Frank Gordon's "Lattice Energy Converter (LEC)"...replicators workshop

  • It states that the free electrons are generated by the absorption of protons into a palladium (or similar)

    This effect is also used in Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

    Well, it's actually absorption of hydrogen atoms, stripping the electrons off.


    With electrolysis, the reverse process happens at the cathode.

  • This effect is also used in Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

    Good one Rob. Here's an excerpt from the Wiki article on such cells:


    "Recently, researchers have developed a Fe/N/C catalyst derived from iron (II) acetate (FeAc), phenanthroline (Phen), and a metal-organic-framework (MOF) host. The MOF is a Zn(II) zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) called ZIF-8, which demonstrates a high microporous surface area and high nitrogen content"


    Note the use of Fe(II), and recall the earlier mention in this thread of adding Acetone to the Fe plating bath. The Zn(II) might conceivably be liberated from a brass plating cathode by an acidic electrolyte.

  • If I apply electrolysis to a clean metallic cathode to make it absorb hydrogen, I can replace the anode with a new clean metallic electrode and see a voltage with appreciable current from the cathode that declines over time. Is this supposed to be a new effect? I assumed it was a standard chemical reaction.

  • If I apply electrolysis to a clean metallic cathode to make it absorb hydrogen, I can replace the anode with a new clean metallic electrode and see a voltage with appreciable current from the cathode that declines over time. Is this supposed to be a new effect? I assumed it was a standard chemical reaction.


    Are you talking about a wet system? If so remember that an electrolysis tank is also a lossy capacitor as well as (potentially) a chemical battery. Your explanation is too brief for me to determine more.

  • Alan Smith

    It was in reference to the previous suggestion about hydrogen absorbed in palladium producing a current. At face value (I can't see the patent in discussion linked anywhere) it does not seem substantially different from what happens with the cathode in an ordinary (wet) electrolytic system.


    The electrolysis tank does not matter. The cathode can be taken out of the tank and brought in indirect contact with a clean counterelectrode through electrolyte-wetted paper, showing a similar voltage (0.75–0.85V) that declines with time (this is similar to what happened to my early LEC attempts). If the cathode can absorb more hydrogen (a graphite rod with a previously deposited Fe layer seemed to work well) the effect apparently lasts longer.


    Isn't this the water electrolysis half reaction at the cathode?


  • Isn't this the water electrolysis half reaction at the cathode?

    I would say so. It's also a Voltaic pile pf sorts if you are using dissimilar metals and a conductive separator. But it has little to do with the LEC, which will operate very well with no contact and in a completely dry system at temperatures above the boiling point of water.

  • Alan Smith

    It also worked with two steel electrodes of the same origin. This in itself should indeed not be a LEC effect, but since the voltage appears to be in the same ballpark of that observed in actual LEC replications, that makes me wonder whether that's where the voltage comes from in those cases.


    This could mean that the gas ionization suggested to be the mechanism allowing conduction in LEC cells is a separate effect from the voltage, and/or that under certain conditions in the presence of an air/gas gap rather than an electrolyte, hydrogen leaving the cathode (as it does in normal chemical processes) is also ionizing the gap.


    So far I haven't been able to observe a voltage in the atmosphere with just a very small air gap and absolutely no point of contact between the two electrodes (not even indirect), which made me wonder whether a closed cell is necessary. I am still able to observe that if even electrolyte traces/impurities are present on the surfaces in common with both electrodes, a voltage can be seen also through relatively large distances without the electrodes even having to face each other.


    I think the contactless property is the only one truly exclusive to the LEC, as ion conduction can in certain cases also occur through solids above the boiling point of water (proton/oxygen membranes, solid electrolytes, etc).

  • FWIW, spillover hydrogen is known to cause a decrease in the electrical resistance of non-metal materials it migrates on. It might be worth investigating whether this can occur in a LEC cell. I stress the need to show that the voltage is observed also with absolutely no point of indirect contact between the electrodes.


    Electrical conductivity study of hydrogen spillover on TiO2
    The nature of hydrogen spillover and the kind of the migrating particle has not been clarified completely until now. Investigations of conductivity ef…
    doi.org


    Quote

    [...] Two-component polycrystalline Pt/TiO2—TiO2 samples were used to guarantee that the conductivity changes (in the platinum-free component) are due to the adsorption of spilt-over hydrogen and not to a platinum—solid interaction or SMSI effects, as might be supposed for the Pt/TiO2 component. After adsorption of hydrogen a considerable increase in conductivity was found, at first only in the platinum containing Pt/TiO2 component. After some time (a few hours, depending on the distance between the electrical contacts and the interface between the two components) the conductivity increased in the platinum-free TiO2 component, too. A model of the donor mechanism of the spilt-over hydrogen is discussed to explain the experimental results.

  • About the BIOSEARCH team.



    Charles Entenmann is a member of the Entenmann family whose name is familiar to Americans. Entenmann’s bakeries produce very good Entenmann’s breads, cakes and donuts in many locations.



