Ultra-dense hydrogen and Rydberg matter—a more informal general discussion thread

  • Superconductivity of nuclear active site should be well known in the LENR community based on US 8,227,020 B1 from 2012. Abstract as follows. 

    Here's the file:


    https://newenergytreasure.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/george-miley-patent.pdf


    This was filed a bit earlier than when Miley and Holmlid collaborated. I had not seen this patent before, only the article published in 2009, but the idea of the lattice allowing to form clusters was around since then. It also has been mentioned around the discussion of Lattice Confinement Fusion. It's amazing that this patent was granted and is known so little.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • the idea of the lattice allowing to form clusters was around since then

    The idea of clusters of hydrogen atoms concentrating at lattice dislocations has been a part of various 'hydrogen embrittlement' hypotheses for the last century.

    "The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

  • The solar corona is a more likely spot. I suspect stars have more than one kind of nuclear process powering them.

    Related paper: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.…epdf/10.1002/2017JA024498


    Quote

    Abstract [...] The properties of ultradense hydrogen H(0) give also a few novel possibilities to explain the high corona temperature of the Sun.


    But also:

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352414217_Heat_and_high_energy_particles_from_nuclear_processes_in_ultradense_hydrogen_H0_inside_the_Earth?channel=doi&linkId=60c8fd26458515dcee92d908&showFulltext=true


    Quote

    Abstract [...] Ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) has been studied in more than 50 experimental papers. H(0) is a quantum material. It gives spontaneous nuclear processes with a large energy release, including nuclear fusion processes. Since it is the lowest energy form of hydrogen it will exist everywhere where hydrogen exists in the Universe. H(0) will be formed inside the Earth since the chemical and thermal conditions there are excellent for its formation.[...]

  • The idea of clusters of hydrogen atoms concentrating at lattice dislocations has been a part of various 'hydrogen embrittlement' hypotheses for the last century.

    The Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that when a particle is confined in a limited amount of space, its energy increases. When a collection of hydrogen atoms increases in number in a confined space, the energy of that collection of atoms grows exponentially as the number of atoms increases. This increase in energy of the atomic collection is reflected in an increase in pressure in the confined space. The pressure increase will eventually produce metallic hydrogen: a superconductor.


    The metallic hydrogen will not fuse because of degeneracy pressure. Fusion by overcoming the coulomb barrier is a non issue compared to degeneracy pressure. Degeneracy pressure keeps white dwarf degenerate stars from forming a neutron stars.


    The Chandrasekhar Limit for White Dwarfs is calculated to be the pressure produced by 1.44 solar masses.


    So fusion cannot be produced by hydrogen loading inside a metal lattice because of degeneracy pressure. What is produced is metallic hydrogen: a superconductor.



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  • Fusion inside the sun is highly improbable. The only way that hydrogen fusion does occur is because there is so much hydrogen inside the sun that enough fusion happens so that it keeps the sun from collapsing.


    Even at the core of the sun, the temperature of ∼107 K only results in T∼1 keV, which is about a thousand times less than the electrical potential energy of 1 MeV needed in order to bring two hydrogen nuclei to within the ~1 fm range of the strong nuclear force. Therefore nuclear fusion reactions can only occur inside the sun, or in any other normal star, through the process of quantum-mechanical tunneling.


    The low probability of this tunneling, along with the need for a weak interaction in order to fuse two protons into a deuterium nucleus, are the two factors that make stars have lifetimes billions of years long.

  • ?


    the core is the hottest part of the Sun and of the Solar System. It has a density of 150 g/cm3 at the center, and a temperature of 15 million kelvins

    Extension - IS the Sun hot enough for fusion?


    quantum tunnelling


    Although, the chance of any proton tunneling through the coulomb barrier is very low, the number of protons in the Sun is so vast, a low probability event happens very often. When the calculations on this are performed it perfectly matches the amount of fusion going on the Sun!

  • Although, the chance of any proton tunneling through the coulomb barrier is very low, the number of protons in the Sun is so vast, a low probability event happens very often.

    You as usual cite standard model (SM) nonsense. H*-H* has been produced in pure form by R.Mills. He also measured all properties of H*-H*.


    As SM has no clue of H*-H* we can conclude SM knows nothing about nuclear physics. Just childish brabbelling.

  • Here is one of the papers that brought Miley and Holmlid collaboration, all published in 2009, there are others but all of similar content, one even lists Lawrence Forsley as one of the authors.


    https://www.allmystery.de/dateien/12837,1346882190,MileyClustLPB.pdf


    You can see the same drawing of the hydrogen cluster in the lattice. We have commented this before, I just was completely unaware of the existence of a granted patent on the subject and that it was filed by Miley, and that it mentioned superconductivity as Drgenek brought to our attention.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • http://www.alevelphysicsnotes.…%20sun%20hot%20enough.php



    Although, the chance of any proton tunneling through the coulomb barrier is very low, the number of protons in the Sun is so vast, a low probability event happens very often. When the calculations on this are performed it perfectly matches the amount of fusion going on the Sun!

    Recall that our Sun contains 99.8% of the mass of the entire solar system. It really is something big.

