Direct Production Of Electricity - Infinite Energy.

  • Apologies if this is a little off-topic, but it is nevertheless of some interest to EVO researchers..


    https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspa.1922.0066


    Extract....


    THE ROYAL SOCIETY.
    S ection A .— M ath em atical and P h ysic a l S ciences.
    Spontaneous Incandescence of Substances Atomic Hydrogen
    Gas.
    By R. W . W ood, For. Mem. E.S.
    (Received June 26, 1922.)
    In a previous communication* it has been shown that if a very long
    vacuum tube of moderate bore, filled with hydrogen at a pressure of \ mm.,
    is operated by a direct or alternating high potential current, the secondary
    spectrum appears only at the ends of the tube in the vicinity of the electrode
    bulbs, the central portion showing the lines of the Balmer series, with a faint
    trace only of the secondary spectrum. By this method photographs of the
    series down to the twentieth member were obtained. In more recent work
    the series has been photographed to the eighteenth line in the third order
    spectrum of a 7-inch plane grating with a lens of 20-feet focus, and the wavelengths determined to within a few thousandths of an Angstrom. This work
    will be described elsewhere. Practically all of the very peculiar effects
    described in the paper referred to above have been explained, and in the
    pursuit of some of the more elusive phenomena, some extremely interesting
    properties of atomic hydrogen gas have come to light which will be described
    briefly in the present paper.
    The work developed out of a study of what I referred to in the earlier
    paper as “ Infected Spots.” It was frequently observed that Avhite spots
    sometimes appeared along the central portion of the tube, which normally is
    fiery-purple in colour, and almost invisible through a green colour filter,
    these spots showed the secondary spectrum of hydrogen, with the full
    intensity exhibited at the ends of the tube, some fifty times as intense as in
    adjacent portions of the tube which gave the nearly pure Balmer spectrum.

  • I am in the process of classifying my old copies of the magazine "Science & Vie" in order to bind them to complete my collection and I came across this issue of May 1989 which announces "Cold Fusion, the greatest discovery of the century »


    lenr-forum.com/attachment/24052/



    It suddenly made me full of nostalgia.



    (Science & Vie is the equivalent of “Popular Science” or “Nauka y Zhijhy” in France. I like this journal, despite the level is falling down.)

  • Very interesting article of Wood in the Proceedings of the Royal Society shared by Alan Smith. Clearly related to the Langmuir Effect. Langmuir Effect is a messy trap in LENR experiments, when atomic H recombines over thermocouples. Wood was both a very good theorician, and also a skilled experimentator.



    Like our friend A.G. Parkhomov who just published five days ago this text in russian in a strategic field :


    Cold Nuclear Transmutations and Neutrons

    (automatic translation)




    Nuclear transmutations are the transformation of one chemical element into another or the transformation of isotopes. The energy of nuclear transformations is millions of times higher than the energies characteristic of chemical reactions. Transmutations occur either through nuclear reactions (in which the outer particle reacts with the nucleus) or through radioactive decay. Radioactive decay, using intranuclear energy reserves, does not require external influence. And nuclear transformations of stable elements, as was believed until recently, are possible only at very high energies of interacting particles, achievable in accelerators or at temperatures of millions and billions of degrees. Even if they are energetically favorable. This is due to the fact that with the close approach of the nuclei, huge repulsive forces arise ("Coulomb barrier"). An understandable way to break through this wall is to use projectiles - nuclei of sufficiently high energy. The only exception is the neutron, for which the "Coulomb barrier" does not exist, since this particle has no electric charge. The neutron has the ability to react with the nuclei of any element at any arbitrarily small kinetic energy.



    The interaction of neutrons with matter has been studied thoroughly. Low-energy neutrons interact especially intensively with matter: thermal (i.e., in thermal equilibrium with the environment), cold and ultracold. The products of neutron capture are heavier isotopes of the same elements, including radioactive ones. Nuclei arise in an excited state. This happens regardless of the kinetic energy of neutrons, since the nuclei are excited not as a result of collisions (this is an insignificant addition), but due to the addition of a gigantic rest energy of the neutron. Transitions to the ground states occur as a result of the emission of gamma quanta. Radioactivity with the emission of alpha and beta particles and gamma quanta, as well as hard "capturing" gamma radiation, always accompany the interaction of neutrons with matter, regardless of their energy.



    The phenomenon of cold nuclear transmutations (the obsolete term "cold nuclear fusion") consists in the fact that under certain conditions (electrolysis, dense plasma, hot metals, cavitations, etc.) transformations at the nuclear level (the appearance of initially absent chemical elements and isotopes, accompanied by the release of energy many times greater than the capabilities of chemical reactions) are possible without high-energy particles or extremely high temperatures. Moreover, these processes occur without the emission of hard nuclear radiation and are not accompanied by radioactivity.



    Until recently, it was believed that this was impossible. There is still no convincing explanation for this phenomenon. However, the array of accumulated convincing experimental results is so large that skeptics' references to the illiteracy of experimenters and the low quality of experiments no longer work. The phenomenon is real, and it is fraught with the creation of a new type of cheap clean energy with unlimited resources.



    Intensive studies of this phenomenon began after the experiments of Fleishman and Pons on the electrolysis of heavy water in a cell with palladium electrodes (1989). An abnormally large release of heat was detected. It was assumed that deuterium liberated during electrolysis dissolves in palladium. The concentration of deuterium nuclei becomes so high that with some probability it becomes possible to overcome the "Coulomb barrier" and the nuclear reaction of fusion of two deuterium nuclei into a helium nucleus becomes possible. The same thermonuclear fusion, but instead of high temperature, high density.



