Frank Gordon's "Lattice Energy Converter (LEC)"...replicators workshop

  • Ruby and David's new interview with our own Alan Smith about he and Matt Tilley's LEC replication:



    Alan has a knack for explaining what is going on in simple layman terms. However, since I understand it better now after watching the video, I have more questions than before.


    Good example starts at minute 23. Transcript: "To get anything for a long period, you would definitely need hydrogen, because iron is so readily oxidized. But that seems to be the only reason. It does improve the durability.of the experiment that is for sure. But it's not actually key, not required to run the experiment. Matt Tilley and I had it running in air."

  • Robert Godes' comment in YouTube:

    "People working on this should try attaching an ultrasonic transducer to the Iron cathode. This can be used to both listen to the sounds generated and drive compression waves through it that will likely cause a dramatic uptick in the reaction."

  • For what it's worth, sometimes the noises are even loud enough to be heard without any amplifying device, but it depends on the plating characteristics and how hydrogen was loaded. Interesting to know that Godes is saying that it could be important in any case.

  • "To get anything for a long period, you would definitely need hydrogen, because iron is so readily oxidized. But that seems to be the only reason. It does improve the durability.of the experiment that is for sure. But it's not actually key, not required to run the experiment. Matt Tilley and I had it running in air."


    If this helps- you always need the co-deposited H2/D2 to see an effect, but if the working electrodes are not kept in a hydrogen atmosphere the co-deposited hydrogen will start to diffuse out of the very thin plated layer . So to keep the show running, a hydrogen atmosphere, which does not encourage rusting of the plated surface as well as maintaining the level of hydrogen inside the lattice is best.


    But as JJ Thomson showed around 120 years ago, many gases and vapours can be ionised, not just hydrogen, and it is the ionisation of the gas between the plates by the (presumably) very low energy radiation we suspect the working electrodes are emitting which is hypothesised to be the source of the voltage. Equally important to note that this system will NOT work in a vacuum, but will start to work again if normal pressure is restored - further support for the ionised gas theory.


    But neither Stevenson or I have been able to detect any radiation, which is presumably down in the sub 20keV zone. A Los Alamos staffer saw something, but could not say it was conclusive proof, probably using super-sophisticated equipment, Maybe the best evidence to support this is the old Rout/Srinavasan paper showing fogging of X-Ray films.


    R. K. Rout, et al., Reproducible, anomalous emissions from palladium deuteride/hydride. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 273.


    and- accessible version - https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/RoutRKreproducib.pdf


    Worth noting that this is of course, Pd/D work, but in his recent presentation at IWAHLM 14 Biberian confirmed that Pd/D and Pd/H both produce the votage effect. Sad that Rout/Srinavasan's paper was published 27 years ago and the exact nature of the emission that causes fogging is still a mystery.

  • This presentation makes a brief mention of finding evidence suggestive of X-rays using CR-39.


    The link should drop you in at the right moment.


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  • In four replication attempts so far, I've seen only residual measurement effects. With 1.5 bar of H2, I saw 168 millivolts at 10 megohms load, which disappeared after shorting and slowly rose again over an hour or so. When measuring current, the voltage declining linearly to 2 mV at 100k and 600 uV at 10k load. However, the measured voltages were identical in Hydrogen or high vacuum environment. This is apparently a measurement base level resulting from leakage currents in the meter's FET input device. Similar measurement data was seen by a Labjack InAmp module. That device's AD623 chip has an input bias current of 17 nA, corresponding to 170 millivolts across 10 megohms.


    These tests were of a brass cathode with HCl plating electrolyte as described by Gordon and Stevenson. I earlier found no evidence by EDX of Fe on the plated surface. Perhaps the Iron Sulfite plating bath mentioned by Alan Smith will be more effective, and I'll try that next.

  • Perhaps the Iron Sulfite plating bath mentioned by Alan Smith will be more effective, and I'll try that next.

