• The meaning of Temperature'- a very readable but profound look at the misconceptions about the nature of something we take for granted.

    Thermal gradients in the electro chemical nuclear reactive environment of the lattice structure have always interested me. What part do they play? Advanced nano tech thermo electric conversion research is significant to LENR Electric technologies. I believe some of these effects are found in the lattice.

    Temperature is more complex than we know. Concepts of 'Relativity' are certainly complex in thermodynamics at the nano scale.

    The phrase 'hot and cold' fusion at NASA hints at its importance.

    Now recent evidence points to thermal frequencies, waves like light, not thermal diffusion, traveling through nano materials.


    Diffraction, control, frequency modulation

    Thermal harmonics, thermal standing waves


    Thermal waves observed in semiconductor materials

    Thermal waves observed in semiconductor materials
    A new study reports on the unexpected observation of thermal waves in germanium, a semiconductor material, for the first time. This phenomenon may allow a…

    (Nanowerk News) A study published in Science Advances 1July21

    ("Observation of second sound in a rapidly varying temperature field in Ge") reports on the unexpected observation of thermal waves in germanium, a semiconductor material, for the first time.


    The observation occurred when studying the thermal response of a germanium sample under the effect of lasers, producing a high-frequency oscillating heating wave on its surface. The experiments showed that, contrarily to what was believed until now, heat did not dissipate by diffusion, but it propagated into the material through thermal waves.

    Apart from the observation itself, in the study, researchers unveil the approach to unlock the observation of thermal waves, possibly in any material system.

    What is second sound and how can it be observed in any material

    First observed in the 1960s on solid helium, thermal transport through waves, known as second sound, has been a recurrent subject for researchers who have repeatedly tried to demonstrate its existence in other materials. Recent successful demonstrations of this phenomenon on graphite have revitalized its experimental study.

    “Second sound is the thermal regime where heat can propagate in the form of thermal waves, instead of the frequently observed diffusive regime. This type of wave-like thermal transport has many of the advantages offered by waves, including interference and diffraction”, says ICMAB researcher Sebastián Reparaz. - end quotes

  • Plasma physics from an engineering perspective 2020

    Physics of E × B discharges relevant to plasma propulsion and similar technologies

    "Like many spacecraft components, it would be highly desirable to design plasma thrusters via robust engineering models, which through step-by-step procedures can deliver predictable performance and lifetime. The status quo is far from this ideal situation. The design and development of plasma thrusters are not fully based on first principles physics models but rather rely on a semi-empirical approach, combined with long and expensive lifetime tests. This is because plasma propulsion is one of few remaining applications where engineering developments are seriously constrained due to the lack of a complete description of plasma properties."

    Phys. Plasmas 27, 120601 (2020); 27, 120601

    © 2020

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  • It is written by Kalman, and dated Jan 2022 so this is a good place for it. Rob Woudenberg started a thread about Kalman's papers:

    Understanding low energy nuclear reactions. An overview by Péter Kálmán, Budapest University of Technology and Economics - Physics - LENR Forum (

    I like reading him myself, so good find. He explains himself rather nicely IMO.

  • Cydonia Thank you. An example of how broad this research has become, worldwide. Advanced commonalities continue to be of interest... Once again - Time to study up with an open mind noting common threads of research and thought. Once again, Thanks.

  • Not really a paper- but Parkhomov's presentation of his work with slides in English starts 9 minutes to Bob Greenyer (MFMP) for organising this.

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  • Data from LENR experiments are presented as a key for understanding astrophysics in this paper and refining EoS to fit observed data. Astrophysics and CMNS will join as a nascent multidisciplinary art, another aspect of LENR. Perhaps worthy of it's own journal in the near future or separate thread here.

    Constraining neutron-star equation of state using heavy-ion collisions

    C.Y. Tsang (曾浚源),

    M.B. Tsang (曾敏兒)

    P. Danielewicz, and

    W.G. Lynch (連致標)

    National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 USA


    F.J. Fattoyev

    Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 USA


    The LIGO-Virgo

    collaboration’s ground-breaking detection of the binary neutron-star merger event, GW170817, has intensified efforts towards the understanding of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter. In this letter, we compare directly the density-pressure constraint on the EoS obtained from a recent analysis of the neutron-star merger event to density-pressure constraints obtained from nuclear physics experiments. To relate constraints from nuclear physics to the radii and the tidal deformabilities of neutron stars, we use a large collection of Skyrme density functionals that describe properties of nuclei to calculate properties of 1.4M⊙ neutron stars. We find that restricting this set of Skyrme equations of state to density functionals that describe nuclear masses, isobaric analog states, and low energy nuclear reactions does not sufficiently restrict the predicted neutron-star radii and the tidal deformabilities. Including pressure constraints on the EoS around twice saturation density (2×2.74×1014g/cm3), obtained from high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, does constrain predicted radii and tidal deformabilities to be consistent with the results obtained from the analysis of GW170817. We discuss how new measurements of nucleus-nucleus collisions can improve these constraints on the EoS to be more restrictive than the current constraints from the GW170817 merger event.


