USEFUL PAPERS THREAD

  • JedRothwell

    I recently spent a few days reviewing everything written about Martin Fleischmann the year he died. I'm outlining a critique of his obituaries.

    Few people know why he was awarded the Palladium Medal. That bit of brilliance is relevant to CMNS today. Which is why I chose to post that obituary here. You may criticize writings in his honour... I have yet to find one I am completely satisfied with yet, so I understand your comment. The outline of my critique is taking shape nicely and may make a good article or dissertation... footnotes as well.


    I hope to have it written by the 10th anniversary of his passing.


    Here is a search list for you to use if interested in more writers viewpoints from a decade ago...


    Martin Fleischmann https://g.co/kgs/uxUhWB

  • Quote

    The result of one such session is in Jim McQuillan’s recollection:

    ‘One evening in August 1973 the extraordinary data from pyridine adsorbed to an electrochemically roughened silver electrode was obtained. The signals were much more intense than expected and this aroused great excitement tempered with scepticism.’


    This was, of course, the discovery of the surface-enhanced Raman effect that, along with Fleischmann’s development of microelectrodes, is recognised as among the most significant recent developments in electrochemistry.


    The SERS phenomenon is now understood as an outstanding example of a localised surface plasmon resonance effect and its discovery led to the field of plasmonics.


    Fleischmann was rightly honoured for these discoveries, by the award of the Palladium Medal of the Electrochemical Society, and by election to the Fellowship of the Royal Society of London.- end quotes

  • Here's a link to the paywalled paper.


    Raman spectra from electrode surfaces
    The Raman spectra of electrochemically deposited HgCl, HgBr and HgO on Hg/Pt substrates have been observed.
    pubs.rsc.org


    It may be available elswhere.


    ETA- this is on Researchgate...


    The discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273586259_The_discovery_of_surface-enhanced_Raman_scattering

  • In for a penny in for a pound...


    "Developments in Electrochemistry

    Science Inspired by Martin Fleischmann" 2014

    About this edition

    ISBN: 9781118694435, 1118694430

    Page count: 392

    Published: August 11, 2014

    Format: Hardcover

    Publisher: Wiley

    Language: English

    Editors: David Williams, Derek Pletcher, Zhong-Qun Tian

    OVERVIEW

    Martin Fleischmann was truly one of the ‘fathers’ of modern electrochemistry having made major contributions to diverse topics within electrochemical science and technology. These include the theory and practice of voltammetry and in situ spectroscopic techniques, instrumentation, electrochemical phase formation, corrosion, electrochemical engineering, electrosynthesis and cold fusion.


    While intended to honour the memory of Martin Fleischmann, Developments in Electrochemistry is neither a biography nor a history of his contributions. Rather, the book is a series of critical reviews of topics in electrochemical science associated with Martin Fleischmann but remaining important today. The authors are all scientists with outstanding international reputations who have made their own contribution to their topic; most have also worked with Martin Fleischmann and benefitted from his guidance.


    Each of the 19 chapters within this volume begin with an outline of Martin Fleischmann’s contribution to the topic, followed by examples of research, established applications and prospects for future developments.


    The book is of interest to both students and experienced workers in universities and industry who are active in developing electrochemical science.

    Source: Publisher

    End Quotes



    Buy one or get it from the library and enjoy it.


    I have the book in my library. Got it in a used textbook store at UC Berkeley. What a bargain!

    I read it in a week or so like the layman that I am... didn't take notes. Skimming through it again now... taking notes.

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  • Latest draft of "The Nanosoft Package" instructional document that was attached to the MFMP Fukushima waste water proposal has been uploaded by Phillip Power at this permalink where it will be updated periodically until publication.

    Index of /downloads/Documentation

    Index

    Parent Directory -
    TheNanosoftPackage.pdf2022-01-03 18:35152K
    TheNanosoftPackage2J..>2022-01-01 20:25133K
    TheNanosoftPackageFr..>2021-12-30 02:42145K
  • The other day Francesco Celani and his friend asked me if I know of any papers that discuss the role of H in the bulk Pd cold fusion. Can H enhance the reaction? Is there an H-D reaction? I said I don't recall any papers like that. It turns out they already found one, which I added to the library:

    Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: a hypothesis. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45A: p. 756.