  • The Heisenberg's uncertainty principle says that when a particle is confined in a limited amount of space, its energy increases. When a collection of hydrogen atoms increases in number in a confined space, the energy of that collection of atoms grows exponentially as the number of atoms increases.

    We agree that a condensed (smaller radius the atomic hydrogen) MUST have more energy than normal a normal hydrogen atom. So, their spontaneous formation with the release of heat is contrary to thermodynamics. Which suggests that what Mills, Miley or Holmid observe must have something that causes the smaller size and doesn't transmit the expected higher energy content. It follows that the photons which mills attributes to the formation of hydrinos come for somewhere else. Note that the equation for phat photons from hydrogen produces the same spectra predicted by Mills. The main spectra sequences are E= n2 (13.58 eV)


    So how does that work. hydrogen absorbs phat photons and convert to a more energetic but smaller form of hydrogen where the electron is replaced by an electron-neutrino string. The energy of these string states is such that when they decay, they produce the spectra Mills detects. The electron-neutrino strings cause an electro-gravity whose effect can be predicted by special relativity. These clusters are negatively charged and not hot as would be predicted by confinement of hydrogen in a lattice. In fact, the extreme gravity makes them cold like a blackhole. Since the gravity is 42 orders of magnitude higher than universal gravity, the gravity makes blackhole like objects of anionic hydrogen (not neutrons because a cluster of neutrons does not collapse like a supernova). Not neutrons or hydrogen atoms because the anionic form of hydrogen is required for electro-gravity. Most other atoms are excluded by the negative charge of their electron cloud. It is just very improbably to convert even electron in a high atomic weight atom to an electron-neutrino string but it has been done by the Russians. Ed had the nuclear product as H4, which is almost right because energetic escape product is anionic hydrogen. He also had it correct that the product come out with predictable energies in the MeV range. The gravity creates an electro-negative barrier: the layering of ions about that barrier prevents thermal heat transfer. The energies of photons and particles from the cluster are functional related to the phat photon equation and to escape velocity (as shown in another thread in this forum.) The major product of the cluster does collapse like a blackhole as imaged by Matsumoto. The disintegration of these "pseudo" neutrons produces a radiation which causes the images.


    You have indeed perceived the effects involved in LENR but you get the reasons all wrong.

  • We agree that a condensed (smaller radius the atomic hydrogen) MUST have more energy than normal a normal hydrogen atom. So, their spontaneous formation with the release of heat is contrary to thermodynamics. Which suggests that what Mills, Miley or Holmid observe must have something that causes the smaller size and doesn't transmit the expected higher energy content. It follows that the photons which mills attributes to the formation of hydrinos come for somewhere else. Note that the equation for phat photons from hydrogen produces the same spectra predicted by Mills. The main spectra sequences are E= n2 (13.58 eV)


    So how does that work. hydrogen absorbs phat photons and convert to a more energetic but smaller form of hydrogen where the electron is replaced by an electron-neutrino string. The energy of these string states is such that when they decay, they produce the spectra Mills detects. The electron-neutrino strings cause an electro-gravity whose effect can be predicted by special relativity. These clusters are negatively charged and not hot as would be predicted by confinement of hydrogen in a lattice. In fact, the extreme gravity makes them cold like a blackhole. Since the gravity is 42 orders of magnitude higher than universal gravity, the gravity makes blackhole like objects of anionic hydrogen (not neutrons because a cluster of neutrons does not collapse like a supernova). Not neutrons or hydrogen atoms because the anionic form of hydrogen is required for electro-gravity. Most other atoms are excluded by the negative charge of their electron cloud. It is just very improbably to convert even electron in a high atomic weight atom to an electron-neutrino string but it has been done by the Russians. Ed had the nuclear product as H4, which is almost right because energetic escape product is anionic hydrogen. He also had it correct that the product come out with predictable energies in the MeV range. The gravity creates an electro-negative barrier: the layering of ions about that barrier prevents thermal heat transfer. The energies of photons and particles from the cluster are functional related to the phat photon equation and to escape velocity (as shown in another thread in this forum.) The major product of the cluster does collapse like a blackhole as imaged by Matsumoto. The disintegration of these "pseudo" neutrons produces a radiation which causes the images.


    You have indeed perceived the effects involved in LENR but you get the reasons all wrong.

    The contraction of the electron cloud around the hole core in a superconductor is caused by the Meissner effect. An equation, known as the London equation, predicts that the magnetic field in a superconductor decays exponentially from whatever value it possesses at the surface. This exclusion of magnetic field is a manifestation of the superdiamagnetism emerged during the phase transition from conductor to superconductor, this pushes electron out of the superconductor to form a low hanging electron cloud that surrounds the positively charge hole core.




    In a kinetic energy driven superconductor, the expansion of the orbits associated with kinetic energy lowering gives rise to negative<br>charge expulsion and macroscopic charge inhomogeneity, with more negative charge near the surface and more positive charge in the<br>interior. The potential energy is lower in the normal state where the charge is uniformly distributed.

