nkodama's dedicated thread of LENR theory

  • Hello. Interesting. Can you tell us how this paper is important in terms of practical applications? Particularly in new energy applications like LENR? I see this was published in 2017. Was there any follow up or new research published since?

    My theory is that LENR can be done D- in T site and D+ hopped to D- in T site and this case I assume that D-(H-) is in T site.

    So T site stress is isotrpoic and less deformation of H s-orbit, so Understanding the impact of stress is very important on my theory.The practical benefit is that I am confident of my invention.Importance of H- is described in English paper and Japanese paper.


    >Can you tell us how this paper is important in terms of practical applications?

    ==>Battery separators

    >Was there any follow up or new research published since?

    ==>the latest research published on 2017/10/31 by Kyoto University

    https://www.jst.go.jp/pr/announce/20171031/index.html

    平成29年10月31日

    京都大学


    科学技術振興機構(JST


    本研究グループはヒドリドを含む層状の酸化物に圧力を加える実験によって、ヒドリドが極めて圧縮されやすく、層間の金属原子間の相互作用をブロックするという性質を発見しました。これらの結果は、ヒドリドを利用することによって、厚いセパレーターを使わなくても二次元的な特性が出せることを示しています。この新しい設計戦略を用いて今後、ヒドリドを含んだ様々な磁気・電子材料が開発されることが期待されます

    This seems to be the application of battery.


    I have sent email to the group leader in each site of the research, Japan US etc.

    I told them that We hope they you will run experiment to verify DDL if compressed H- is stable.

    They are based on the huge market of battery, so they must have sufficient money and human resources, so I think that this is the practical and easy way to ask them to run experiment to verify DDL

    If anyone want to know the contact email address you can find it in the bottom of the English paper 1page..


    厚いセパレーター=Thick separator probably used in the battery.


    This research group Experiments in which pressure was applied to a layered oxide containing hydride showed that the hydride was extremely compressed. We have discovered the property of easily blocking the interaction between metal atoms between layers. Using this new design strategy, various magnetic and electronic materials including hydride will be developed in the future.


  • added on 2020/09/12

    The uncontrollably of wet cold fusion (D2O) is caused by the shape of electrode in D2O,which is the rod rather than the flat plate in my inventions.

    So the surface potential of the hydrogen storage metal can not be controlled.


    https://e-catworld.com/
    https://animpossibleinvention.…tt-e-cat-trial-completed/


    Here is E-Cat patent and they seem to think that cold fusion is the d-cluster in the space of nano-powder.

    Cold Fusion Mechanism in E-Cat fusion patent


    I think my theory here is correct and it is based on the experimental results of cold fusion done at the early stage of the research.

    My current invention to be applied for a Japanese patent is totally based on this theory.



    I think that the size of E-CAT 1MW plant can be reduced by 1/10

    if the surface potential of nano metal particle can be controlled.

    This will be a huge impact in Japan due to the necessity of the power plant to replace nuclear power plant and backup for the fab.

    In japan the less land for the powerplant so the smaller size is prerequisit to use cold fusion electric power generators.

    So electric power company has the money to spend the smaller size.

    I am looking for the venture company to develop D2O cold fusion electric power generator with smaller size.

    W:40cmxH:50cmxL:150cm =>1MW

    so this can be 1GW if a few building floors have total 1000 unit of 1MW generator.

    I have the invention which will be applied for a patent in Japan.

    nano structure on wafer in the link below.

    added on 2020/09/14

    Importance of surface potential control to control fusion rate.

    link (importance and action to control the surface potential)

    Importance of surface potential control



    added on 2020/09/19

    I review again on the cold fusion experiment at the early stage on the basis of my theory.

    Review of cold fusion condition in D2O


    (A) LENR can be triggered by the higher temperature because it causes the higher frequency of hopping of D+ to D- in surface T site of the metal.

    at this step the surface potential to the positive side is to enhance of hopping of D+ so this can control the fusion rate.

    However the most tool of cold fusion have no function of this and will fail the production tools..

    My estimation is that the proper design of potential control and with nano structure on the flat plate of anode can produce 1MW with 100 12inch wafers( i mean the batch processing is "MUST"), so it can be smaller than E-Cat by 10 times.

    If we have the proper design of D2O cold fusion reactors(due to its easiness of the batch processing(multiple wafers) ),

    we can have the electric power-plant(1GW) in the building of a few floor in the town.

    As E-CAT uses the nano-particle which surface potential can not be controlled., however the power is 1MW, so I guess that the power can be enhanced with the proper design of the reactor and with flat plate with nano-structure with the semiconductor process tools(nano-imprinter).

