Frank Gordon's "Lattice Energy Converter (LEC)"...replicators workshop

  • Actually the 'fire-starter' sticks they sell in camping shops are 'mischmetal' AKA Ferrocerium, which contains some interesting materials


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferrocerium


    "Ferrocerium (also known in Europe as Auermetall) is a synthetic pyrophoric* alloy of "mischmetal" (cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, other trace lanthanides and some iron – about 95% lanthanides and 5% iron) hardened by blending in oxides of iron and / or magnesium."

    *Pyrophoric here means don’t attempt to crush to powder. (Pechpuck polver).

    🫣

  • At first glance this doesn't appear to have much to do with the LEC, but the careful look at the interactions between workfunctions of plating and substrate is very useful info. The full text is available FOC.


    Electron-emission materials: Advances, applications, and models | MRS Bulletin | Cambridge Core
    Electron-emission materials: Advances, applications, and models - Volume 42 Issue 7
    www.cambridge.org


    Electron emission represents the key mechanism enabling the development of devices that have revolutionized modern science and technology. Today, science still relies on advanced electron-emission devices for imaging, electronics, sensing, and high-energy physics. New generations of emission devices are continuously being improved based on innovative materials and the introduction of novel physical concepts. Recent advances are highlighted by emerging low-work-function and low-dimensional materials with unusual electronic and thermal properties. Nanotubes, nanowires, graphene, and electron-emission models are discussed in this issue, as well as original mechanisms, such as the thermoelectronic effect, thermionic emission, and heat trap processes. Advances in electron-emission materials and physics are driving a renaissance in the field, both opening up new applications, such as energy conversion and ultrafast electronics, as well as improving traditional applications in electron imaging and high-energy science.

  • I have said that I do not think cold fusion can be commercialized until it passes strict regulatory review an extensive testing. I gave several reasons, mainly:

    1. Cold fusion produces tritium which might be dangerous. I do not think it would be prudent to allow widespread use of it in ordinary houses until we know how the tritium is produced and how to either limit the amount or eliminate it completely.
    2. You cannot even manufacture and sell a conventional boiler without extensive testing by UL and others.

    The LEC may be an end run around this. It seems to be relatively easy to replicate. Perhaps large numbers of people can learn to manufacture LECs, and then distribute them informally, under the radar, the way personal computers were sold in the late 1970s. Perhaps the LEC can be produced and distributed in large numbers without approval. Especially in a very low powered version. Someone has suggested that a 3 W LEC equipped with an LED would make an excellent source of light in the Third World. That would be an ideal starter application. You might also make something to trickle charge cell phones, which are widely used in the Third World, and which are difficult to recharge many places.


    As long as the LEC is reasonably safe I would be thrilled to see that. I do not think it would be wise to put LEC devices in your pocket or to let children play with them until we understand them in depth, but I can see they might have widespread uses.


    The opposition to cold fusion might actually be an advantage in this situation. Because the scientific establishment claims that cold fusion does not exist, it would be difficult for scientists and engineers to push through legislation regulating cold fusion. At least at first, the objection would be, "how can you regulate something which does not exist?" When Melvin Miles first set about doing cold fusion experiments, some of the safety officers in his laboratory objected that he should not be doing nuclear physics. It might be dangerous. He pointed to the fact that the New York Times claimed cold fusion does not exist and asked, "how can this be dangerous when it does not even exist?" (Perhaps he pointed to Nature; I do not recall.)

  • You will be pleased to know that several of us are collaborating on LEC R&D.

    Yes! I had that in mind when I wrote that. It would be great if everyone who replicates shows two other people how to do it. We could see an exponential growth in the number of LECs in the world. Sooner or later there would hundreds, then thousands. It would become difficult to ignore them or pretend they don't exist. I have been hoping something like that would happen since the mid-1990s.


    The LEC may be the breakthrough that breaks through the opposition. Whether it can be made practical is less important at this stage than whether it can be easily replicated. (That is not to say I don't think it can be practical. I think it is too early to judge that.)


    Of course it would be even better if there were thousands of them out there in the form of 1 W or 3 W LED flashlights that stay on for months, far exceeding the limits of batteries.


    I wonder how long a small white LED lasts? Various sources say 50,000 hours, or 6 years continuously. You could turn off just the bulb I guess, but I would like to see demonstrations where the light is left on continuously far longer than any battery would last. Of course a scientist could hook one up to instruments to confirm there is power, but I would like to see a test that any ordinary person could do, such as placing a LEC next to an ordinary flashlight to see the flashlight discharges after several hours, and the LEC is still working weeks or months later.


    If you were to turn off the bulb and disconnect the circuit, what would the LEC do? Probably just produce heat. There will be some practical considerations. You would not want to pack 100 units into a sealed cardboard box and ship it via air freight. I wonder if you could manufacture them with a vacuum in the chamber, and then break a seal to insert hydrogen, sort of the way you pull a plastic strap out of a new wristwatch to connect the battery.

