BUBBLE FUSION STILL BUBBLING

  • I have to wonder if Max's "Neutron Detection" system could become confused by "Karabut-style" collimated X-Rays.


    Although, conversely, that also makes me wonder whether past systems that were set up to detect "collimated X-ray" emissions could become confused by neutrons...


    Hmmm :/

    "The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

  • AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY ON NEUTRON EMISSIONS FROM TITANIUM-

    DEUTERIUM SYSTEM UNDER THERMAL SHOCK


    A Dissertation

    Presented to

    the faculty of the Graduate School

    University of Missouri - Columbia


    by

    Modeste Tchakoua Tchouaso

    Dr. Mark A. Prelas, Dissertation Supervisor

    DECEMBER 2017




    CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


    The investigation of neutron detection from deuterium-titanium systems is important

    because it can provide a viable neutron source for calibration of neutron detectors and

    nondestructive analysis. The mechanism through which neutrons are produced in these

    systems is not well understood and experimental results are often irreproducible. Neutrons

    are postulated to be produced during the warm up phases of the titanium-deuterium system

    due to non-equilibrium conditions resulting from change in temperature and pressure of the

    system during absorption or desorption phases of deuterium in titanium. Another mechanism,

    known as fracto-fusion mechanism has been proposed to explain the means through which

    nuclear emissions results from condense matter. The fracto-fusion hypothesis suggests that a

    nuclear effect occurs from fracture caused by mechanical stress in crystals lattice. Cracks

    could result from internal pressure, or temperature variations, or both in solid matter. The

    formation of cracks in crystals creates traps that can hold huge amount of deuterium within

    the crystal structure of solids for titanium-deuterium interaction to occur leading to neutron

    emissions. This work was geared at understanding the reason for the inconsistency in neutron

    emissions from titanium-deuterium systems by investigating the roles of phase transitions,

    crack formation, heat production, the ratio atoms of titanium with respect to deuterium, and

    the surface treatment of titanium sample in neutron production. Three detectors were used in

    this investigation: a moderated helium-3 detector, an unmoderated helium-3 detector and a

    proton recoil detector. The detectors were calibrated using a Cf-252, and a PuBe source. The

    investigation involved using dehydrided, -325 titanium mesh with diameter of 14 𝜇𝑚 loaded

    with deuterium and subjecting the system to non-equilibrium conditions by repeatedly

    placing in liquid nitrogen followed by rapid warm up phases. The results show that degassing

    the system under high vacuum, while baking the system at high temperature, increases

    deuterium absorption in titanium lattice. The degassing procedure prevents the formation of


    oxide layers on the surface of titanium which inhibits deuterium absorption are easily

    removed at high temperatures, ensuring that deuterium atoms are inserted in titanium lattice.

    The presence of impurities in this system limits dehydriding. It is recommended that these

    experiments be carried out under high vacuum conditions. The X-ray diffraction pattern

    shows that titanium hydride is formed during deuterium loading. The loading of titanium with

    deuterium in titanium leads to a phase change from 𝛼-titanium to 𝛿 −titanium at room

    temperature but no noticeable neutron emission was observed during this phase change.

    Phase changes in titanium crystal leads to modifications in the lattice structure of titanium

    and increases its volume and size. The phase transition that occurs during titanium deuteride

    formation is exothermic leading to the release of heat. A large temperature increase was

    observed in two experiments during phase transition. The increase in temperature reduces the

    diffusion time, thus increasing the probability of titanium-deuterium reaction occurring.

    Cracks were observed in several titanium samples after loading with deuterium. Deuterium

    absorption process occurred much more rapidly in samples where cracks were formed. The

    cracks were also produced in certain locations in the sample and not in others. Hence, should

    a neutrons emission occurred, the nuclear reaction will occur at this location. However,

    neutrons burst was not observed in samples with large cracks. The observed neutrons

    produced from titanium-deuterium system were very small and only single neutron burst

    events were observed in an entire experiment. The occurrence of neutrons occurred in two of

    the 9 experiments conducted. The samples were analyzed for tritium production using a

    liquid scintillation detector, but tritium was not observed in any of the samples. There was

    also no evidence of transmutation occurring in this samples. We hypothesized that the

    titanium-deuterium reaction is a low probability process that is influence by crack formation.

    The process is likely due to a statistical process that depends on sample microstructure,


    number of defects, preparation condition and shocking procedure.

  • Tribo & fracto X-ray emission is well known.


    Maybe X-rays can dissociate deuterons, releasing neutrons (which, if slow enough, can activate nearby atoms).


    For instance:


    Investigation of Deuterium Loaded Materials Subject to X-Ray Exposure

    Theresa L. Benyo, et al. 2017.


    https://ntrs.nasa.gov/api/citations/20170002544/downloads/20170002544.pdf

    "The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

  • Well, Max Fomitchev-Zamilov got his paper about emission of Neutrons by sonicating deuterated Titanium Published in Nature Science Reports, kudos to him, and also kudos to Alan Smith for getting acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section. The paper is Open Access, so much thanks for that, too.


