscopy of the AlCl3-SOCl2 System"

    Apr 1989 Pamela Ann Boss, R. D. BOSS, C. J. GABRIEL[...], R. J. NOWAK


    "Role of FePc in a Discharging LiSOCl2 Cell"

    Oct 1988 R. J. Nowak, D. R. Rolison, J. J. Smith, S. Szpak


    Robert Nowak 1990 Scientific Editor Naval Research Reviews

    As Scientific Editor Robert knew David Nagel and likely discussed 'Cold Fusion News' of the day. David published the lead article in the1990 'Naval Research Reviews' titled, "Plasma X-Ray Emission: Research, Development and Utilization".

  • I was thinking of the same things Greg. The more you dig, the more connections you find. I guess it is understandable when you consider LENR was driven underground as a pseudoscience. Those basements make for creative thinking, and tight nit communities.

  • Robert Nowak worked on the following in 1996. No mention of his 'Molten Salt Techniques for Reproducible Excess Heat' work in Hawaii.


    A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems

    Quote

    Original distribution authorized to U.S. government agencies only; Test and Evaluation; January 1996


    ONR played a lead role throughout the duration of the Anomalous Effects Program.


    Specifically, Dr. Robert Nowak was the ONR Scientific Officer in charge of coordinating the Program;


    he actively guided discussions that determined the roles of the individual laboratories in the Program.


    In addition, scientific results were informally presented to Dr. Nowak in a series of frequent meetings at NRL and he participated in group discussions that influenced the course of NRL's research.


    Scientific results were formally presented to managements of ONR (Dr. Frederick Saalfeld) and NRL (Drs. Timothy Coffey and Bhakta Rath) approximately every six months.


    NRL and NA WC also provided a series of written reports on a regular basis to ONR that summarized the status of the Program.


    Support for the Anomalous Effects Program was provided by The Office of Naval Research. Them Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Washington, DC provided additional support for all three authors.


    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The authors are greatly indebted to Drs. M. Miles, B. Bush and K. Johnson from NAWC, Drs . S. Szpak and P. Mosier-Boss from NCCOSC-NRaD, Dr. M. McKubre and colleagues at SRI, Mr. Roger Hart from Hart R&D, Drs. H. Bergeson and S. Barrowes from the University of Utah, Dr. W. Hansen

    from Utah State, Dr. M. Melich from the Naval Post-Graduate School, Drs. W. Barger, A. Ehrlich, D. Nagel, S. King, W. O'Grady, D. Venezky and J. Murday from NRL and, finally, Drs . D. Rolison and R. Nowak from The Office of Naval Research for many helpful discussions .


    A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems

    DAWN D. DOMINGUEZ

    PATRICK L. HAGANS

    Surface Chemistry Branch

    Chemistry' Division

    M. ASHRAF IMAM

    Physical Metallurgy Branch

    Materials Science and Technology Division

    J a n u a r y 9 , 1 9 9 6


    1996 Release

    Original distribution authorized to U.S. government agencies only; Test and Evaluation; January 1996. Other requests shall be referred to Commanding Officer, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5320.


    Twenty Years Later


    In 2016 this document was

    Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited

    2016 Release Includes New Introductions

    by Melvin H. Miles and Pamela A. Mosier-Boss, February 2016


    Source

    apps.dtic.mil was first indexed by Google more than 10 years ago

    Link

    https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA315020.pdf

    Your connection to this site is secure

  • LENR was driven underground as a pseudoscience.

    If you broke silence you would fall into a reputation trap called... Breaking an Office of Naval Research non-disclosure-agreement.

    Federal Prison is a career trap, so to speak.

    Skeptics like me

    IMHO you are a very poor example of an exemplary skeptic. You are short on logical technical details and your judgement is subjective and inaccurate.

  • THHuxleynew


    A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous

    Effects in Deuterated Palladium

    Electrochemical Systems

    DAWN D. DOMINGUEZ

    PATRICK L. HAGANS

    Surface Chemistry Branch

    Chemistry' Division

    M. ASHRAF IMAM

    Physical Metallurgy Branch

    Materials Science and Technology Division

    J a n u a r y 9 , 1 9 9 6

    Includes New Introductions

    by Melvin H. Miles and Pamela A. Mosier-Boss, February 2016

    Original distribution authorized to U.S. government agencies only; Test and Evaluation; January 1996. Other requests shall be

    referred to Commanding Officer, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5320. In 2016 this document was

    Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited


    Source

    documents.theblackvault.com was first indexed by Google more than 10 years ago

    https://documents.theblackvault.com/documents/coldfusion/nrl-palladium.pdf

    Your connection to this site is secure.