  • I think it is marvelous that you are looking at old literature to understand this! Martin Fleischmann strongly recommended doing this. He said there is a lot of forgotten science in the back issues of Nature circa 1900.

    I have many years of French PNAS binded in my library. I read each volume carefully 30 years ago and I found a lot of interesting things inside. Totally forgotted and buried.

  • Hello Jed,


    I like the idea of enhancing whatever core effect allows for the LEC to operate. Although I have yet to crunch the numbers, the processed nickel material that produced long term excess heat in Piantelli's early work seems to have been much more "active" per unit of surface area than the material in LECs produced so far. I suspect the activity level of the LEC "fuel" has been very minimal so far, so using even a moderately active replacement would boost output in a major way. Then increasing temp and surface area would produce even greater results. The barrier may actually be that increasing the rate of CF reactions may only boost electrical output so far with heat production outpacing electricity generation - or perhaps interfering with it. If that ends up being the case, there may be additional applications.

  • Frank Gordon discusses How To Scale up LEC Output begins here (minute 11):


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  • Here are the slides from that lecture (starting at minute 11, as I said). This first slide shows 4 orders of magnitude, 2 from better metallurgy, ~2 from better ion harvesting (items 1 and 3 on the Scale Up Targets slide below).







    Scale Up Targets add up to 10 - 14 orders of magnitude. These may not add up that much, because these are not independent variables, and because some may not be linear.




  • Just doing a bit of very simple 'chemistry for effect' - quick and dirty experiments looking at some more unusual materials.

  • A 389 page 'labour of love'


    EFFECTIVE WORK FUNCTIONS OF THE ELEMENTS. Hiroyuki Kawano


    Most probable value, Previously recommended value,Polycrystalline thermionic contrast, Change at critical temperature, Anisotropic dependence sequence, Particle size dependence


    A B S T R A C T


    As a much-enriched supplement to the previous review paper entitled the ‘‘Effective work

    functions for ionic and electronic emissions from mono- and polycrystalline surfaces’’ [Prog.

    Surf. Sci. 83 (2008) 1–165], the present monograph summarizes a comprehensive and upto-date database in Table 1, which includes more than ten thousands of experimental and

    theoretical data accumulated mainly during the last half century on the work functions

    − effective for positive-ionic, electronic and negative-ionic emissions from mono- and

    polycrystalline surfaces of 88 kinds of chemical elements (1H–99Es), and also which includes

    the main experimental condition and method employed for each sample specimen (bulk or

    film) together with 490 footnotes. From the above database originating from 4461 references

    published to date in the fields of both physics and chemistry, the most probable values of 𝜙− for substantially clean surfaces are statistically estimated for about 600 surface species

    of mono- and polycrystals.


    Work Function of the Elements Book.pdf

  • THE BIOSEARCH REPORT.


    Infinite Energy Magazine gave copies of this report into the direct production of electricity from LENR away to all readers awhile back. The report is now availiable as a pdf from the store. An interesting read, their work is in synchrony with that of fabrice DAVID . Sadly the group has folded due to the sad death of its principal funder, Charlie Entenmann.. This is of particular interest to those who are interested in its cousin, the LEC.

    From the Introduction: "Can BioSearch harness the energy from the electrons of energy states to directly create electricity as they are separated from their proton as hydrogen or deuterium gas is absorbed into a palladium lattice? BioSearch has run thousands of cells. The discussion presented herein are only the highlights of the findings."

    https://www.infinite-energy.co…&cPath=12&products_id=593

    2021, 26 pages

  • Still exploring the parameter space! There has been some discussion about the importance of using materials with differing work functions to see the LEC effect. The experiment below, using initially identical materials for both electrodes suggests that this is NOT the case.


    This is a 400 ml marmalade jar, Lined with a cylinder of 'untouched' nickel mesh and that is insulated from accidental contacts inside with another concentric cylinder of nylon fly-screen. Concentric with that is the central working electrode.There is a splash of acetone in the bottom of the jar, which being volatile soon saturates the air inside, acetone has a very low ionisation threshold.


    The smaller central 'working electrode' 3x4 cms - sadly not visible here- is a rolled cylinder of conventionally hydrogen loaded in light water nickel mesh identical to the outer large electrode. The system produced over 300mV initially, dropping to 200mV after an hour, but it seems to be holding that after 3 hours.. The purpose of this is to show that differing work functions are nor required to see a voltage from hydrided material. After 6 hours voltage remained at 200mV. I will measure the short circuit current if it's still alive tomorrow.


    21676-nickel-mesh-005-jpg

  • BIOSEARCH UPDATE>from one who knows.


    Fabrice David was not a group or associate member of BioSearch, Charlie Entenmann's lab. They had a private lab in Sarasota and at one point Michael Melich made arrangements for Fabrice to visit and discuss working with them, which did not happen. Mike Melich was a consultant for them. Christy Frazier at Infinite Energy magazine worked with Biosearch to publish the report. .


    BioSearch are listed in Sarasota to direct any inquiries.