    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SchwingerJcoldfusion.pdf

    QUOTE:

    The hypothesis that I now advance has the following ingredients:

    (1) The claim of Pons and Fleischmann to have realized cold fusion is valid.
    (2) But, this cold fusion process is not powered by a DD reaction. Rather, it is an HD reaction which feeds on the small contamination of D2O by H2O.


    Ed Storms has often said there may be an H-D reaction, but I do not think he says this is optimum, or that it enhances the reaction.

    Here is what I wrote back to Francesco:

    Ed Storms and others have speculated that a mixture of hydrogen and deuterium might produce different products. You can read Ed's papers for details. I do not recall anyone testing this hypothesis. I do not recall reading a paper that suggested a combination would produce better results. Many people have said that allowing hydrogen contamination of deuterium prevents the reaction with the bulk-Pd - D system. Bockris and others said it was important to prevent exposing heavy water to air, because heavy water is hydrophilic. Bockris used to keep heavy water in a medical IV bag (with no air), and he added it to the cell with an IV tube, which is small. You put the valve at the end of the tube, and open it to add make-up heavy water to the cell.

    Bockris also said that CO2 contamination of heavy water poisons the reaction.

  • The role of palladium in a hydrogen economy


    Brian D.Adams and Aicheng Chen

    https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-7021(11)70143- Open access


    We are facing accelerated global warming due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. A hydrogen-based economy is one potential approach toward maintaining our standard of living while lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Palladium is a unique material with a strong affinity to hydrogen owing to both its catalytic and hydrogen absorbing properties. Palladium has the potential to play a major role in virtually every aspect of the envisioned hydrogen economy, including hydrogen purification, storage, detection, and fuel cells. Major aspects of current research and potential applications of palladium-based nanomaterials in various hydrogen technologies are presented in this review.


    The role of palladium in a hydrogen economy
    We are facing accelerated global warming due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. A hydrogen-based economy is one potential approach toward mainta…
    www.sciencedirect.com

  • The references within these papers becomes a valuable resource for those interested in contemporary ionic liquids research, boron, hydogen etc... A bit rich, certainly will keep my learning lamp lit. gbgoble


    Royal Society of Chemistry

    Boron Chemistry in the 21st Century: From Synthetic Curiosities to Functional Molecules

    42 items

    Boron Chemistry in the 21st Century: From Synthetic Curiosities to Functional Molecules Home



    How Molecular Chiralities of Bis(mandelato)borate Anions Affect Their Binding Structures With Alkali Metal Ions and Microstructural Properties in Tetraalkylphosphonium Ionic Liquids

    How Molecular Chiralities of Bis(mandelato)borate Anions Affect Their Binding Structures With Alkali Metal Ions and Microstructural Properties in Tetraalkylphosphonium Ionic Liquids
    Spiroborate anion-based inorganic electrolytes and ionic liquids (ILs) have fascinating electrochemical and tribological properties and have received…
    www.frontiersin.org


    Further reading

    Resources for members

    The Virtual Library provides members with free access to a range of chemical resources from several different publishers.

    In addition, the Library in Burlington House, London holds an extensive hardcopy print collection which you can search via the catalogue.

  • xperiments demonstrating the creation of elements via pulsed electric field in water

    and deuterated water: application to the production of fluorine


    [https://www.trademarkelite.com…00003313899/STORM-REACTOR]

    [https://find-and-update.compan…y/SC554201/filing-history]

    [https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2202/2202.03744.pdf]

    Ed Storms has pointed out to me a Bockris paper showing a similar method (if not result) of sparking between electrodes.


    - Sundaresan, R. and J. O. M. Bockris (1994). "Anomalous reactions during arcing between carbon rods in water." Fusion Technol. 26: 261.

  • Ed Storms has pointed out to me a Bockris paper showing a similar method (if not result) of sparking between electrodes.


    - Sundaresan, R. and J. O. M. Bockris (1994). "Anomalous reactions during arcing between carbon rods in water." Fusion Technol. 26: 261.

    I hace this FT paper, a classic, often mentioned by Bob Greenyer also.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • See: https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/PanethFthepublica.pdf


    The Publications of Fritz Paneth and Kurt Peters: Precursor to the Discovery of Cold Fusion


    Contents

    Introduction.

    Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1926. 59: p. 2039 (translation).

    Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen to helium. Naturwiss., 1926. 43: p. 956 (in German).

    Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1926. 59: p. 2039 (in German).

