I have been having a look at Takaaki Matsumoto’s paper ‘Experiments of Underwater Spark Discharges with Pinched Electrodes’ published Winter1996 in the Journal of New Energy. I believe this is one of his later papers.
Matsumoto states that nickel (clearly identified by XS), calcium, titanium, sodium, aluminium, chlorine, cadmium and iodine were deposited on the palladium electrode. Such elements were not observed in a reference region of the wire, nor could they be assigned to impurities but rather suggested to be transmuted during the electrical discharges associated with the micro sparks.
The paper is very thorough in the description of the experiments and the observed effects, but I would disagree about the provided explanations in terms of low energy fusion as defined by the Nattoh Model. I would suggest that the observed ENR effects could be due to low energy fission rather than low energy fusion, because, according to the STEM approach, all those elements can created by the release of embedded structures which would represent fission processes.
From potassium (the electrolyte used was potassium carbonate): chlorine, phosphorus, carbon and aluminium atoms could result as shown below.
K-39/18+1=4-3; 8-3 à Cl-35/16+1=4-2; 8-3 + He-4
àP-31/14+1=4-1; 8-3 + He-4
àAl-27/12+1=8-3 + He-4
K-39/18+1=4-3; 8-1; 16-1 à Cl-35/16+1=4-2; 8-1; 16-1 + He-4
àP-31/14+1=4-1; 8-1; 16-1 + He-4
àAl-27/12+1=8-1; 16-1 + He-4
K-39/18+1=4-3; 8-1; 16-1 à Al-27/12+1=8-1; 16-1 + C-12
Any phosphorus could be expected to combust (possibly producing a slight glow). For the most part helium atoms would mix in with the emitted hydrogen generated by the electrolysis process, but some, caught up by the swirling plasmoidal energy plumes (itonic clusters and micro ball lightning), would be energised kinetically enough to pass through the thin glass of the beaker to create much diminished alpha radiation tracks in the film placed next to the beaker.
From the palladium: nickel can be produced via the following fission reactions, producing 3 possible isotopes of sulphur. Matsumoto does not mention or detect sulphur creation (it would possibly end up as SO4-- in the solution), but its presence is mentioned in the current pinch experiments of Bogdanovich et al.
Pd-100/46=4-1; 8-3; 16-2; 32-1 à Ni-64/28=8-3; 16-2 + S-32 + He-4
Pd-102/46=4-1; 8-3; 16-2; 32-1 à Ni-64/28=8-3; 16-2 + S-34 + He-4
Pd-104/46=4-1; 8-3; 16-2; 32-1 à Ni-64/28=8-3; 16-2 + S-36 + He-4
Calcium, titanium and chromium can be produced from iron electrodes as follow:
Fe-56/24+2=4-2; 8=1; 16-2 à Cr-52/22+2=4-1; 8=1; 16-2 + He-4
à Ti-48/20+2=8-1; 16-2 + He-4
Fe-56/22+4=4-3; 16-2 à Cr-52/20+4=4-2; 16-2 + He-4
à Ti-48/18+4=4-1; 16-2 + He-4
à Ca-44/16+4=16-2 + He-4
Fe-56/22+4=4-3; 16-2 à Ca-44/16+4=16-2 + C-12
But neither chromium nor titanium is detected: only calcium and carbon.
Sodium can also be produced from copper electrodes as used in the Bogdanovich et al. experiments, as follows:
Cu-63/28+1=4-2; 8-2; 16-2 à Na-23/10+1=4-1; 8-2 + S-36/16=16-1 + He-4
According to the STEM approach, these fission products maintain the structure of the embedded forms, with the fission process only involving the breaking of bitron bonds rather than strong bonds of any of the nuclear structures. As the process of breaking bitron bonds is compatible with common ‘cold’ chemical reactions, there is no problem with it happening as a ‘cold’ fission process. I suspect that the fission processes at play here would far outweigh any parallel fusion processes.