    I couldn't get the HCl method to work. I'm sure I must have missed something there. The sulphate/citrate /ammonia mix works very well. You need a long slow plating regime to load hydrogen though- 72 hours at a fraction over 2 volts - low current -O.2A or less.

  • Equally important to note that this system will NOT work in a vacuum, but will start to work again if normal pressure is restored - further support for the ionised gas theory.

    Alan Smith, it is very important to verify if a current can be forced in vacuum by applying an external voltage (in one direction AND in the opposite). If no current is detected, or a very weak current compared to when the gas is present, we can safely conclude that the "ionising radiation" is electromagnetic in nature (e.g. soft X-rays) and not made by charged particles. If a current is detected, it would probably be unidirectional (as in a diode), meaning that charged particle are emitted by the WE. Well, there are for sure more accurate interpretations, but this is a good starting point to understand what's going on.

  • Alan Smith, it is very important to verify if a current can be forced in vacuum by applying an external voltage (in one direction AND in the opposite). If no current is detected, or a very weak current compared to when the gas is present, we can safely conclude that the "ionising radiation" is electromagnetic in nature (e.g. soft X-rays) and not made by charged particles. If a current is detected, it would probably be unidirectional (as in a diode), meaning that charged particle are emitted by the WE. Well, there are for sure more accurate interpretations, but this is a good starting point to understand what's going on.


    You are entirely correct.


    BTW, an email from FrankG suggested he sees strong links with photo-electric effect. I see what he's getting at (correctly) of course, but in the video i wanted to make it clear that this was not just some kind of solar panel. I should have been more specific, but for things like a 'show and tell' I always lean towards the accessible rather than than the purely technical. My bad!

  • Interesting and possibly relevant paper.



    Cellucci, F., et al. X-Ray, Heat Excess and 4He in the Electrochemical Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium ICCF-6 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido,Japan:

    Abstract

    The energy balance between heat excess and 4He in the gas phase has been found reasonably satisfied even if the low levels of4He found do not give the necessary confidence to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons to give4He. In the melted cathode, whose data are reported here, 4He was not found at the achieved sensitivity. X-ray film, positioned at 50 mm from the cell, roughly gave the image of the cathode through spots. The energy of the radiation and the total energy associated to it have been, respectively, evaluated as (89±1) keV and (12.0 ± 0.4) kJ.This value is 0.5% of the energy measured by calorimetry in the same interval of time.




    x_ray_heat_excess_and_4He_in_the_electro.pdf

  • Test cell #5 seems to have worked. The plot below shows the voltage and power vs load. Today I pumped out the cell after overnight dwell at 1 megohm load, during which the voltage dropped to 366 mV. With pumping, the voltage declined starting at 50 Torr and reached 50 uV at 2 Torr. It took several hours to reach 10E-4 Torr and ~5 uV, possibly slowed by retained water or H coming out of the plating. Then I added H2 at 1 bar, but the cell is now sleeping or dead, less than 1 mV after a couple of hours.


  • Test cell #5 seems to have worked.

    Great news! The plot is really good and perfeclty aligned with other results we have seen. As expected (due to the dimensions of your device) the internal resistance is quite low. This means it is able to provide a greater current compared to other (smaller) devices. The long vacuum probably desorbed the hydrogen from the plating layer, so the device will not easily return to its working state.

    How the plating was done this time?

  • How the plating was done this time?

    Following Alan Smith's suggestion, I used 25 grams each of Iron Sulphate and Sodium Citrate, buffered with 50 ml of Ammonia (20% concentration), all in 1 liter of distilled water. Magnetic stirring was used at slow speed for the entire plating period.


    After a couple of hours at 1 volt / 80 mA, I set it to 3 volts with current limiting at 220 mA and continuing for about 80 hours. The resulting Iron layer was well-adhered but with rough surface as shown in the images below. The second image shows the cell installed in the vacuum chamber, looking through the clear acrylic Conflat flange.