EVO Theory - a new paper from Graham Hubler.

  • https://www.researchgate.net/p…Exotic_Vacuum_Objects_EVO's_Charge_Clusters


    The author (very well known in the field) does not seem keen on the current 'best' theories about EVO's.


    In early 90's, Ken Shoulders was granted 5 patents on Exotic Vacuum Objects (EVO) claiming that they were a new form of matter. He produced many monographs about them and suggested they were the physics that explained cold fusion. In Ken Shoulders words, EVO's are, "Highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, having soliton behavior, with electron populations density on the order of Avogadro's number per cm 3 (A typical 2µm EVO has a population of 10 11 to 10 13 electrons). When interacted with solid material, these charge clusters perform a low-energy phase transformation type of atomic disruption that liquefies the lattice and propels the material to a high velocity without apparent signs of conventional heating. Using an ordinary thermal interpretation, a thermal gradient for bulk material greater than 26,000 degrees C per micrometer would be required to achieve these effects". This paper presents lessons from thin film deposition methods like Vacuum Arc, Pulsed Electron beam, Pulsed Laser whose commonality with EVO generation is pulse energy impingement on a target. Rather than the hypothesis of a "new form of matter" as an explanation of EVO's, it is hypothesized that generation of a micro shaped-charge, in analogy with explosively formed shaped-charge munitions, can explain the characteristics of surfaces that were struck by EVO's. This hypothesis reproduces the effects that are underlined in the text above..


  • From the Hubler paper:

    Quote

    It is suggested that EVO’s are not a new form of matter
    (dense ball of electrons with diameter of microns containing 1023 electrons per cubic centimeter) but a manifestation
    of known thermomechanical and electromagnetic mechanisms acting on the thermal insulator, a small portion of which
    is rapidly heated that then generates a micro shaped charge. Many of the attributes of EVO’s or charged clusters can
    be explained by this model.

    So where does this tiny shaped charge come from?

  • So where does this tiny shaped charge come from?

    He doesn't really gnome, but suggests "... EVO’s are not a new form of matter(dense ball of electrons with diameter of microns containing 1023 electrons per cubic centimeter) but a manifestationof known thermomechanical and electromagnetic mechanisms acting on the thermal insulator, a small portion of whichis rapidly heated that then generates a micro shaped charge. Many of the attributes of EVO’s or charged clusters canbe explained by this model."

  • Another paper from Graham K Hubler, but on what seems to be classic electrolythic LENR, and calorimetry


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/364331220_Long_Term_Anomalous_Heat_from_9_nm_Pd_Nanoparticles_in_an_Electrochemical_Cell


    reported on e-cat world too


    I cannot judge myself.

  • At least they are honest to say its an hypothesis.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • This idea from Hubler reminds me to some extent the ideas that led Roshdy A. Barsoum to write that obscure paper on his idea of Cold Fusion by impacts of electrons in the structure of a ceramic. Both are trying to explain the observations from a conventional point of view.

    The problem is that is difficult to separate high speed impacts from EVOs as the conditions for formation of EVOs are also present in these high speed impacts or explosions. The idea of the EVO is a way to understand what happens under these extreme conditions.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • "Highly organized, micron-sized clusters of electrons, having soliton behavior, with electron populations density on the order of Avogadro's number per cm 3 (A typical 2µm EVO has a population of 10 11 to 10 13 electrons).


    For people with a clear mind such statements by Shoulders only show that he had no clue of physics. An electron has a potential of about 13.6 V Adding 109 of them gives 1010 Volts... Here is the clear starting point of nonsense...


    Excited atoms can form temporary stable EM mass packs we also encounter in Nickel Hydrogen LENR. The first stable lab ball lightening has been generated with silicon dust an element that only has the freedom to form EM clusters. So EVO's best case are excited EM mass and have nothing to do with a large number of electrons.

  • You might find this book an interesting read.

    Thanks for the link.

    Quote

    Considering the ball lightning as a self-organized complexity in a

    dynamical state, some (in our opinion all) of the observational
    characteristics listed in the literature become explainable

    Hmmm. Not sure that this book really shines much light on the topic.

  • Hmmm. Not sure that this book really shines much light on the topic.

    You may disagree with the ideas the authors put forward about what drives a ball lightning, but is a great collection of phenomenology. The idea of self organizing phenomena is perhaps foraneous to many, but plasmas tend to exhibit that apparent behavior. Why they do this is a really good and open question.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • "Ball Lightning" has always had a problem, in that the reports of its sporadic appearance vary so widely that it is possible to propose any number of vague mechanisms, and support them by cherry-picking accounts. In fact accounts vary so widely that not very long ago it was quite common for many meteorologists and physicists to say that it doesn't actually exist at all, and that all witnesses were either mistaken or were lying fantasists.


    Have a read of this book chapter, available on Researchgate:


    The Ball Lightning Controversy: Empirical Case Studies - by Alexander Keul.


    Labelling BL as "plasma" is problematic in itself, as the sightings in a great many witness accounts do not resemble anything like the plasmas that we are able to create artificially. We can only refer to BL as "plasma" by ignoring any accounts that do not fit some pre-defined concept, or by simply accepting that a non-confined plasma, in air, can exist for an extended time period - by some strange mechanism that has yet to be discovered.

  • https://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0408/0408114.pdf



    This is an early study.


    Charge confinement by Casimir forces H. E. Puthoff and M. A. Piestrup

    Abstract


    Laboratory observation of high-density filamentation or clustering of electronic
    charge suggests that under certain conditions strong coulomb repulsion can be overcome
    by cohesive forces as yet imprecisely defined. Following an earlier suggestion by
    Casimir, we investigate here the possibility that Casimir forces can lead to charge
    clustering of the type observed, and conclude that such forces may play a role in the
    generation of robust high-charge-density effects.