    Quote Pamela Boss


    In summary, great care needs to be taken in designing and conducting experiments to study anomalous effects in the Pd/D system. It requires a multidisciplinary team of scientists and care in choosing the appropriate geometries and instrumentation to conduct the experiments. At ICCF14,

    Mike McKubre of SRI advised, “Reproduce exactly first. Work with the originator directly, in person, understand their procedures at every step until the original effect is recreated.” With regards to the Pd/D co-deposition experiments, NRL did not do this.-endquote

  • We have characterized the fusion, activation and fast-fission products through experimental nuclear product observations and material assays, and modeled reactions using SRIM/TRIM, Density Functional Theory (Quantum Espresso) [DECH15], LANL Monte-Carlo Nuclear Modeling (MCNP®) and CERN GEANT-4 [BARA21] codes.

    This is perhaps the most important paper not presented at ICCF-24. In the References of this work is a paper of interest that is under review and not available yet. The lead author is Louis F. DeChiaro, LENR of EMC Branch Q51 and the Washington D.C. Navy LENR research group.

    Quote

    He joined the US Navy as a civilian Physicist in September, 2006 and since 2009 has been performing investigations in LENR physics and supporting the EMC efforts of Branch Q51 at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA. During the period 2010-2012 he was on special assignment at the Naval Research Labs, Washington, D.C. in their experimental LENR group. Dr. DeChiaro is a member of Tau Beta Pi.


    White Paper Reference [DECH21]

    “A Multi-Laboratory Study of [Redacted] LENR Codeposition Experiments”, in review (2022).


    DeChiaro, L. F.,

    Forsley, L.P. ,

    Mosier-Boss, P.A.,

    Steinetz, B.M.,

    Hendricks, R.C.,

    Long, K.J.,

    Rayms-Keller, P.,

    Shea, M.,

    Barker, S.,

    Benyo, T.L.,

    Pines, V.,

    Chait, A.,

    Sandifer, II, C.E.,

    Ellis, D. L.,

    Locci, I. and

    Jennings, W.D.,


    Reference

    LENR PHENOMENA AND POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS, PROFESSOR PETER HAGELSTEIN AND DR. LOUIS DECHIARO

    Source

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a 501 professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.Wikipedia

    Quote

    Fleischmann and Pons had argued that the D/Pd loading ratio needed to be high in order to see excess heat; this was found to be the case in experiments that followed. A correlation was found between the excess power produced and the deuterium flux at the cathode surface. In some experiments increased excess heat was seen at elevated temperature. He-4 was observed in the gas phase, correlated with the energy produced, and in amounts consistent with the mass difference (24 MeV) between D2 and He-4.



    His Naval research in Utah


    Source

    aip.scitation.org was first indexed by Google in November 2016

    Cookie Absent

    "Hydrogen Segregation and Lattice Reorientation in Palladium Hydride Nanowires"

    October 2012 Applied Physics Letters 101(15)

    DOI:10.1063/1.4757999

    Project: Abnormal Heat Effect

    Authors:

    J. H. He, David Knies, Coolescence LLC, Boulder, Colorado, United States

    Graham K. Hubler, University of Missouri

    Kenneth Grabowski, United States Naval Research Laboratory

    R. J. Tonucci, United States Naval Research Laboratory

    L. F. Dechiaro


    This work was supported by The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under Contract No. 63-4377-01


    ABSTRACT

    We study palladium hydride nanowires of different sizes and hydrogen concentrations at 300 K using molecular dynamic simulations. Strong surface segregation of hydrogen with a depletion zone behind is observed in the palladium hydride nanowires. We also show that lattice reorientation is controlled by the hydrogen concentration as well as the nanowire size. The interplay of surface stresses and hydrogen induced stresses is responsible for the observations.

  • My opinion of Peter Gluck isn't humble. In many ways he was a better man than you or me.

    I have observed his online comments for more of his life than you, I think.


    I have no idea what sort of person he was - I am merely commenting on his online behaviour - which was unhelpful and also, because of the erroneous conspiratorial content, profoundly misguided.


    of course, if you know him IRL I defer to your judgement on his IRL personality which is really not the issue here.

  • References:

    Technical:

    Novel nuclear reactions observed in bremsstrahlung-irradiated deuterated metals
    $d$-D nuclear fusion events were observed in an electron-screened, deuterated metal lattice by reacting cold deuterons with hot deuterons $({d}^{*})$ produced…
    journals.aps.org

    Less technical:

    Has NASA Cracked Fusion Energy?
    NASA’s novel new technology may unlock the ultimate clean energy.
    medium.com


    (also NASA ICCF24)


    Perhaps a good time to revisit LCF on this forum and consider NASAs efforts to make LCF work, and its consequences for LENR


    The first point to make is that they have proved F&P correct - in the sense that heavily deuterated metal lattices encourage fusion.