    So I guess that X10 higher efficiency can be done based on D2O cold fusion reactor with proper design(1MW with smaller side 1/10 of E-CAT).

    I am looking for the company to develop the D2O batch cold fusion reactor with proper design.



    added on 2020/09/16

    reference material about hydrogen storage metal property for easy understand of my cold fusion theory.

    link

    hydrogen storadge metal porperty(basic)


    (B)->(C) T site has D2-gas which has compressed by the metal atoms from 3 directions in T site.

    (D),(E) the d-d distance is narrower than the threshold distance D2 gas turn into small D2 gas(femoto D2).

    (E)-(F) due to the shielding of coulomb repulsive force between d-d,

    it can approach at the distance of tunneling fusion threshold distance(~15fm).



    Due to the pressure from metal atoms in T site compress D2 and D2 truns into FEMTO-D2.
    Femto-D2 is so small(fm) that covalent electron between nucleon can shield the coulomb repulsive force perfectly.




    Thus the fusion occur due to the stretching vibration of femto-D2

    Electron in the ground state of hydrogen can be transited to Deep Electron Orbit.



    Compress effect on hydrogen

    Hidrid-easy compress

    History of Deep Dirac Level


    changed on 2020/09/02

    mechanism of easy compress of H-

    is the same as D2 in T site.







    added on 2020/08/20

    Compress effect hypo-2

    A is the normal state of D2 in metal T site and D2 is compressed by the T site atom from 4 direction




    Due to the coulomb repulsive force between d-d the compress force can be balanced at some location of d-d- distance

    as is shown fig(B)

    and in case of Fig(B) the electron density close to d is by far higher and the DDL wave function density is very high close to d, so the tunneling probability can be much larger than (A).

    This hypo need the quantitative simulation and now we are finding the researcher to run this simulation.

    So if you know the researcher who can run this simulation(1st principal simulation including metal and D2 property with relativistic shredding equation.



    added on 2020/09/06



    electron density increase between d-d as is shown in the above figure can shield the coulomb repulsive force and d-d distance can be narrower then the distance of fusion start.

    The overlap-C in the below figure between wave function of DDL and s-shell

    can cause the smaller hydrogen molecule with DDL.



    ↓here is the link to history of Deep Dirac Level

    History of Deep Dirac Level
    Deep Dirac Level is nu-founded electron orbit close to nucleon on the range of fm.

    So it can shield the coulomb repulsive force between d-d.(below figure)







    DEO is predicted by the relativistic shredding equation and modified coulomb potential and the Deep Electron Orbit is calculated



    added on 2020/08/31

    based on di-neutron theory

    Transmutations Involving the Di-neutron in Condensed Matter

    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.o…146-1730517609.1598828146

    When it is2H,4He and heat are the products (the Fleishmann Pons Heat Effect).•D2=(p+n)X2

    •=>2P+2n=2P+die-neutron

    •=>4He

    I like the old physics theory of D2 confined in T site

    but this can be explained by the above dineutron theory.

    This theory does not explain the necessity of T site.


  • The mechanism of transmutation of Mitsubishi method is the same as Cold fusion

    Proton in d with deep electron orbit and act as neutron and d to be di-neutron and can be implemented in the metal nucleon.



    about di-neutron.

    I found the very interesting article related with Cold Fusion,which is the nature of Deuteron.

    https://www.jst.go.jp/pr/announce/20181012/index.html#YOUGO1

    https://nsec.jaea.go.jp/pressrelease/en_index.html

    放射性廃棄物である長寿命核分裂生成物(LLFP)注3)を安定もしくは短寿命な原子核へと変換して有害度を低減させる「核変換処理注4)」の方法として、加速器で発生させた粒子をLLFPに照射し、そこで起きる核破砕反応を利用するものがあります。近年、この際の粒子として重陽子を用いると陽子などの他の粒子を用いたときよりも核変換処理の効率がよくなることが示唆され、注目されています。

    これは、重陽子は陽子と中性子が緩く結合した粒子であるため他の原子核と反応する中で容易に分解するにもかかわらず、この効果を十分に考慮した核破砕反応の計算手法が確立されていなかったためです。

    重陽子 重水素の原子核。陽子1個と中性子1個から構成される


    A long-lived fission product (LLFP) *3), which is a radioactive waste, is converted into stable or short-lived nuclei to reduce the harmfulness by reducing the harmfulness. Some irradiate particles to LLFP and utilize the nuclear fragmentation reaction that occurs there. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of deuterons as the particles in this case makes the transmutation process more efficient than when other particles such as protons are used, and it is drawing attention.

