You are right about the fuel cell. But in a fuel cell, it is the chemical energy of the reaction of H+ and O - which drive the ionization process of hydrogen. (by displacement of the equilibrium of the ionization reaction)
In a fusion diode of Frank Gordon, there is no oxygen.
But we have clearly an ionization in our cells. It is unlikely that it is energetic particles that produce this ionization, otherwise it would require considerable radioactivity.
Palladium cathodes can release hydrogen atoms. We demonstrated this with John Giles by making a special paper that changes color in the presence of atomic hydrogen.
After loading with deuterium, a palladium cathode leaves a brown color on the paper.
But these atomic hydrogen atoms, while very reactive, are not charged.
In addition, this is a chemical reaction, and it does not last long. But Frank Gordon and the Sarasota team of Charles Entenman observes voltage and current for several weeks.
First, what ions can be present in hydrogen?
To answer this question, I will quote an article presented to Louis De Broglie in 1962 in the Proceeding of the French Academy of Sciences and signed by Pham-Din Hoï. (Paris-Sorbonne University)
(Mass spectrometer study of hydrogen given off by palladium, October 8, 1962, C.R. Acad. Sci. Pp. 1724-1756)
H+, H2+ and H3+ ions are released from a capillary in a mass spectrometer, and they are also released by a palladium tube, but only after ionization by an electron beam.
In the experiments of Frank Gordon, I suggest that the energy of ionization of the hydrogen atoms and molecules is given by the down-conversion of the LERN energy.
I happened to notice that a low voltage appeared in the spongy lead electrode cell when exposed to direct sunlight under an hydrogen atmosphere.
It appears that sunlight also increases the voltage in the cell containing the nanoparticulate palladium electrode. Here is how I explain this observation:
There is a photochemical ionization effect of the adsorbed hydrogen molecules, which give H+ , H2+ and H3+ ions, which diffuse in the gas phase and will neutralize on the counter electrode, and return and the cycle continues.
And in the cell containing the palladium, even in the dark, during the "Down-Conversion", before thermalization, the energy falls in the electron-volt range. It is the range of energy which allows the breaking of atomic bonds, the ionization of atoms and electronic excitation.
It is this energy which allows the appearance of a voltage in the diodes constructed with a palladium / semiconductor contact, and it is also this is energy which allows the appearance of a voltage and a current (therefore electric power) in the Entenman/Gordon diodes containing hydrogen gas.
In my opinion, we have a reaction ON THE SURFACE of the palladium: the nuclear energy released in the palladium undergoes a down-conversion, and in contact with the palladium we have the following reaction:
H ° (adsorbed) à H+ (gas) + e-
Et: H2 (adsorbed) à H2+ (gaseous) + e-
And Louis de Broglie and Pham-Dinh Hoï also noticed that hydrogen also formed trihydrogen (H3) when released from palladium. And they have proven that you can ionize H3 to give H3+ . (Mass spectrometer study of hydrogen given off by palladium, October 8, 1962, C.R. Acad. Sci. Pp. 1724-1756)
We therefore have the possibility of the reaction:
H2 (adsorbed) + H ° (adsorbed) à H3 (adsorbed) à H3+ (gaseous) + e-
Palladium therefore takes a negative charge, and the metal electrode located in front of it therefore takes a positive charge when the positive H+ and H2+ ions (and the H3+ ions) are neutralized on the opposite metal electrode with the reverse reaction.