What is the current state of LENR?

  • Now you have piqued my curiosity.

    I'll look to find where the Lipinski's are and what they have been doing.

    Should be able to find something more recent.


    Is this the guy or someone else with the same name?


    Stephan A Lipinski earned $89,531 in 2017 as an Officer for Oak Forest.

    Stephan A Lipinski
    Review, explore and compare compensation for public employees throughout Illinois.
    salary.bettergov.org


    Lipinski earned more than 69.00% of employees in Oak Forest.


    Lipinski earned more than 75.41% of employees across all Municipals.

  • Lipinskis were in patent space since 2014 , an otherworldly reality


    Lipinskis seem to argue that they were not cold fusion but were like cold fusion..confusion?

    battling with the PTO ,serves to pass the time when you have run out of $ for lab work

    "

    2019. the Examiner does not support adequately that Appellant’s claimed method is a method of performing a cold fusion concept. For example, Appellant’s Specification itself describes how Appellant’s claimed method differs from cold fusion. Spec. ¶ 94.

    The Examiner does not otherwise adequately support that the claimed method is analogous to cold fusion. Instead, to summarize, it appears that the Examiner equates Appellant’s method to cold fusion based on an inadequately-supported conclusion that “a[ny] device . . . [is a] ‘cold fusion’ [device] when it is alleged that the energy of the reactant is significantly lower than the energy threshold required to fuse two nuclei.”


    The proton bombardment of metals has provided interesting data throughout the LENR research history but it has never got any where close to unity... its off by a few magnitudes ,, just because of the haphazardness of collisions..


    the Lipinskis don't consider their work LENR.. perhaps another thread Zephir? not current LENR IMHO

    https://casetext.com/admin-law/unified-gravity-corporation


    "For the purposes of this workshop, LENR is defined as a not-yet-understood process (or class of processes) characterized by system energy outputs characteristic of nuclear physics (typically >> 1 keV/amu/reaction) and energy inputs characteristic of chemistry (~eV/atom)."

  • Quote

    the Lipinskis don't consider their work LENR.. perhaps another thread Zephir

    On the contrary, the Lipinski fusion demonstrates the very essence of LENR: it shows why and how cold fusion works. The energy 3 - 5 keV needed is high with compare to classical cold fusion systems, but it runs reproducibly - and this is what matters in cold fusion research: a generic experiment, which everyone can modify and extrapolate without risk of failure. A little price for fusion returning 14 MeV per proton.

  • Quote

    proton bombardment of metals has provided interesting data throughout the LENR research history but it has never got any where close to unity

    This is just where the Lipinski fusion gets different. The details is what matters here and what also explains, how cold fusion works.

  • the Lipinskis don't consider their work LENR.. perhaps another thread Zephir? not current LENR IMHO

    https://casetext.com/admin-law/unified-gravity-corporation

    USPTO is the same criminal bunch as CDC/FDA/NIH just maintained to steal new ideas from hard working people. Of course they cheat you many times and always try to get more details before they reject your claims...


    USPTO like anything else in USA is run by FM/R/B mafia. Please do not go there!!

  • it shows why and how cold fusion works.


    One "how" but the Lipinskis call it"likecoldfusion?"

    No "why.. "


    No one knows "why" Many speculate.

    What is the mechanism?


    Not current LENR IMHO. maybe if the Lipinskis come up with some cash

    after 8 years,,, last ditch stuff with the PTO

    proton bombardment doesn't come cheap.


    its actually a lot cheaper to mix deuterium/hydrogen with solid phase metal mixtures

    energy input much lower than eV in some cases

    as done by the current experimenters Brillouin Takahashi Iwamura Mizuno Celani ? since Arata's time

  • Quote

    What is the mechanism?

    It all boils down to conditions of Lipinski fusion. It runs at temperatures just a few degrees above melting point of lithium - not higher, not lower.

    Quote

    its actually a lot cheaper to mix deuterium/hydrogen with solid phase metal mixtures

    Possibly but these methods don't work reliably. For serious cold fusion research to start, one should have an experiment, which runs everywhere and everytime.

  • For serious cold fusion research to start, one should have an experiment, which runs everywhere and everytime.

    Consensus common sense recently reiterated by McKubre,, et al... e pluribus

    https://arpa-e.energy.gov/sites/default/files/2021LENR_workshop_McKubre.pdf

    tm 3.53 the experiment should have a cheap setup cost too

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  • It all boils down to conditions of Lipinski fusion. It runs at temperatures just a few degrees above melting point of lithium - not higher, not lower.