    Charles Entenmann funded numerous philanthropic foundations. These include in particular the University Hospital of Sarasota, (Florida), the Roskamp Institute dedicated to research on Alzheimer's disease. Charles Entenmann took an early interest in Cold Fusion and supported the research of Alf Thomson and several researchers and journalists in the field of Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. Charles Entenmann has developed with Alf Thomson a new type of revolutionary hemostatic and bacteriostatic dressing: “BIOSEAL”. He founded the BIOLIFE company and a factory was built in Sarasota. He also founded the BIOSEARCH company for innovative multidisciplinary research. Charles Entenmann attended the ICCF 18 meeting in Washington and immediately saw the potential of fusion diode technology.



    (PDF) Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: From Excess Energy to Energy
    PDF | Conventionally, the cold fusion reaction produces heat. (1),(2) The authors have sought a different approach, wherein the device has no input... | Find,…
    www.researchgate.net



    He decided to set up a laboratory and assemble a team in the premises of the company Biosearch in Sarasota.



    The team of the company Biosearch did an extremely important job: more than 1500 fusion diodes tested, with many pairs of metals and semiconductors.


    The energy released was measured by both voltametry and calorimetry. Many calorimeters have been built.


    Radiation measurements were carried out by many methods, in particular thanks to a fog chamber making it possible to visualize the trace of the energetic particles emitted.As you can see on this chapter of the Biosearch report, (page 7) They reproducibly observed the appearance of a spontaneous voltage and observed electric currents produced by fusion diodes. They recorded sustained tensions for more than 15 months.



    They managed (briefly) to light a low-powered red light emitting diode.

  • fabrice DAVID , can you share the link to the Biosearch report again? The one in your previous post is broken.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • I am afraid there is no copy of this great report on the net yet. You can order a copy of this report which is available from the Infinite Energy Foundation with the September / October 2021 issue of INFINITE ENERGY. This is also the opportunity to subscribe to this excellent journal.






    Picture : Charles Entenmann and the late Alf Thomson at ICCF 14 Washington DC.

    The Biosearch Laboratories meeting room is now named after Alf Thomson.

  • Using the powder gradient technique, the team of Charles Entenman (Keely Keene, Rebecca Kitko and others of the Biolife Team) tested increasingly less conductive semiconductors. (For the record, with John Giles, our best results at Deuo Dynamics were obtained with the palladium / aluminum nitride pair, which is a high resistivity semiconductor.)




    But Charles Entenman’s team discovered something extraordinary: even with a perfectly insulating powder in the diode, such as fine sand, diatomaceous earth, cellulose, we still observe the appearance of spontaneous tension. This tension persists for several months. This effect is also achieved by separating the palladium and metal electrodes with paper or asbestos.




    I admit that I did not believe in this effect, I feared an experimental error but I now admit my mistake: I was wrong.




    The team assembled by Charles Entenmann, using a fog chamber, demonstrated the emission of highly energetic charged particles by fusion diodes. Note that the particles manage to pass through the plastic or metal wall of the diode. Their energy is therefore greater than the megaelectronvolt. (For the record, the beta particles emitted by phosphorus 32 have a maximum energy of 1.7 MeV, and they can pass through about 0.8 mm of plastic. Protons and helium nuclei are even less penetrating.)



    Obviously, the ionization that causes fusion diodes to polarize is not due to these rare charged particles, otherwise it would require a much larger flux. We will not discuss these particles in this poster.



    Please remember that the electric current flowing through an ionization chamber is extremely weak and must be strongly amplified to be detectable, including when the source is located inside the ionization chamber. To obtain such a current between electrodes of metals of different ionization potential (eg zinc and copper, or cesium and copper) would require an activity greater than one curie! (The curie is a huge unit, equivalent to the activity of one gram of radium!)



    However, this effect really does exist, I checked it recently and I punlished the result during ICCF 23 and IWAHLM 14. This effect deserves with no doubt to be called the "ENTENMANN EFFECT"

    lenr-forum.com/attachment/19172/

  • FWIW, spillover hydrogen is known to cause a decrease in the electrical resistance of non-metal materials it migrates on. It might be worth investigating whether this can occur in a LEC cell. I stress the need to show that the voltage is observed also with absolutely no point of indirect contact between the electrodes.


    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2991(08)63172-9

    The Entenmann Effect is not exactly related to the hydrogen spillover effect. Like in our atomic hydrogen production by palladium cathode (1) (which is nothing than a “Giant Hydrogen Spillover Effect”) the hydrogen spillover involves neutral species (atoms of hydrogen).


    In the Entenmann/Gordon Effect, there is with no doubt ions production.


  • fabrice DAVID

    What I am proposing is that conduction over normally insulating parts by hydrogen spillover together with the ~0.8V normally observed after electrolytically loading a cathode with hydrogen could be able to reproduce a LEC-like behavior.


    The literature appears to suggest that hydrogen can spill as atoms and ions, not simply as neutral atoms. I wasn't implying that the observed voltage comes from that, however.


    On the nature of spilt-over hydrogen
    Various experimental results on hydrogen spillover which have been obtained since the first evidence for this phenomenon are discussed concerning the …
    doi.org

    https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c02859

  • Liviu Popa Simil proposed LENR Electric many many years ago. The same year GEC was in Guam.