    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • i already exists ways more more and more simple,efficient, already patented ( and not by AR ) 8)

    Well, Max Fomitchev-Zamilov got his paper about emission of Neutrons by sonicating deuterated Titanium Published in Nature Science Reports, kudos to him, and also kudos to Alan Smith for getting acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section. The paper is Open Access, so much thanks for that, too.


    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-024-62055-6

  • i already exists ways more more and more simple,efficient, already patented ( and not by AR ) 8)

    You are missing the point, I am not celebrating the nolvelty, just the fact that he managed to get it published in a journal that more often than not would have usually rejected to publish about this topic at all.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • You are missing the point, I am not celebrating the nolvelty, just the fact that he managed to get it published in a journal that more often than not would have usually rejected to publish about this topic at all.

    The paper doesn't play word games to avoid the association with 'cold fusion' either. It's right there in the first paragraph.

  • It is wonderful that a repeatable experiment can produce excess neutrons. What is now interesting to determine where those neutrons are coming from. Is this experiment producing fusion and/or fission? Is any transmutation of elements occurring? Is any gamma radiation being produced and if so what is its spectrum. Is the gamma coming from DD fusion? Is tritium being produced.


    In my opinion, the problem with producing nuclear energy from the LENR reaction is the formation of a magnetic based nuclaration process that forms where the Nuclear active environment (NAE) is surrounded by a magnetic domain wall that only allows photons to pernitrate it. The formation of this domain wall must be eliminated to allow the nuclear energy that is ongoing inside the NAE to exit the NAE.


    Understanding how to manage this domain wall issue is the key to developing a useful LENR reaction.


    Nucleation

    Nucleation - Wikipedia
    en.wikipedia.org


    The NAE is highly magnetic and its behaves like a magnet

    Regarding magnetic nuclearation as follows:

    An overview on nucleation theories and models

    An overview on nucleation theories and models
    Several different models for coercivity are discussed. There are two main situations: i) nanocrystalline magnets, with grain size bellow the single do…
    www.sciencedirect.com


    Nucleation is a process in magnets that occurs when the original saturated state becomes unstable and the magnetization configuration begins to change. It is a two-step process that involves the formation of a nucleus, followed by domain wall displacement for grain sizes larger than single domain size.


    After nucleation, magnetization reversal begins to propagate through the magnet via domain wall motion across grain boundaries. The dipole field can be very strong in some regions where magnetization reversal starts, and its strength can exceed 1.7 T. The easy-axis orientations identify grains where magnetization reversal can begin during demagnetization.


    The nucleation model is a micromagnetic approach that can help explain reversal mechanisms. Local nucleation fields can be calculated by micromagnetic simulation of each quasi-three-dimensional system. Decision trees trained with the simulation results can then predict nucleation fields from new images in seconds.


    Other possible nucleation modes include: Curling, Buckling, and Twisting.


    Domain wall

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/…s%20a%20finite%20distance.


    In magnetism, a domain wall is an interface separating magnetic domains. It is a transition between different magnetic moments and usually undergoes an angular displacement of 90° or 180°. A domain wall is a gradual reorientation of individual moments across a finite distance.


    Magnetic domain walls (DWs) are natural defects in magnetic materials that separate regions of uniform magnetization, called domains, where the magnetization changes direction. DWs are usually small, ranging in width from a few nanometers to hundreds of nanometers, and can move quickly, sometimes reaching speeds of 18 kilometers per second. They can be manipulated using various stimuli and can even be moved under a small current without a magnetic field.


    The width of a DW is determined by the balance between exchange and anisotropy energies. Exchange energy favors parallel alignment of neighboring magnetic moments, while thermal energy tends to randomize the system. The energy of a DW is the difference between the magnetic moments before and after the DW was created, and is usually expressed as energy per unit wall area.


    DWs can be classified into two types: Bloch walls and Néel walls. In Bloch walls, spins rotate within the plane of the wall, while in Néel walls, spins rotate in the plane perpendicular to the wall. The maximum velocity of a DW is limited by its ability to maintain a Néel wall configuration, which is controlled by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (DMI).


    DWs are a key issue in spintronics and have many proposed applications in patterned magnetic nanowires.

  • One of the issues involved with dealing with particle based evidence in an experiment is to identify what the particles involved in the detection protocol actually is.


    Thake as a example of how particle identification can go astray is the mistake that Holmlid made when he mistook the EVOs as any number of mesons that were produced in his experiments.


    The same possible mistake could be happening in the experiment under discussion here where it looks like neutrons are being created in a reaction in deuterated titanium powder. The particles that may be seen in the detection protocol is actually the EVOs as was the case with Holmlid, Both Alexander Shishkin and L.I. Urutskoev detected "fake neutrons" in their experiments, these are not real neutrons - "Fake Neutrons" was mentioned by L.I. Urutskoev in his exploding Ti foil tests. as follows:


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228575072_Study_of_the_Electric_Explosion_of_Titanium_Foils_in_Uranium_Salts



    Also False neutrons where encountered in this experiment.

    R. P. Taleyarkhan, C. D. West, J. S. Cho, R. T. Lahey Jr.,

    R. I. Nigmatulin and R. C. Block, “Evidence for Nuclear

    Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation,” Science, Vol.

    295, No. 5561, 2002, pp. 1868-1873.


    New Energy Times - Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation


    Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation


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