    This is because deuterons are particles in which protons and neutrons are loosely bound, so they easily decompose while reacting with other nuclei, but a calculation method for spallation reactions that fully considers this effect has been established. Because it was not.


    Deuteron A deuterium nucleus. Composed of one proton and one neutron






  • I think this can be related with Cold Fusion nuclear reaction.

    Dineutron


    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dineutron

    https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/…3%83%88%E3%83%AD%E3%83%B3



    NEUTRINO–DINEUTRON REACTIONS(LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS INDUCED BY D2GASPERMEATION THROUGH PDCOMPLEXES. Y. IWAMURA EFFECT)

    https://pdfs.semanticscholar.o…71e8738a047b9b57afd74.pdf

    Anomalous elemental changes have been observed on the Pd complexes after D2gas permeation. This effect—effect Y. Iwamura—belongs to a new category of nuclear reactions. The effect of Y. Iwamura can stimulate development of physics of electromagnetic interaction neutrino including physics of relic neutrino and physics of the dineutrons. It is possible to suggest that low-energy neutrino and even relic neutrino can initiate effect of transmutation in special cases. The suggested hypothesis application about new classν−nuclear reaction existence can be useful for the problems: alternative energetic, radioactive isotopes reducing and rare isotopes production.




    ダイニュートロン凝縮波動関数を用いた中性子過剰核中のダイニュートロン相関の研究京都大学理学研究科原子核理論研究室

    小林史治共同研究者: 延与佳子

    F.K. and Y. Kanada-En’yo, PTP 126 (2011)

    http://www.rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp/…acon11/pdfs/kobayashi.pdf



    Transmutations Involving the Di-neutron in Condensed Matte-512_JCMNS-Vol29.pdf


  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industry Nuclear transmutation

    Replication_of_Mhi_Transmutation_Experiment_by_D2_.pdf

    JPA 2002202392-000000.pdf

    English

    https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012011499A1/en



    【0051】化学式(2)に示すように、

    EINRモデルでは重水素が電子を捕獲してダイニュートロンが生成

    し、同時にCs等の物質と反応して核種変換が起きると

    考えている。

    重水素が電子を捕獲してダイニュートロンが生成==理解できない単にDD反応で中性子が2個あればそれでもいいのでは?

    なお、化学式(3)でβ崩壊、すなわち

    141Cs(=133Cs+42n)から141Prへ向かうβ-

    崩壊の記号は省略した。

    ダイニュートロンとは空間的に強く相関した中性子対のことであり中性子過剰核の表面に現れると予想されてい

    る。自由空間においては非束縛な2 中性子が中性子過剰核表面においては束縛するとされている非常に興味深いテーマであ

    る。しかしダイニュートロンは理論的に存在が予言されているのみであり、実験において直接的な証拠は見つかっていな

    い。


    As shown in the chemical formula (2), the EINR model

    Deuterium captures electrons and produces Dineutron

    And at the same time, when it reacts with substances such as Cs and nuclide conversion occurs,

    thinking. Note that β-decay in chemical formula (3), that is,

    Β- from 141Cs (=133Cs+42n) to 141Pr

    The collapse symbol is omitted.

    Dineutron is a strongly spatially correlated neutron pair and is expected to appear on the surface of neutron-rich nuclei.

    It It is a very interesting subject that two neutrons that are unbound in free space are bound on the neutron-rich nuclear surface.

    However, the existence of dineutron is only predicted theoretically, and no direct evidence has been found in the experiment.


    Dineutron

    Dineutron



    Replication Of MHI Transmutation Experiment By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complex

    Replication_of_Mhi_Transmutation_Experiment_by_D2_.pdf

    We performed D-permeation experiments similar to the MHI’s experiment1 three times, and we confirmed the production of Pr. Pd complex samples were provided to us by MHI. The surface was electrolytically cleaned to remove hydrocarbons before depositing Cs. D2 gas was permeated through the Pd complexes at 343 K and 1 atm for about 5 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed to analyze the existence of the elements (Cs and Pr) and the mass distribution. The results showed the existence of Pr. And we also confirmed the existence of Pr by using fast Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) in Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).



    https://www.slideshare.net/ssusereeef70/v01-26000554


    As a result, we confirmed that the nuclear transmutation reaction, from 133Cs to 141Pr, was occurred. This transmutation suggests that the mass numbers and atomic numbers increase 8 and 4, respectively. The model of multi-body resonance fusion of deuterons proposed by A. Takahashi2 can explain this mass-8-and-charge-4 increased transmutation.