    The Reported Conversion of Hydrogen into Helium. Nature (London), 1926. 118(2971): p. 526-527. (Unsigned report)

    Letter from Paneth on the retraction, Paneth, F., The transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Nature (London), 1927. 119: p. 706.

    Paneth, Peters and Guenther retraction, Paneth, F., K. Peters, and P. Guenther, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1927. 60: p. 808 (in German).


    Introduction


    In the 1990s, Martin Fleischmann told Eugene Mallove and others that Paneth and Peters may have discovered the first indications of cold fusion in 1926. Paneth and Peters found indications palladium hydrides transmuted hydrogen into helium. They later retracted their results saying they were probably caused by helium permeating through glass. However, it remains possible that the helium was generated by cold fusion. . . .

  • Shane D.

    Takeo Oku and Brian Josephson

    I have not found a thread on this.

    Is this new to you? Thanks for answering my earlier question. Much appreciated.


    June 20, 2018

    Possible Applications of Nanomaterials for Nuclear Fusion Devices

    Takeo Oku

    From the journal Energy Harvesting and Systems

    Possible Applications of Nanomaterials for Nuclear Fusion Devices
    Conditions of nuclear fusion and nuclear fusion devices were described, and some possible applications of nanomaterials for nuclear fusion devices were…
    doi.org


    Abstract

    Conditions of nuclear fusion and nuclear fusion devices were described, and some possible applications of nanomaterials for nuclear fusion devices were presented in the present article. Muon-catalyzed fusion is one of methods for nuclear fusion to cause even at room temperature or lower, and protons or heavy ions with huge energy are irradiated to metals such as beryllium or copper, which results in emission of negative or positive charged muons from the metals. An experiment using a pyroelectric power source using lithium tantalite crystal was also reported to achieve nuclear fusion in a desktop-like device. Hydrogen storage is also important for the fusion devices, and the possibility of hydrogen storage in hydrogen storage metallic alloys was studied by diffusion calculation and potential calculation of deuterium fusion. Enhancement of deuterium diffusion in the Pd alloys would be one of the key points for energy materials. Carbon(C)/copper(Cu)-based composite materials with high thermal conductivity and good stability at high temperatures were also developed by adding a small amount of titanium, which has a low enthalpy of alloy formation with C and Cu. These carbon-based materials could be a candidate material for the plasma facing components of fusion devices.


    Acknowledgements


    The author would like to acknowledge Professors Brian D. Josephson and Tatsuo Oku for stimulating the nuclear fusion research. The author also would like to acknowledge Takuya Kitao, Akihiko Nagata, Akira Minowa, Hirokazu Yada, Atsushi Mizuno, Atsushi Suzuki, Kenji Kikuchi, Akito Takahashi, Akira Kitamura, for excellent collaborative works and useful discussion.

  • A thread has been created for discussing these developments.


    University of Baghdad Iraq LENR Research Team


    Aeshah Ali Hussein

    Hadi J M Al-agealy

    Raad Hameed Majeed

    Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Science

    (Ibn Alhaitham), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

    Cold Fusion from Baghdad 2020


    The First International Conference of Pure and Engineering Sciences (ICPES2020)

    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 871 (2020) 012085

    IOP Publishing

    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/871/1/012085

    The Cold Reaction Rate of Deuteron Fusion In Nickel Metal Using Bose–Einstein Condensate Theory

    Authors

    Aeshah Ali Hussein

    Hadi J M Al-agealy

    Raad Hameed Majeed


    Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Science (Ibn Alhaitham), University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342280920_Theoretical_Study_and_calculation_The_cold_Reaction_Rate_of_Deuteron_Fusion_In_Nickel_Metal_Using_Bose-Einstein_Condensate_Theory/fulltext/5eeba0aa92851ce9e7ed4f59/Theoretical-Study-and-calculation-The-cold-Reaction-Rate-of-Deuteron-Fusion-In-Nickel-Metal-Using-Bose-Einstein-Condensate-Theory.pdf


    Abstract

    In this paper, we focused on the investigated and studied the cold fusion reaction rate for D-D using the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation and depending on the quantum mechanics consideration. The quantum theory was based on the concept of single conventional of deuterons in Nickel-metal due to Bose-Einstein condensation, it has supplied a consistent description and explained of the experimental data. The analysis theory model has capable of explaining the physical behaviour of deuteron induced nuclear reactions in Nickel metals upon the five-star matter, it's the most expected for a quantitative predicted of the physical theory. Based on the Bose-Einstein condensation theorem formulation, we calculation the cold fusion reaction rate for D-D transfer to Nickel-metal using the astrophysical S factors

    (- = 110 − ) for d(d,p)T, d(d, n)3

    He reactions and ( = 110 × 10 - = 110 × 10 - ) for + → + 23.8 reaction. The results of the calculation for three reactions give rise a wide compatible with the other experimental works.