    This Lipinski fusion condition is similar to what Ed Storms says is a hard to reproduce or define condition that makes the difference between electrolytic cell that has nuclear active sites (NAE), and one that does not. (See Edmund Storms HYDROTON A Model of Cold Fusion - YouTube)


    This condition can be explained from theory. There are certain wavelengths of light that are required to put hydrogen in any one of many weak isospin states. The energy values of these states are E= n2(13.583785925 eV). A solid (or in the case of the Lipinski condition an almost solid) can absorb a required frequency by being a waveguide. The space between layers of the metal defines the length of the guide. Only the very low n states have wavelengths long enough to be collected to waveguide in metal crystals. Usually, the crystal must have a deformation to get the right length. A Miley patent emphasized the need for crystal layers being mismatched or misaligned. Miley discusses LENR by a "cluster" here: (PDF) Condensed Matter "Cluster" Reactions in LENRs (researchgate.net). The mismatch gets the waveguide closer to one of the required wavelength-energies. For each photon at the right energy, a UDH is formed. Get enough UDHs in a cluster and fusion starts.

    Figure 2 from the above Miley paper shows a UDH cluster. The label for the figure indicates that based on Squid magnetic measurements that hydrogen densities approach

    1024 atoms /cc.

    The reason that just by making UDH does not start this type of LENR is that the cluster must be large enough to produce a phat photon above 2.2 MeV. The high energy is needed to produce neutrons to get the reaction started. Hence, if one supplies a MeV sized energy via proton acceleration or gamma source, the fusion can start with a smaller cluster. However, once a NAE is active, a smaller cluster will do. Of particular help here is that the cluster can cause activation of the giant nuclear resonance of a nearby atom with a larger nucleus than hydrogen. The maximum energy of the resonance varies smoothly with atomic number. The largest resonance is 24 MeV at O16 and drops to 13 MeV at Bi209. Hence, a smaller cluster can transfer energy to an atom with a large giant nuclear resonance (i.e. oxygen) and then the activated atom can catalyze photodisintegration of deuterium. Hence, deuterium as a neutron source starts this type of LENR.

  • Risk and Scientific Reputation: Lessons from Cold Fusion
    Many scientists have expressed concerns about potential catastrophic risks associated with new technologies. But expressing concern is one thing, identifying…
    arxiv.org



    Risk and Scientific Reputation: Lessons from Cold Fusion

    Huw Price

    Many scientists have expressed concerns about potential catastrophic risks associated with new technologies. But expressing concern is one thing, identifying serious candidates another. Such risks are likely to be novel, rare, and difficult to study; data will be scarce, making speculation necessary. Scientists who raise such concerns may face disapproval not only as doomsayers, but also for their unconventional views. Yet the costs of false negatives in these cases -- of wrongly dismissing warnings about catastrophic risks -- are by definition very high. For these reasons, aspects of the methodology and culture of science, such as its attitude to epistemic risk and to unconventional views, are relevant to the challenges of managing extreme technological risks. In this piece I discuss these issues with reference to a real-world example that shares many of the same features, that of so-called 'cold fusion'.
  • Ed Storms - email on the Huw Price paper (linked above -reproduced with his permission.


    Hi Alan,


    Thanks for making this article available. This is a good description of only one aspect of why LENR has been rejected. I would like to suggest some other reasons.


    As you know, I have been involved with this subject from the beginning. I have written 10 published reviews of the subject and two books. I even published two papers while at LANL that demonstrated the production of tritium and excess energy. This effort has been largely ignored. Meanwhile, according to the scientific standards I was taught, the evidence for the reality of LENR is overwhelming and has met ALL the requirements required by science. Nevertheless, this body of evidence has been totally ignored by the decision-makers. Perhaps the evidence required to convince the decision-makers has to be so obvious even an idiot would be convinced, rather like the demonstration provided in the movie about cold fusion called "The Saint". Fortunately, a few established organizations are now taking a cautious interest. Unfortunately, progress is now handicapped by the flawed understanding provided by the leaders in the field itself.



    I spent 36 years at LANL doing scientific studies of materials used in nuclear reactors, yet this experience and understanding have very little influence on the various opinions. I watch as mistakes in basic science and in the knowledge about how LENR actually behaves are used repeatedly to reach obviously wrong conclusions by the people at the decision-making level. From my point of view, this has been like watching a train wreck but without any ability to stop the continuing disaster. Even in the field itself, the understanding of both chemical behavior and the true nature of LENR is frequently flawed. Most people do not read all the published papers, as I have, or they frequently do not have the required background in materials science. Too often, they are so sure their imagined model is correct, they will reject any evidence that conflicts. Debate becomes useless. The unified understanding and the resolution of conflict normally provided by university education is absent. So everyone goes their own way with the messenger being more important than the message.


