Production of fuel with COP above 1 (electric energy input/heat energy output) patent about to expire in 2021

  • I regard the “Water arc explosion” phenomenon as a particularly interesting chapter of COP>1 because the energy transformation is between electric to kinetic instead of heat, which lends itself to adoption of practical uses with relatively ease.


    Regardless of the controversial aspect of the energy efficiency, water arc explosions have indeed been subject of research for propulsion systems, even for space propulsion applications.


    This IEEE paper tries to call attention to the propellant action potential of the water arc phenomenon, and points out the possibility of it being high efficiency.


    https://zero.sci-hub.se/3097/1…erarc-device-proposal.pdf


    This is a paper from Tajmar (2000) about a theoretical review of the potential of water arc explosions as electric driven propulsion systems in space:


    https://cyber.sci-hub.se/MTAuM…AtMzc2Mg==/tajmar2000.pdf


    This is a 2015 report from a Polytechnic school graduate that explored the water arc explosions for marine propulsion, very interesting, they even developed a small scale prototype. They use the original “molecular bond” explanation of Graneau to explain the source of the energy but they reckon there’s not really any consensus about that.


    https://digitalcommons.wpi.edu…icle=5126&context=mqp-all

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • The surplus of energy observed during underwater sparks may be closely related to cavitation overunity and also so-called sonofusion.

    Now that you mention it, there’s a book from 2016 that is about Sonoluminiscence and has a chapter about related phenomena where water arc explosions, and also lightnings, are mentioned as being essentially the same family of phenomena. The book is called Understanding Sonoluminiscence.


    On the other hand, one of the claims of HHO production with only 0,4w/L of HHO, is achieved in a reactor that is agitated by means of ultrasound.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • So any energy whether its sound, light or any other EM radiation makes these HHO's vibrate at their resonant frequencies! Hence water can be 'magnetized' purely by the fact that the delta +charge on the SP3 orbitals and delta minus charges on the tetrahedral SP3 molecular structure. This is the origiin of magnegas since water can be magnetized momentarily!

  • So - to continue - building a cold fusion reactor is as simple as E = mc to the power n where n can range from 0 to infinity! Work the rest out for yourselves and Fleischmann and Pons were correct!!!!!! Put that in your pipes and smoke it!!!

  • The surplus of energy observed during underwater sparks may be closely related to cavitation overunity and also so-called sonofusion.

    Yes, cavitation can create the same overunity effects as electric arcs. Personally, the example of ultrasound to overunity heat I like most was "Predicable and Reproducible Heat" by Roger Stringham in ICCF-7. That is because it's not sonofusion which would be heat produced at the same time the metal is sonicated. Rather, the excess energy is preserved as a fuel in the sonicated metal. The "afterheat" can later be releases by heating the metal in a water bath.

    The HHO molecule has a molecular memory because it it polarized!

    Before Santilli coined HHO, he was investigating AquaFuel, a syngas generated by an electric arc between carbon electrodes in water. NASA provided a chemical analysis of AquaFuel, and the fuel value of Aquafuel was compared to gasoline by a third party, a small engine manufacturer. I have reviewed Santilli's report on AquaFuel. I did a mass balance based on the NASA data which shows that 2.1% of the nitrogen in Aquafuel originates from nuclear transmutation. The energy/torque in fuel test was about 3x the actual "chemically calculated "fuel value of Aquafuel based on it chemical composition. Which means that about 66% of the energy of Aquafuel in that fuel test has no known chemical origin. I contend then that the transmutation reaction that produced nitrogen also produce a fuel, like the sonication of water does as in the example above by Stringham. That energy remains with the water produced fuel, so it is unlikely that it is due to polarization of water as HHO which is temporary. Further, the magnitude of this energy which can't be defined by chemical composition makes the hypothesis seem ridiculous that the energy is preserved as magnet bonds.


    The AquaFuel patent is also expired.

  • Взаимодействие с другими людьми

    So any energy whether its sound, light or any other EM radiation makes these HHO's vibrate at their resonant frequencies! Hence water can be 'magnetized' purely by the fact that the delta +charge on the SP3 orbitals and delta minus charges on the tetrahedral SP3 molecular structure. This is the origiin of magnegas since water can be magnetized momentarily!

