Frank Gordon's "Lattice Energy Converter (LEC)"...replicators workshop

  • X rays frequencies are staying at 2 orders more than the phonons.

    They could be generated by phonons higher harmonics ?

    If these rays could be generated by phonons resonance, in this way, probably a bigger and long LEC tube should be tested.


    I have X-Ray fims in the lab. This needs to be tested.

  • I have X-Ray fims in the lab. This needs to be tested.

    Read the Gozzi paper to learn how to extract a lot of information from the x-ray film. For example, if there is a wire blocking access to the reactor, the shadow of the wire can tell you a lot.


    I have an autoradiograph from Srinivasan, shown here, with links to the papers:


    A Look at Experiments


    Srinivasan made many of these films, over several months. I talked to him about it. This may be in the papers . . . but anyway, this was from tritium, in hot spots that lasted a long time. A film put in the same position showed the same pattern of exposed spots. Two films with one top of the other both produced the same pattern, with the top one attenuated. A film placed some distance away with a spacer showed the same pattern, attenuated. In short, he did a number of common sense tests to confirm that the x-ray film was detecting x-rays, rather than being affected by water or something like that. Skeptics thought it might be stained by water.

  • Read the Gozzi paper to learn how to extract a lot of information from the x-ray film. For example, if there is a wire blocking access to the reactor, the shadow of the wire can tell you a lot.

    Thanks Jed. I had a quick look when you first posted it -at first glance a very comprehensive paper. I shall study it some more. I have a couple more papers of interest on the way, I might link them/upload them here if they seem useful.

  • This is directly in line with J J Thonson''s own findings that gases ionised (in his case by X-Rays) were conductive- Air, Hydrogen, CO2 and some others.

    Yes, things inside the seem to go exactly as described by Thomson. For example, if you decrease the gas pressure also the current and voltage decrease. The phenomenology is very consistent with presence of X-Rays (or in general ionizing radiation).


    The disappointing thing is that JJT found that the gases were readily 'saturated' as he described it at very low levels of current.

    This is also what happen in the LEC: if you take a look at the "forced current" plot in my document, you will see that the current starts to saturate at +-10V. This current level depends on the amount of ionized gas that is produced over time. The current is not so small (greater than 0.1 mA @ 10V), that is orders of magnitude the one can be obtained with X-Rays, and it can be increased by increasing the electrodes surface.

  • On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiation

    S. Szpak', P.A. Mosier-Boss a,*,l J.J. Smithb


    Published 1996.


    Abstract

    Evidence for the emission of low intensity X-rays during cathodic polarization of the Pd/D system(s) is presented. The Pd/D system was prepared by charging with electrochemically generated deuterium either palladium foil or palladium electrodeposited from D2 0 electrolytes. Experimental and analytical procedures are described in detail.


    8 Phys. Lett. A 1996 radiation.pdf

  • Stevenson depending of these last hypothesis, your attempts also,

    If we would like increase the effect for a "business" for example, what kind of parameter you could optimize to maximize the effect ?

    Gap ? gas pressure between electrodes ? Another parameters you have in mind ?

    Probably the hydrogen amount trapped ?


    In this way, i share again a former french work ( in english..) where were trapped some hydrogen clusters inside a protonic membrane.

  • Cydonia


    The chief drawback for the De Guerville method of trapping hydrogen is the temperature ranges ceramic membranes operate at. While this might be useful for larger systems it is obviously no use for an application like a phone battery.


    The main experimental areas I see as being worth exploring in order to raise the output level from 'very interesting' to 'very useful' are as follows:-


    Study 'host metals' for both electrodes, and the effect of different electrolytes and plating regimes on loading. It may be that some counter electrode metals accept charges delivered by ions more readily than others.


    Look at electrode spacing (the gaps) and also on separator type.


    Increase electrode surface -either as plates or tubes - in fact check out the whole LEC geometry issue.


    Study gas dynamics and its effect on ion mobility. Lower the pressure there is less gas to ionise -but the ions can move faster, raise the pressure- more ions but the move more slowly. Also look at different gases, and at 'gas doping' whereby adding small amounts of (for example) hydrocarbons etc. might alter the number of charges the gas molecules willaccept.

  • If we would like increase the effect for a "business" for example, what kind of parameter you could optimize to maximize the effect ?