  • Transmutations Involving the Di-neutron in Condensed Matte-512_JCMNS-Vol29.pdf


    nkodama

    Transmutation and Cold Fusion heat generation are related and an be explained by di-neutron.

    a lattice bound proton, in an electrochemical cathode, can absorb a relativistic electron yielding
    a neutron.

    =>question Is this hydrogen with deep dirac level?

    Abstract

    It has been recently revealed how a lattice bound proton, in an electrochemical cathode, can absorb a relativistic electron yielding a neutron. There is no longer much doubt that the analogous electron capture by a deuteron, in condensed matter,

    (e−real +1 p↑0n↑ → 0n↓0n↑ + νe) is even more efficient, where the arrows indicate nucleon spins.

    The life time of the newly formed di-neutron may be vanishingly short, but in the palladium deuteride matrix, we show that it is certainly sufficiently long to undergo transmutation with constituents of the matrix as well as added “impurities” to yield both isotopic and isotonic products: i.e. (0n↓0n↑ +106 Pd → 108Pd).

    When the agent capturing the di-neutron is 1H, tritium is the result.

    When it is 2H, 4He and heat are the products (the Fleishmann Pons Heat Effect).


  • Out of mere chance, I was browsing for potential recent works on LENR and found the following paper:


    https://s3.cern.ch/inspire-pro…7e40cab2c7f9e600815cfa1dd
    (published in Acta Physica Polonica B)


    It is related to this other of the same authors:


    https://www.sciencedirect.com/…abs/pii/S0375947419302350

    (Published in Nuclear Physics A)


    this is classical fusion measured at room temperature, but it caught my attention because it uses the LENR acronym and it confirms that it can happen due to the isotopic change measured, but at a very low rate.


    I am pasting these here because they talk about Di-neutrons as the paper that nkodama posted earlier in this thread.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Evidence of enhanced non-thermal nuclear fusion is related with the finding of cold fusion

    http://uu.diva-portal.org/smas…iva2:52651/FULLTEXT01.pdf


    This paper is related with finding of cold fusion mechanism of easy compress of hydrogen atoms.

    Preface

    In this bulletin a new nuclear fusion scheme is presented. Deuterium ions of about 25 keV energy are incident on a Li target operated at temperatures just above the melting point. The detected event rate of around a thousand per second corresponds to an enormous enhancement between 1015 – 1010 as compared to what is expected for deuterium ions interacting with free Li atoms.

    ==>Interpretation by cold fusion mechanism(easy compress of hydrogen by the transition of s-shell electron to Deep Dirac Level.


    related post

    When D + and D2 + beams up to 20 keV were applied to Pd surface-modified with a gold thin film, a DD reaction that was hundreds of times higher than the usual theory occurred.



    LiH is the typical ionic hydride,

    so I think that Li-H bonding to be compressed and to be truned into Deep Dirac level and causes the enhancement of event rate.

    the mechanism is explained in the following site.

    Hidrid-easy compress


    Possibility of fusion with D2 implantation

    とあるので、Li-H結合が圧縮されてHが深い軌道に入る可能性がある。

  • http://www.aesj.or.jp/~ndd/ndnews/pdf75/No75-06.pdf

    When D + and D2 + beams up to 20 keV were applied to Pd surface-modified with a gold thin film,

    a DD reaction that was hundreds of times higher than the usual theory occurred.

    北村晃教授(神戸商船大)から、「重陽子注入固体内の重水素密度と核融合反応率の異常増加」と題して、30分の講演があった。「金薄膜で表面修飾したPdに20keVまでのD+及びD2+ビームをあてると、通常理論の数百倍のDD反応が起こった」9,10)



    the above paper is related with cold fusion mechanism and easy compress of hydrogen.


    Possibility of fusion with D2 implantation

    related post

    Evidence of enhanced non-thermal nuclear fusion


    Hidrid-easy compress


    Cold Fusion theory (hypo)

  • Possibility of fusion with D2 implantation



    「金薄膜で表面修飾したPdに20keVまでのD+及びD2+ビームをあてると、通常理論の数百倍のDD反応が起こった」

    When D + and D2 + beams up to 20 keV were applied to Pd surface-modified with a gold thin film, a DD reaction that was hundreds of times higher than the usual theory occurred.9,10)

    http://www.aesj.or.jp/~ndd/ndnews/pdf75/No75-06.pdf

    続いて、北村晃教授(神戸商船大)から、「重陽子注入固体内の重水素密度と核融合反応率の異常増加」と題して、30分の講演があった。「金薄膜で表面修飾したPdに20keVまでのD+及びD2+ビームをあてると、通常理論の数百倍のDD反応が起こった」9,10)

    When D + and D2 + beams up to 20 keV were applied to Pd surface-modified with a gold thin film, a DD reaction that was hundreds of times higher than the usual theory occurred.