    A wonderful thought ... A small touch ... This is a hint for you, my inquisitive physicists ... Photons, ultrasound are a photon wave, a solar battery, a cluster of free electrons that forms a temporary magnet - all these are related concepts - this is one and the same physics ... Here is an article - my analysis of the results of the work of the electrolyzer physicist - Kanarev F.M. - it is written in Russian - there is no time to translate it -

    LESSON-21. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS OF TRANSMUTATIONAL ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER.doc ", January 13, 2019.doc" - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/GsTU/54eMyxJ6F


    "REGISTRATION OF HIGH ENERGY RADIATION.doc" - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/EAv2/HWR4ZTFXk


    And then my other article, which is surprisingly connected with the first one - this is for those who are able to analyze - "Laser against radiation, December 8, 2018.doc" - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/ny8w/H8gtQFgf3

  • So any energy whether its sound, light or any other EM radiation makes these HHO's vibrate at their resonant frequencies! Hence water can be 'magnetized' purely by the fact that the delta +charge on the SP3 orbitals and delta minus charges on the tetrahedral SP3 molecular structure. This is the origiin of magnegas since water can be magnetized momentarily!

    You have provided a reasonable explanation why it takes less energy to make HHO gas than to hydrolyze water. But I would argue that that type of HHO gas can't produce over unity results. There is no source for the extra energy. In contrast when a magnecule is created by energy injected into giant nuclear resonance, the magnetism is much larger because it is not based on particle spin but is truly based on relativity. Further, it requires a significantly greater energy input per atom. This type of magnetic atom isn't bonding with electric forces but truly with magnetic forces. Hence, there are no orbital bonding rules for this type of magnecule. Only this type of magnecules were assumed, to prove via mass balance and stoichiometry that a fusion/fission sequence occurs. Not the type you or Santilli describe. Hence, per the proofs I have done, HHO gas over unity requires that nitrogen be produced from the fusion/fission sequence I have identified.


    To be as plain as possible: not all brown gas, HHO gas, hydrolysis gas etc are equal. The over unity energy does not come from chemistry is comes from nuclear reaction. I would not expect any over unity effect without traces of nitrogen produced by transmutation.

  • With a COP of 3.58, the so called "self looping" with a genset is still out of the question, because the nominal efficiency of 20% of gensets would require a COP of 5 to be able just to make the electrolyzer run from the genset output alone, without any additional load. But, a fuel cell, with an efficiency of 50%, could be enough to self loop an electrolyzer with a COP of 3.58, it would be enough for self looping and even an additional load.

    A self looping system that works is GEET. One has to get the plasma started on metal catalyst which requires the engine to start with some regular fuel source to get the catalyst hot. After that the exhaust of the engine heats the metal catalyst across which a mostly water fuel passes which runs the engine etc with recycle. This works because the nuclear produced fuel is not complete consumed in one past through the engine. A wise person uses some carbon fuel to keep the metal and the engine from oxidizing.


    The overall equation is 12 H2O goes to 2N2 and 5O2. In the literature about GEET you will find a claim that the exhaust is oxygen enriched, as expected per the equation above. The above equation was derived for AquaFuel but should be general for all water based fuels producing over unity results. If the nuclear reaction was producing energy rather than some form of mass, one can calculate from the above equation that more that 30 MeV is expected per N atom produced. Note that 2.3% of AquaFuel was Nitrogen produced from transmutation. Hence, only a small fraction of expected energy is recovered.


    The fuel from the nuclear reaction can pass through metal and out of the system. For Joe Cell type system's there is a claim the fuel from the Joe cell can pass through metal and then into the engine. Then the engine runs not on hydrogen or synfuel but on air and some unknown that passes through metal from the Joe cell.

  • I think the GEET is a way to use the exhaust heat to stimulate the formation of a plasma that allows the production of a syngas that has similar properties to the so called “magnegas”. It may as well have similar properties to the “Aquafuel” but it needs to have C on it to start the reaction, I haven’t seen a GEET reactor able to run in pure water.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • I haven’t seen a GEET reactor able to run in pure water.

    I read somewhere that improvements to GEET were thought to be due to getting more plasma on the catalysis. I suspect that oxidization of the catalysis reduces the glow plasma induced by heat transfer and static friction. If so then a reductant like carbon is part of the essential process of maintaining the proper redox state in the presence of water.

  • Carbon just increases the surface area for catalysts (KFeO2/ZrO2) to interact with substrates, D20, UDD (Rydberg Matter found in dark matter/energy in the OUTER HALO of the known Universe). All you really need is a polarized YAG laser beam to get the party started!! Or just read all of Leif's papers, they are brilliant and he deserves the next Nobel prize in nuclear and astro-physics!!!:):):)

  • All engine 's running they have Dr Richard Liftoff... next the TLI ( trans lunar injection ):saint:

    Carbon just increases the surface area for catalysts (KFeO2/ZrO2) to interact with substrates, D20, UDD (Rydberg Matter found in dark matter/energy in the OUTER HALO of the known Universe). All you really need is a polarized YAG laser beam to get the party started!! Or just read all of Leif's papers, they are brilliant and he deserves the next Nobel prize in nuclear and astro-physics!!!:):):)