Electromagnetic excitation of coaxially-coiled Constantan wires by high-power, high-voltage, microsecond pulses.
Francesco Celani1,2,4, C. Lorenzetti1, G. Vassallo1,3, E. Purchi1, S. Fiorilla1, S. Cupellini1,M. Nakamura1, P. Cerreoni1, R. Burri1, P. Boccanera1, A. Spallone1,2,4, E. F. Marano1
(1) ISCMNS_L1, Intern. Soc. of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science_Via Cavour 26, 03013 Ferentino-Italy;
(2) EU Project H2020: CleanHME;-European Union;
(3) DIDI, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo (PA)-Italy;
(4) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 56, 00044 Frascati (RM)-Italy.
E-mail: [email protected] INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi 56, 00044 Frascati (RM)-Italy
In the last two decades the work shifted from the initial study of Palladium based systems (dc and pulsed) to simpler, and less complex and costly, dc experiments using Nickel (2002) and its alloys (since 2011), pure and/or covered by other elements, usually multilayer structures.
Constantan (Cu55Ni44Mn1) is much cheaper than Palladium, withstands temperatures as high as 900 °C and shows AHE activity both with deuterium and hydrogen. As consequence since 2011 hot Constantan wires became the focus of several experiments that leveraged on the unique set of properties of this alloy:
1) Low cost;
2) Its remarkable capability to dissociate, from molecular to atomic state, and absorb
hydrogen (T>150 °C) keeping it inside also at high temperatures (700 °C);
3) High resilience in harsh experimental conditions.
Heated Constantan wire show occurrence of anomalous AHE if, once “activated” (i.e. the most difficult task to be achieved), a series of conditions are met:
A)Sufficiently high temperatures and large thermal gradients along the wire;
B)The surface is roughened and coated with Low Work Function (LWF) oxides;
C)Presence of a flux of atomic or ionised, deuterium or protium.