  • Current status of development of negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion reactors

    the very high intensity ion source will be available soon so it can cause the fusion directly with the collision of D+ and D- ions, though the total power seems to be less than plasma fusion(GW), but the price of the fusion tools is 1/100 of plasma fusion, so the multiple fusion tools with ion sources can be economical.

    the plan of current target is now D+=1MeV 200A, D-=200A(the below table)




    Possibility of fusion with D2 implantation


    This article reviews R&D progress of a MeV accelerator and a large negative ion source at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The JAERI MeV accelerator at present aims at acceleration of high current density (200 A/m2)H-ion beams up to MeV range energy. According to the progress of vacuum insulation technology, the MeV accelerator sustained 1 MV for more than two hours stably, followed by beam acceleration experiments of high current density. So far, H-ions beams of 146 A/m2, 836 keV have been obtained, which is the world's first demonstration of "ITER class" high power density beams. Recent investigation of negative ion uniformity in a large negative ion source revealed fast electron leakage through a magnetic filter,followed by destruction of negative ions inthe local extraction region during pure volume (without Cs) operation. On the other hand, the leaked fastele ctrons enhance surface production of negative ions locally under Cs seeded operation. This implies possible high current density and uniform negative ion production by a high-density plasma in the magnetic configuration like positive ion sources, to be coupled with RF driven plasma production for an NB system of a fusion DEMO reactor.



    related papers

    http://uu.diva-portal.org/smas…iva2:52651/FULLTEXT01.pdf


    In this bulletin a new nuclear fusion scheme is presented. Deuterium ions of about 25 keV energy are incident on a Li target operated at temperatures just above the melting point. The detected event rate of around a thousand per second corresponds to an enormous enhancement between 1015 – 1010 as compared to what is expected for deuterium ions interacting with free Li atoms. The fusion reaction events are defined by energetic particles escaping from the Li surface and detected in a solid state Si detector which is monitored by 5.3 MeV alpha particles from an americium source. The presumed alpha particles have energies up to three times the energies of the reference americium alphas. These experimental findings can be explained by a theory where several new concepts and mechanisms such as, buffer energy, adiabatic transition (quantum mechanical resonance) between atomic fusion and nuclear fusion, fusion reactions enhanced by the thermodynamic force and so on have been introduced. Explanations of the new concepts and interpretations of present experimental results based on these concepts are beyond the scope of a paper in usual academic journals. With considerations of the state of affairs, all results on the new fusion scheme are published as the three-in-a-set papers in the Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry, Uppsala University, September 2002 which can be found at internet. We hope that this publication will stimulate continued works in order to better understand the enhanced fusion rate. We would also welcome any comments or criticism.


  • each pair of conductive layers 50, 52 is a fuel layer 54 that contains a fuel mixture having nickel, lithium, and lithium aluminum hydride LiAlH.sub.4 ("LAH"), all in powdered form.

    Preferably, the nickel has been treated to increase its porosity, for example by heavy water present in micro-cavities that are inherently in each particle of nickel powder.

    I think that the mechanism of E-cat patent is the confinement of D-clusters in the space of nano-powder.

    I think they make light of the surface potential control.

    But I believe that the surface potential control is important.

    I recommend that they think the cold fusion theory again.

    I am sure that my theory is correct.

    link to my theory

    Cold Fusion theory (hypo)

    Importance of surface potential control



  • You should stop to mix an idea with a model!

    NO I want to to clarify the cold fusion mechanism,

    because I found that most researchers do not understand the importance of surface potential control from the paper of E-Cat.

    I think E-cat style is common and clean-planet has the similar way to produce the larger power, but that heat element with heater inside is not the real solution based on the theory of cold fusion as I explained in my post of theory of cold fusion theory.

    Cold Fusion theory (hypo)

    if they use the heater w/o potential control it must cause the instability from the theory.

    So I strongly recommend to all of the researchers to think about the importance of surface potential control of cathode.



  • I want to to clarify the cold fusion mechanism,
    because I found that most researchers do not understand the importance of surface potential control from the paper of E-Cat.

    I think E-cat style is common and clean-planet has the similar way to produce the larger power, but that heat element with heater inside is not the real solution based on the theory of cold fusion as I explained in my post of theory of cold fusion theory.

    Cold Fusion theory (hypo)