    Increasing surface is the most obvious: it will give you more current. Using specific metals (?) may increase the voltage. But this is just plain scaling / optimization. In my opinion once we get a better understanding of what happen inside the LEC, very big improvements can be made. Currently we (apparently) have a ionizing radiation and a ionized gas that spontaneously interact with metals to generate a voltage. This is kind of a forouitus process, for sure not optimised at all. There will be better ways to exploit the ionized gas or the radiation to obtain electricity. We just have to understand a little better their nature and behaviour.

  • There will be better ways to exploit the ionized gas or the radiation to obtain electricity.

    ...and I wonder what might increase the lattice vibrations.

    Dithering?

    Harold Aspden created thermal harmonics, and thermal standing waves by tapping the heat sources against the metal plates edges, increasing thermo voltaic efficiency considerably.

    Dithering effects radio waves also

    As in dithering world war two radios.


    Harold Apden was granted one of the first US cold fusion patents.

  • Good thoughts,

    i already spoken about this point we need to stretch actively the sample..

  • History Behind Dither

    The word actually comes from the Middle English verb ‘didderen,’ which means to tremble. This links to the discovery of Dither, as one its earliest uses can be traced back to World War II, when airplane bombers’ mechanical computers were able to perform navigation calculations far more accurately.


    Engineers during this time quickly began to realise that the aircraft vibration reduced the large majority of errors from sticky moving parts. This allowed for the aircraft to move in a continuous motion, as opposed to bumpy and short jerks of movement. Small vibrating motors were then swiftly built into computer monitors, and this form of vibration was deemed to be a Dither.

  • Well i have had a deep look in the past on Dubinko's work.

    We have to know that phonon vibration range is between 15 to 30 Thz.

    So he expected to add more energy to a lattice rather increasing the frequencies, the wave amplitude could help too.

    Now about the LEC effect, if low X rays are involved that means 2 orders more in frequency to reach.

    Because the Dubinko way of thinking isn't able to increase the frequency , maybe if his resonance effect is expected, occurs, that could generate X rays as product of a classic nuclear reaction.

  • The researchers fabricated single crystals of methylammonium lead iodide and tested them on photocurrent generation while irradiating them with X-rays. They found 75% charge-collection efficiency in millimeter-sized crystals. This high-efficiency current conversion for X-ray radiation also matched the material’s high X-ray absorption coefficient.


    In terms of damage, the material’s performance decreased less than 20% when hit with X-ray doses similar to those in space. “This represents very promising stability for high-radiation doses,” says Bálint Náfrádi.


    Combined, these features can lead to fabricating photovoltaic cells that can harvest visible, X-ray, and even gamma-ray photons. Such technology can have far-reaching advantages for space exploration, as well as converting waste radiation in nuclear powerplants.


    This work included contribution from the Institute of Nuclear Techniques of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The project was funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation and the European Research Council.


    Reference


    Náfrádi B, Náfrádi G, Forró L, Horváth E. Methylammonium Lead Iodide for Efficient X-ray Energy Conversion. J. Phys. Chem. C, 16 October 2015. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b07876

  • Triboelectric Series: Positive- and Negative-charging Materials


    I have mentioned that one avenue of research into the LEC effect is to see if:-

    .....some counter electrode metals accept charges delivered by ions more readily than others.

    In this context we have the electro-chemical series, which is of importance when we consider galvanism (also called bi-metal effect in days of your) . There is also another series- more complex and inclusive of many 'non-obvious' materials called the 'tribo-electric scale'. Non-obvious in that it relates to the readiness of materials to accept or donate electrons when in close contact and particularly when rubbed together- think balloons and cats for example. Sadly the list linked above does not include gases - but gases as we know can carry a charge. This charging, known as triboelectric charging, or tribocharging for short, is observed naturally in the large electric fields observed in dust devils and sand storms as well as in everyday circumstances, Despite the long-observed, ubiquitous nature of tribocharging, the actual physics governing tribocharging is not well understood, and multiple different mechanisms have been proposed over the past several decades.


    Attached below is a very readable paper from the Royal Society archives:-


    Experiments on Tribo-Electricity. I.— The Tribo-Electric Series.

    By P. E. S haw, B.A., D.Sc., University College, Nottingham.

    (Communicated by Prof. E. H. Barton, F.R.S. Received May 24, 1917.)


    Tribo electricity 1917.pdf