    Figure 2: In a kinetic energy driven superconductor, the expansion of the orbits associated with kinetic energy lowering gives rise to negative charge expulsion and macroscopic charge inhomogeneity, with more negative charge near the surface and more positive charge in the interior. The potential energy is lower in the normal state where the charge is uniformly distributed.

    This is what both Mills and Holmlid see when they look at the hydrino and UDH respectively. The EVO is a superconductor that lowers the level of the electrons so that the attraction of the electrons' coulomb force equals the repulsive force of the Meissner effect.


    An explanation of what produces the Meissner effect and why momentum is conserved even when the electron cloud is compressed is found here.


    Momentum of superconducting electrons and the explanation of the Meissner effect
    Momentum and energy conservation are fundamental tenets of physics, that valid physical theories have to satisfy. In the reversible transformation between…
    arxiv.org

    Momentum of superconducting electrons and the explanation of the Meissner effect

    J. E. Hirsch


    Momentum and energy conservation are fundamental tenets of physics, that valid physical theories have to satisfy. In the reversible transformation between superconducting and normal phases in the presence of a magnetic field, the mechanical momentum of the supercurrent has to be transferred to the body as a whole and vice versa, the kinetic energy of the supercurrent stays in the electronic degrees of freedom, and no energy is dissipated nor entropy is generated in the process. We argue on general grounds that to explain these processes it is necessary that the electromagnetic field mediates the transfer of momentum between electrons and the body as a whole, and this requires that when the phase boundary between normal and superconducting phases is displaced, a flow and counterflow of charge occurs in direction perpendicular to the phase boundary. This flow and counterflow does not occur according to the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity, therefore we argue that within BCS-London theory the Meissner transition is a `forbidden transition'. Furthermore, to explain the phase transformation in a way that is consistent with the experimental observations requires that (i) the wavefunction and charge distribution of superconducting electrons near the phase boundary extend into the normal phase, and (ii) that the charge carriers in the normal state have hole-like character. The conventional theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.


    The electron cloud that the Meissner effect creates acts as an optical cavity that traps photons (via a laser) which generate the polariton condensate that shields the superconductor form environmental effects such as heat in a plasma.


    The reason why LENR in the form of a superconductor can create a Higgs field is because the Higgs field is superconducting as follows:


    Paradigm for the Higgs mechanism (WIKI)

    The Meissner superconductivity effect serves as an important paradigm for the generation mechanism of a mass M (i.e. a reciprocal range, {\displaystyle \lambda _{M}:=h/(Mc)} where h is the Planck constant and c is the speed of light) for a gauge field. In fact, this analogy is an abelian example for the Higgs mechanism,[7] which generates the masses of the electroweak W± and Z gauge particles in high-energy physics. The length \lambda _{M} is identical with the London penetration depth in the theory of superconductivity.[8][9]







  • The post above has brought to mind an experiment that Holmlid Et Al can perform that will show how the laser (via photons) can change the nature of the UDH.


    I posit that the UDH will lose its superconductivity when it is completely kept in the dark and when the temperature is increased. The UDH will lose its superfluidity.


    But after exposure to the laser light, no amount of heat will destroy the superconductivity of the UDH becuase the polariton condensate that is formed by the laser will protect the superconductive nature of the UDH.

  • I posit that the UDH will lose its superconductivity when it is completely kept in the dark and when the temperature is increased. The UDH will lose its superfluidity.

    There is a transition temperature above which UDH is observed to lose superfluidity, like with ordinary superfluids, but depending on the surface and if deuterium or protium is used:


    Leif Holmlid and Bernhard Kotzias, "Phase transition temperatures of 405-725 K in superfluid ultra-dense hydrogen clusters on metal surfaces", AIP Advances 6, 045111 (2016)


    But after exposure to the laser light, no amount of heat will destroy the superconductivity of the UDH becuase the polariton condensate that is formed by the laser will protect the superconductive nature of the UDH.

    To find out the state of UDH as in the above experiment, the pulsed laser (which is not merely "shining a light" in this case) must be employed and the observations do not change after using it. After using the laser, it still appears to lose superfluidity above the transition temperature and regain it below that.


    This is basing on Holmlid's interpretation of the time-of-flight results which is not exactly intuitive, however.

  • Regarding: "After using the laser, it still appears to lose superfluidity above the transition temperature and regain it below that."


    This observation indicates that the UDH still is a superconductor after exposure to the high temperature transition point because superconductivity is regained when the temperature is lowered below the transition temperature.

  • This observation indicates that the UDH still is a superconductor after exposure to the high temperature transition point because superconductivity is regained when the temperature is lowered below the transition temperature.

    You are wording this confusingly. A superconductor or superfluid is usually only called as such when it exhibits those properties.


    In other words, at high temperatures UDH is not a superfluid or a superconductor, at least according to Holmlid's time-of-flight data interpretation.

  • You are wording this confusingly. A superconductor or superfluid is usually only called as such when it exhibits those properties.


    In other words, at high temperatures UDH is not a superfluid or a superconductor, at least according to Holmlid's time-of-flight data interpretation.

    How can Holmlid tell by time of flight?


    What are those particles with spiral tracts that Sveinn sees in his cloud chamber after the laser pulse?


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    Sevinn's unknown track



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