    "Liviu Popa Simil – LENR – Nuclear Battery Roadmap" 27Jan2014

    Cold Fusion Now -gbgoble

    This fellow proves to be quite bright…

    Liviu Popa Simil – LENR – Nuclear Battery Roadmap – COLD FUSION NOW!


    “Nano-structured Nuclear Radiation Shielding”

    In July, 2012 he presented the following paper and slide show at the LENR International Conference:

    “Roadmap to Fusion Battery – A Novel Type of Nuclear Battery and Potential Outcomes and Applications”

    Also LENRForum thread


    Meanwhile

    He's been working under a DoD contract developing a novel plasma based transformer and a few other things since then. Nothing in cold fusion, LENR or CMNS, that I could find, till now. His recent (2021) works are perhaps relevant to advanced LEC concepts. Also his 2012 works...



    Note: this is from 2021

    3) Nano-hetero structures for...


    direct nuclear energy conversion into electricity, that are resembling a supercapacitor, charged by the moving nuclear particles, and discharges delivering electricity,


    ...where the structure is made of repetitive conductive and insulating layers, generically known as “CIci”, some of the variants creating hyperbolic metamaterials, that may deliver electricity and radiation...


    "Nuclear Power Renaissance Based on

    Engineered Micro-Nano-Nuclear Materials" Energy and Power Engineering, 2021, 13, 65-74

    Online: 1947-3818

    ISSN Print: 1949-243X

    (PDF) Nuclear Power Renaissance Based on Engineered Micro-Nano-Nuclear Materials
    PDF | On Jan 1, 2021, Liviu Popa-Simil published Nuclear Power Renaissance Based on Engineered Micro-Nano-Nuclear Materials | Find, read and cite all the…
    www.researchgate.net


    How to cite this paper: Popa-Simil, L.

    (2021) Nuclear Power Renaissance Based on Engineered Micro-Nano-Nuclear Materials.

    Energy and Power Engineering, 13, 65-74.

    https://doi.org/10.4236/epe.2020.134B007

    Received: February 23, 2021

    Accepted: April 27, 2021

    Published: April 30, 2021


    Abstract

    Nuclear Power today is in stagnation with a fleet of 440 operational units, due

    to many drawback factors, as economics, safety, controllability and response time, security and waste management, which all together act as a deterrent to new reactor construction. If the present trend is followed, together with aging of many nuclear plants, by 2040 there will remain less than half of the actual reactors in operation, representing an accelerated decay of the industry. The idea of renaissance of nuclear power is more frequent, but this is not possible without the use of novel materials, based on nano-engineered structures. It is well known that Damascus swords were not possible without the use of Damascus steel, and so the next nuclear technology is not possible without the use of novel micro-nano nuclear materials, which finally dictates the performances of the nuclear structures built with them. As a first approach to modern technology, since 1980s, five types of nuclear materials, able to bring a leap forward in nuclear technology have been identified and studied, which are:


    1) Micro-hetero structures able to deal with fission products, that use fission reaction kinematics to self-separate fission products from the nuclear

    fuel, generically called “Cer-Liq-Mesh”, because simply it consists of a ceramic material stabilized on an elastic mesh or felt, immersed into a drain liquid. This improves the radiation damage, fuel burnup, fission products separation, and specific power density.


    2) Nano-Beaded-Hetero-Structures that

    are using the nano-cluster specific mechanisms to accelerate separation of the transmutation products and place them into a drain liquid, which improves

    the separation of minor actinides, and radioisotopes production.


    3) Nano-hetero structures for...


    direct nuclear energy conversion into electricity, that are resembling a supercapacitor, charged by the moving nuclear particles, and discharges delivering electricity,


    ...where the structure is made of repetitive conductive and insulating layers, generically known as “CIci”, some of the variants creating hyperbolic metamaterials, that may deliver electricity and radiation. Using these structures, one may eliminate the thermos-mechanical stage from the actual nuclear-thermo-mechano-electric energy conversion cycle, reducing it at nuclear-electric only and reducing the size of nuclear-electric plant by 90%, creating a fission battery.


    4) Radiation damage self-repairing materials made of a “fractal”, multi-material interlaced structure that maintains its properties constant independent of radiation dose.

    These materials will be used for cladding and structures allowing a near-perfect

    burning, using breed & burn technology.


    5) Radiation guiding structures that

    are using nano-structures to trap and guide radiation on desired controllable

    path being used for control systems assuring a micro-second response time,

    and light shielding allowing the creation of mobile structures.


    ALSO

    LIVIU POPA-SIMIL

    The Applications of Micro-Nano-Cer-Liq Materials in Nuclear Power

    [PDF] THE APPLICATIONS OF MICRO-NANO-CER-LIQ MATERIALS IN NUCLEAR POWER | Semantic Scholar
    Modern nuclear fuels exploit the unique features of nano-structures. With proper engineering of fuel micro-nano-structure, fission products can, in principle,…
    www.semanticscholar.org