    There is also this, by Winston S. Bostick, the original discoverer.


    Plasmoid | Plasma-Universe.com


    And more 'scientific;


    1958IAUS....6...87B Page 87


    0000087.000&db_key=AST&bits=4&res=100&filetype=.gif

  • For people with a clear mind such statements by Shoulders only show that he had no clue of physics. An electron has a potential of about 13.6 V Adding 109 of them gives 1010 Volts... Here is the clear starting point of nonsense...

    In order for such a cluster of electrons to exist, there would have to be a counter force. In theory the electromagnetic force could amplify gravity. So, assume electro-gravity. But then the cluster is not really electrons but something that is hard to distinguish from electrons. So, a type of electron. The first person to note that there are two types of electrons was N. Tesla. So, type two electrons are formed from the standard electron. Ken could then be right about the spontaneous occurrence of an EVO from a plasma. If the plasma can convert standard electrons to type two electrons and type two electrons have electro-gravity. There is a basis for some math.


    So, one has a planetoid of type two electrons because type two electrons attract each other due to electro-gravity. There would be a non-singular potential between type two electrons or rather at larger distance two type two electrons repel each other but at some shorter distance they attract due to electro-gravity.


    Rather than continue with type 1 and type 2 electrons, one designated type two as R-electrons. Where the R indicates that this type of electron causes some time-space curvature hence electro-gravity. You can find more about R-electrons elsewhere in this forum. Since the charge and mass of R-electrons are nearly identical to standard electrons, one can calculate the gravitational constant for electro-gravity, Gre. One balances of the repulsive coulomb potential between the electron at the escape horizon and the planetoid to the electro gravitational potential between the electron at the escape horizon and the planetoid (EVO).

    kqeqp/r = Grememp/r

    The coulomb constant is k. The subscript e for electron and subscript p for planetoid and Gre for the gravitational constant for electro-gravity between R-electrons. The planetoid and the R-electron at the escape horizon are all units of the same thing but we don't know how many units is in the planetoid. So, let (# of electrons) be the number of electrons in the planetoid plus one at the escape horizon.

    Kqe2(#of e)/r= Greme2(#of e)/r

    Now one can solve for the gravitational constant for electro-gravity between R-electrons.

    Gre = kqe2/me2

    So, electro-gravity is 42 orders of magnitude stronger than universal gravity.


    So here is the connection between Ken Shoulder and Takaaki Matsumoto. Shoulders produced EVO (R-electron planetoids) in atmospheric gas and Matsumoto produced them in water. Matsumoto called it cold fusion and goes on explain that electro-gravity is so strong that it produces blackhole like objects as radiation from cold fusion. These radiations made images on film emulsions that are not observed elsewhere than from cold fusion radiations.


    Sometimes things really are simple. Don't over think it.

  • So, type two electrons are formed from the standard electron.

    People usually think in terms learned in the sand box ages. If they use electrons or current the the result must be electron.

    Unluckily physics does not agree with this. Charge is conserved as you only can split e-p to produce annihilate charge.


    So things are clear. Excited EM mass is the term and this has nothing to do with gravity unless you really understand how gravity is produced in excited EM mass.


    Look at SO(4) physics to understand how gravity is produced in side the proton.

  • We can only refer to BL as "plasma" by ignoring any accounts that do not fit some pre-defined concept, or by simply accepting that a non-confined plasma, in air, can exist for an extended time period - by some strange mechanism that has yet to be discovered.

    Have a read of these two accounts of supposed BL events in Austria in '97 & '98:


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295511539_Two_exceptional_ball_lightning_cases


    What I started to suspect from accounts I read in the 1980s (and from previous descriptions I had from conversations with people who witnessed the phenomenon personally) was that plasma (if involved) was possibly a secondary effect - and was therefore being generated by something else.


    If that was the case, then there was little hope of anyone creating anything like true BL in the lab, if all researchers were doing was finding ever more ingenious ways to generate blobs of free plasma in air. Normal plasma is not self-sustaining - and even when being continually "pumped" by external electrical power it has a habit of collapsing. The "sawtooth effect" is well known in hot fusion circles. The "moving plasmoid" work is interesting, in that it extends the "free life" of the plasma slightly, but to make a brightly glowing ball or toroid hover, for seconds or minutes (not miliseconds), in air, still seems to be beyond the reach of lab researchers.


    (n.b. note that the "continuous light" that comes from fluorescent tubes is down to the persistence of the coatings inside the tube - as the plasma, and UV, inside is really being generated in a series of flashes at twice mains frequency.)

  • Interesting quote from https://www.sciencedirect.com/…abs/pii/S037015731300375X


    "The Physics of Lightning" by Dwyer & Uman, 2013. From chapter 3, "The Lightning Initiation Problem":


    Uman is a long-established "world expert" in lightning research - and all his theories tend to reflect "conventional" (e.g, non-LENR) physics. Note, though, how he easily accepts that astrophysics is a "done deal" - a topic that has the dubious advantage of not allowing anyone to travel "half way across the universe" to check whether the theories actually match reality.

  • The term EVO is very generic. This term covers a broad array of different phenomenon. Yet I think a few of the characteristics of different types of EVOs are all the same. First, they are created by out of equilibrium conditions (another generic term). Secondly, they are self organized out of chaos. Third, they contain a population of ions, electrons, or neutral particles in a coherent state.