    I believe the real issue is the absence of compelling interest by most governments to apply LENR. Even the threat of global warming is not a sufficient reason because even if this energy were available today, it would come too little and too late. At the same time, its threat to the energy economy would produce uncertainty and potential economic chaos, at least initially. In addition, many scientists employed by the large hot fusion program would be out of a job. So, I suspect the rejection of LENR is based mostly on the fear of economic loss rather than on scientific ignorance, at least at the decision-making level. So, perhaps in the case of cold fusion, the description by Huw Price is not complete. What do you think?


    Cheers, ED,

  • Perhaps the evidence required to convince the decision-makers has to be so obvious even an idiot would be convinced, rather like the demonstration provided in the movie about cold fusion called "The Saint".

    1000% Agree. FM/R/B are the idiots that sit everywhere and block the progress of our world to keep their investments clean...

    Corollary: Also idiot proof would not be enough. They just would kill you or your paper...

  • So we are all aware of the dangers of pursuing our interest in LENR. Personally being now retired and being an OAP (pensioner) I am totally transparent in my views, scientifically, musically and artistically. All the work in the World now I freely divulge to the ether, who wants to live forever anyway? So at least here on LENR forum we can all have free and open discussion. I just hope for the future this is TRUE. :)

  • The Lipinski experiment is crucial for understanding of cold fusion mechanism in the fact that it runs at narrow temperature range. So that not only we have 16 MeV nuclear reaction initiated with 5 keV collisions, but this reaction can be switched by milielectronVolt change of system energy level, which is change in 1 : 1E+10 range.


    A nod is as good as a wink - and a word to the wise is enough.

  • Inside of fluids the atoms are arranged randomly, but it doesn't apply to surface of fluid. Actually due to surface tension forces (which are quite strong in metals) the adjacent layers of atoms are arranged more regularly than atoms within bulk of crystals and they're wiggling less there. So that surface layer of fluid tends to behave like colder material than the rest of fluid and it resides in nematic, liquid crystal phase (i.e. oriented more strongly perpendicularly to surface rather than in direction parallel with it).


    What is important, the atoms are always oriented perfectly perpendicularly to surface there and this structure has self healing behavior during impact of ions as it gets continuously restored.Of course it all applies to a few layers most close of surface, and even at melting point temperature this crystalline structure disappears in more than forty surface atom layers completely. The thickness of nematic liquid crystal phase depends on temperature and it tends to disappear some 16 - 20 °C above melting point, when random motion of atoms within bulk phase reaches the surface where it ultimatively prevails. Which is why Lipinski's brothers have to keep temperature of lithium just a few degrees above melting point of lithium - no less, no more.


    Once lithium freezes, it does so in form of randomly oriented crystals, the structure of which get deformed during bombardment of ions so that ordered structure of metal gets destroyed very quickly. In addition, many protons don't fuse and they form layer of lithium hydride with chemical reaction with metal, which clogs the solid surface quickly for subsequent protons. Only at the liquid surface the hydride crust can remove itself with surface tension. The required temperature range is thus quite narrow and as such difficult to maintain because cold fusion is indeed very exothermic. But Lipinski's have found, that thin layer of lithium widespread on inert metal support keeps its liquid crystal behaviour better and its also easier to maintain at proper temperature range. The removal of hydride crust can be achieved by fast flow of molten lithium along this layer in centrifugal arrangement similar to spin coating in semiconductor industry.


    The second aspect of above arrangement is, under voltage gradient the surface orbitals of lithium get polarized, so that they're displaced along connection line of surface atoms, which has consequences for electron screening effects discussed in another theories of cold fusion.

  • The experiments of Lipinski brothers thus clearly demonstrate, that cold fusion depends on collinear arrangement of surface atoms, because this arrangement is the only phase which appears within temperature range observed. And it's absolutely dominant condition, because once this ordered structure disappears, then the cold fusion doesn't run even in much higher energies and voltage gradients.


    Which plays well with both observations both with many other theories of cold fusion, which for example require spiral dislocations within nickel whiskers (Piantelli) or palladium nanocracks (Ed Storms), i.e special mechanical treatment (Ennea lab). Once palladium quenches itself, then its dislocations heal itself and it never passes through spontaneous cold fusion again (Fleischman & Pons). This is because metal atoms within dislocations are constrained with mechanical stress and they get arranged more orderly there than atoms within bulk crystal, where they wiggle more freely. It also explains why fusion at cold temperatures in palladium runs better than at room temperatures (Storms), because the atoms wiggle less there.