    They use (for good reasons) Erbium rather than Palladium - better screening - but so do many LENR researchers.


    Electron-screening is a potential way round the Coulomb barrier and as such has been discussed here many times. NASA, following on from positive google team results, are trying to get this to work.


    There are real consequences for LENR here. These deuterated lattices behave in a way that is being measured, The fusion (or potentially - though not I think yet measured - stripping) reactions are real and provide a large energy source. Making fusion work in this environment is relatively easy - a gamma will do it. Making fusion sustainable is within reach. You can imagine special conditions might allow it without gammas.


    Compared with hot fusion we have a lot of safety built in because too much fusion and the lattice will be destroyed. and, of course, we can have a tiny system that does this (making the gammas is not too difficult).


    So as a possibly attractive to hot fusion LCF is great on its own - if it can be made to work, and with understood theory, and continued effort experimentally, it seems possible.


    I'd say LCF is a core part of what this site is set up to study. Unless we abandon things when they become more plausible!


    There is another reason to look very carefully at this work.


    The fusion in heavily deuterated lattices is exploiting the same conditions that (Jed's version - classic) LENR does. Some additional effect that might push things over the Coulomb barrier at a high rate, other than gammas, can maybe be observed in these systems.


    They have one great advantage over LENR. For some reason, the LENR "suppression of easily measured particles" does not happen. The fusion results can be detected and are exactly what is expected from classic fusion reactions. Because detecting those results - in minute quantities - is easy, this makes these LCF system much simpler to study and optimise than an LENR system where you can only tell if it works by an excess heat measurement.


    They also are directly relevant to LENR. These systems are very similar to classic LENR, and it is possible the same effects that enable LENR also will be seen in these LCF systems. Certainly NASA hope this is the case.


    They expose the real mystery inside LENR - what are those anomalous results that do not come with the expected high energy particles?


    One thing we know - there is a clever mechanism to overcome the Coulomb barrier - and it works in systems precisely like those that F&P studied - though Pd seems to be not quite the optimal metal. That was all that F&P was looking for (well - claiming) all those years ago. Since then a host of others - and F&P - have claimed fusion without high energy particles. If that is true we have two distinct miracles:


    (A) LCF - known mechanism that allows fusion in deuterated lattices with the expected high energy products

    (B) LENR (type 1) another not understood mechanism that does the same, but also applies to H/Ni, and never makes the expected high energy products.


    One miracle LENR mechanism is enough for me. Those looking for the 2nd miracle would do well to start with a full understanding of the first one.


    THH

  • I'm sorry, but this is a really odd way to reason.


    For starters, there are no 'miracles' in science. This is loaded language, and to reason outwards from the connotations of such language is improper.


    I think you're correct to characterise Nasa's LCF and LENR as different things, though I note that Forsley has used the terms interchangeably (whilst simultaneously denying that LCF is LENR in other places - go figure). For our purposes it's a useful distinction.


    I see no a priori reason at all why one (LCF) would preclude the other (LENR [Type 1 in your typology]), and you haven't provided one. It's entirely possible that both are genuine phenomena. Moreover, you haven't actually substantiated the argument that LCF somehow makes LENR less likely. You've only asserted it by conflating LCF and LENR.


    Your argument that the observed reaction products of LCF somehow cast LENR in a bad light because of the latter's lack of reaction products is only potentially useful if indeed it's reasonable to conflate the two. But doesn't the fact that the reactions are initiated by different means and the reaction products are so different suggest that we should start from the hypothesis that they're not the same reaction?


    So, what you're doing here is conflating LCF and LENR in a way that is potentially problematic, and certainly hasn't been justified with any rigour; given how different the experiments you reference are. You've merely assumed it's reasonable to conflate the two because it suits your rhetorical end.


    I don't know that this is a particularly defensible position given how little is known about LENR. And I don't know that you've justified your argument appropriately.


    It seems perfectly plausible to me that A) you could get a 'vanilla' fusion reaction out of a deuterated lattice by giving it a kick and B) that the lattice could be an environment that enables another type of nuclear reaction that we don't yet understand or know how to initiate that doesn't have the expected reaction products. One doesn't preclude the other.


    To classify both of the above possibilities as 'miracles' and then suggest that 'one miracle is enough for me' isn't a scientific argument, it's a statement of personal preference and incredulity clothed in a problematic rhetorical conceit wrapped around an unjustified conflation.