    We would like to thank Prof. C. J. Horowitz for advice and fruitful discussions. This work was partly

    supported by the US National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1565546 and by the U.S.

    Department of Energy (Office of Science) under Grants DE-SC0014530, DE-NA0002923, DE-FG02-

    87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0018083 (NUCLEI SciDAC-4 Collaboration). This work

    was stimulated by discussions with participants at the INT-JINA Symposium "First multi-messenger

    observations of a neutron-star merger and its implications for nuclear physics".

  • To understand the significance of thermal management within CMNS energy systems one should not only consider how to remove and use the heat.

    Rather consider thermal management in CMNS energy systems as a source for causal events within the lattice system.

    This patent is important.

    It is cited by 48 other patents and new cutting edge thermo electric patents continue to cite it every year. By Harold Aspden. Early cold fusion researcher and advanced thermoelectric conversion genius. Study the "cited by 48" other patents list. Cold fusion patents are found for review there.

    Impressive and applicable within the lattice. Harold was granted one of the first US cold fusion patents.

    Thermoelectric Heat Transfer Apparatus

    US5376184A - Thermoelectric heat transfer apparatus - Google Patents


    Heat transfer apparatus, whether in panel or tubular form, comprises bimetallic laminations, at least one of the metals being ferromagnetic. A temperature differential causes thermoelectric current circulation (in effect, a d.c. eddy-current) within each lamination which develops a magnetizing H-field. A transverse electric potential may also be used to enhance thermoelectric activity across a bimetallic junction. The ferromagnetic B-field enhancement develops in turn a circulating diamagnetic reaction current which augments the thermoelectric activity and causes an overriding thermal feedback and bistable direction-of-heat-flow operation. Control involves the priming action of an applied electric and/or magnetic field or preheating by electrical resistors in the heat sinks. Application in a thermally powered electric transformer generator is described.


    Inventor Harold Aspden

    Thermal power generation by electrically controlled fusion

    GB GB2231195A Harold Aspden Harold Aspden

    Priority 1989-04-15 • Filed 1990-02-13 • Published 1990-11-07

    The process by which deuterons adsorbed into a palladium cathode combine to generate heat energy is enhanced under the control of an electrical current flowing around an all-metal circuit including the cathode. This current is an A.C. current very much greater than the ionic anode-cathode current …

    Thermoelectric energy conversion

    EP US JP AU CA GB US5288336A Harold Aspden Dr. Harold Aspden Priority 1988-11-18 • Filed 1989-11-20 • Granted 1994-02-22 • Published 1994-02-22

    A thermopile 30 comprises a stacked assembly of bimetallic layers in which there is full conductor interface contact over the distance separating hot and cold surfaces 31, 32. The assembly may include dielectric layers forming a capacitor stack. A.C. current through the stack is matched in

  • Hydrogen trapping at surface and subsurface vacancies of low-index surfaces of Pd

    • Subashiev, A.V.,
    • Nee, H.H.
    • Target Technology Company LLC, 564 Wald Irvine, CA 92618, United States


    Hydrogen segregation to vacancies in the surface and subsurface layers of (111) and (100) surfaces of Pd is studied in the density functional theory (DFT) approach. Adsorption energies and configurations of various clusters of H atoms at the vacancies are calculated. The adsorption energy varies for different sites in the vacancies with the distance to the surface from −0.26 eV (close to that of the bulk clusters) to −0.62 eV. Enhanced binding is found for the sites above the pores produced by vacancies in the subsurface layer. For the (111) surface vacancy the most favorable for segregation are tetrahedral lattice sites, while for (100) octa-sites have higher binding energy. Lattice relaxation effects are minor for the (111) surface but noticeably enhanced for the (100) surface. Hydrogen segregation to surface layer vacancies is accompanied with minimal charge transfer, which shows itself in cluster configurations. At high surface coverage the reduction of the cluster formation energy due to the H segregation should result in strongly enlarged concentration of the subsurface vacancy clusters, while the surface remains undamaged due to the prevailing surface adsorption. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

    Research Projects

  • Formation of Rhenium and Tantalum During Electrolysis of Distilled Water Using Tungsten Electrodes and the Expected Isotope Ratio

    [wrong references]

    The original installation for plasma electrolysis of water demonstrated, according to [1], an example of the

    implementation of low-energy nuclear reactions of the synthesis of chemical elements with low erosion of

    electrodes. That is, the initial material for the formation of chemical elements was water, and the product

    was a solid fraction in the form of a polymetallic powder

  • Quote

    His series of papers on electrocrystallisation, electrochemically-induced solid-state transformations and the anodic deposition of insoluble phases are classics, and have defined the field ever since.

    Martin Fleischmann (1927–2012)

    By Chemistry World


    Martin Fleischmann (1927–2012)
    A colleague recalls the achievements and personality of the electrochemist at the centre of the cold fusion debacle

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