The meaning of Temperature'- a very readable but profound look at the misconceptions about the nature of something we take for granted.
Thermal gradients in the electro chemical nuclear reactive environment of the lattice structure have always interested me. What part do they play? Advanced nano tech thermo electric conversion research is significant to LENR Electric technologies. I believe some of these effects are found in the lattice.
Temperature is more complex than we know. Concepts of 'Relativity' are certainly complex in thermodynamics at the nano scale.
The phrase 'hot and cold' fusion at NASA hints at its importance.
Now recent evidence points to thermal frequencies, waves like light, not thermal diffusion, traveling through nano materials.
Diffraction, control, frequency modulation
Thermal harmonics, thermal standing waves
Thermal waves observed in semiconductor materials
(Nanowerk News) A study published in Science Advances 1July21
("Observation of second sound in a rapidly varying temperature field in Ge") reports on the unexpected observation of thermal waves in germanium, a semiconductor material, for the first time.
The observation occurred when studying the thermal response of a germanium sample under the effect of lasers, producing a high-frequency oscillating heating wave on its surface. The experiments showed that, contrarily to what was believed until now, heat did not dissipate by diffusion, but it propagated into the material through thermal waves.
Apart from the observation itself, in the study, researchers unveil the approach to unlock the observation of thermal waves, possibly in any material system.
What is second sound and how can it be observed in any material
First observed in the 1960s on solid helium, thermal transport through waves, known as second sound, has been a recurrent subject for researchers who have repeatedly tried to demonstrate its existence in other materials. Recent successful demonstrations of this phenomenon on graphite have revitalized its experimental study.
“Second sound is the thermal regime where heat can propagate in the form of thermal waves, instead of the frequently observed diffusive regime. This type of wave-like thermal transport has many of the advantages offered by waves, including interference and diffraction”, says ICMAB researcher Sebastián Reparaz. - end quotes