    1. Introduction

    Since the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) has been predicted in 1924 by Einstein and it leads to becoming a good new topic field in physics, it had been the attraction of interesting researcher to gate high attention of behaviour of condensate matter [1]–[3]. Furthermore, the atoms in ideal Bose gas could be occupied and condensed into certain quantum states as a consequence of Bose quantum statistical mechanics and its certain energy states[4]. Several physical quantities can be described utilizing the notation of BEC comprising liquid 4He, it exactions in semiconductors, pions and kaons in the condensed nuclear matter[5]. Particles that enjoy low temperature and high density subject to quantum statistics called Bose-Einstein and these particles are termed bosons[6], [7]. Bosons are included photons and helium 4He for instance shared one quantum state. It has been stated that cooling a gas of atoms under a

    critical temperature (approximates 106 times lower than the lowest temperature in the globe) leads atoms to condense and become indistinguishable.

    Although fermions (3He) obey Fermi-Dirac statistics, they inhabit various quantum state at zero temperature[8]. Moreover, the phenomenon of BEC touches a

    several disciplines of physics, including statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, field theory, finally in nuclear physics[9].

    Yeong E. Kim et al in (2000) accomplished the ground state solutions for trapped bosons in an isotropic trap by used (ELTB) mechanism. In order to obtain theoretical formulas for calculating the rates and probabilities of nuclear fusion for nuclei trapped in ion. The solutions have been used in the system. However, the formula of the fusion rate has been applied to the D-D fusion rates trapped by the ionic trap and micro trap[10].

    M.W.Zwierlein et al in (2003) observed that B.E.C. on the molecular level, it was tabulated for fermionic 6Li atoms using evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap. The lithium gas atoms turned into 6Li2 molecules. By the sudden start of a bimodal density distribution, a Bose-Einstein condenser was estimated to reach 900 000 molecules at a temperature less than 600 nK[11]. Alexander L. and et al in (2006) were achieved the B.E.C. mechanism for one type of LENR operations in condensed substance to the case of a mix of two various types of the Bose nuclei in harmonic traps.

    Relying on the "ratio" of the parameters within, it seemed that both parts might cohabit in the same area of space, instead of the Coulomb repulsion among both types. This lead to getting a close selection rule including charges and nuclear masses of both types.

    For a mix types of D and Li, these anticipate that the reacting rate of (D+ 6Li) might be bigger than reacting rate of (D+D), that’s permeation to suggesting that the (D+ 6Li) reactions might control on the (D+D) reactions in experiments of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) in condensed substances [12].

    Yeong E. Kim in 2010 has developed a theory of nuclear fusion for condensing Bose-Einstein condensation to describe numerous diverse experimental data of the nuclear reaction caused by deuterons in metals, which noticed in "gas loading and electrolysis" experiments.

    The theory showed that fusion energy transferring to metal could be accomplished by the stopping power of metal[13].

    Takeo Oku in 2018 described the conditions of nuclear fusion condensation devices and the possible applications of nanomaterials of the nuclear fusion devices.

    Catalyzed fusion by muon was considered as one of the ways used in nuclear fusion to allow the fusion to occur at very low temperatures.

    The charged muons were created by (heavy ions or protons) irradiated on metals like copper/ beryllium with high energy [14]. Djamel et al in (2019) proposed that the energy liberated from the "green cold fusion" be used to treat water through the distillation process. The green word refers to the processes which is not accompanied by pollution and nuclear dangers. On the other hand, the large energy released through cold fusion suggests its investment in the method of distillation to obtain active performance in terms of time and cost. The phenomenon of cold fusion was noticed during the study of substances that have a very high solubility in hydrogen isotopes such that palladium, some other materials and alloys [15]. In this present work, we introduce a model for reaction rate fusion of trapping deuteron in metal .The reaction rate has calculated for D trapped in Nickel metal because the Ni has properties similar that palladium metal and easily solvable in hydrogen isotopes.

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