    Further studies showed that the phenomenon is much more extensive than the synthesis of light elements. "Cold" nuclear transmutations were discovered in various experiments, in various substances, including those not containing hydrogen (deuterium). The variety of emerging new chemical elements is striking. For example, as a result of water treatment with a powerful electric discharge at the Vachaev-Ivanov installation, many initially absent chemical elements from lithium to lead arose. Most iron. To assemble an iron nucleus, it is necessary to combine the protons and neutrons contained in three water molecules and four electrons. The assumption that something similar to thermonuclear fusion is taking place here cannot even come close to explaining the totality of the discovered properties of the phenomenon.



    The idea that neutrons are involved in the process of cold nuclear transmutations looks attractive, and at the first stage of research on the phenomenon it was popular. Indeed, protons contained in hydrogen-containing substances, in principle, can attach electrons and turn into neutrons. The problem is that it takes a lot of energy to do this. But let's assume that there is some mechanism for introducing the necessary energy. There is no "Coulomb barrier" for neutrons, and they are captured by the nuclei of the surrounding matter. A heavier isotope of the same element is formed. If it is radioactive, another element is produced after decay. A chain of radioactive decays will give rise to some set of new elements.



    his idea is good because it gives experimentally verifiable conclusions. It is possible to predict possible ways of radioactive transformations. For them, the energies of emerging particles and gamma quanta are known. If beta plus decay is present, positron annihilation produces gamma rays with a characteristic energy. But, most importantly, hard gamma quanta are already emitted simply when neutrons are captured. All this is easy to check by conventional nuclear physics methods. But the predictions were not confirmed. The easiest way would be to detect gamma radiation. However, near installations in which cold nuclear transmutation processes are taking place, the level of gamma radiation differs little from the natural background. This alone shows the inconsistency of the idea of neutrons as the cause of cold nuclear transmutations.



    It is interesting that the absence of a noticeable response of gamma radiation detectors is combined with a very significant response of some instruments designed to detect neutrons. But if they were neutrons, there would inevitably be gamma radiation. It is clear that it is not neutrons that are registered. So far, we can only say that at installations in which the process of cold nuclear transmutations is taking place, a certain agent is generated (the nature of which has yet to be established), which produces nuclear transmutations not only inside the installation, but also near it. Instruments designed to detect neutrons use sensors containing boron, lithium, or helium-3. These substances react with neutrons to form alpha particles or protons, which are already easily detected by scintillation or other ionizing radiation detectors. It is not surprising that these devices also react to the agent that causes nuclear transmutations, since among the transmutation products of these substances there are helium nuclei (alpha particles) and protons.



    What to do, the idea of neutrons as the cause of cold nuclear transmutations, so attractive at first glance, has to be abandoned. The phenomenon is much more complicated, and therefore much more interesting than it seemed at the beginning of the research and still seems to some enthusiasts who do not have deep knowledge in the field of nuclear physics and personal experience in nuclear physics research. The theory of cold nuclear transmutations should not only show their possibility, but also explain such amazing properties of the phenomenon as a huge variety of emerging chemical elements, the absence (or extremely low intensity) of hard nuclear radiation and radioactivity, the need for the participation of hydrogen, clearly indicate the conditions favorable for cold nuclear transmutations.





    A.G. Parkhomov, Cold nuclear transmutations and neutrons // "Academy of Trinitarianism", M., El No. 77-6567, publ. 28482, 05.25.2023


  • This iron or ceramic composition is similar to the planet Earth, so where do you get new energy and constantly...

    Нефть - это кровь планеты, надо сделать модель планеты и мы получим генератор Тарасенко, эта энергия покорит вселенную! :lenr:

  • THHuxleynew , this summary is very well written, the Russians, with their seemingly XIX century classic experimental approach and limited economical resources, but also consistent multi decade long lines of research, are arguably way ahead of us in their understanding. They even coined the “Cold Nuclear Transmutation” to replace Cold Fusion.


    Parkhomov himself proposes the idea of a cold or slow neutrino involved, which he claims is emitted by metals like tungsten above 1000 degrees Celsius. Many dismiss his simple experimental methods, but he has produced more and more evidence each year, which is totally consistent with the summary shared here.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • One of the references in a recent communication from Storms caught my eye. Although this is a modelling paper, rather than an experimental paper, it certainly brings to mind a potential connection with shrunken hydrogen (mini atoms) and beyond that the LEC effect and more.


    https://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/BiberianJPjcondensedzi.pdf


    J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 36 (2022) 203–209.


    Formation of Hydrogen Miniatoms in the Medium of Free Electrons–the Key to the Mechanism of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions


    A. I. Goncharov & V. A. Kirkinskii E-mail: [email protected]


    Abstract


    We have modelled the behaviour of hydrogen atoms in the flow of free electrons in metals by the molecular dynamic method. The trajectories of the particles were calculated by numerically solving a system of differential equations of mechanics. Relativistic equations were used, and the interaction of particles was considered Coulombic without taking into account magnetic effects.
    About 104 stories were modelled, each of them containing up to 100 collisions of free electrons with a hydrogen atom. The total number of simulated atoms that experienced collisions was 106.

    Dynamic modelling revealed the formation of neutral particles consisting of protons (deuterons) with an electron rotating around them in non-stationary, close to elliptical orbits with an apogee to
    a distance of less than 10−11 cm and to a perigee of ∼ 10−12 cm. These particles, which are continuously changing in size and shape, are up to 3 to 4 orders of magnitude smaller than ordinary hydrogen atoms, and 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than neutrons. Such non-stationary hydrogen mini-atoms can exist for a short time (in our estimate, up to ∼ 10−12 sec.) in the environment of
    free electrons of metals, easily move in them and, like neutrons, approach the nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen or other elements at a distance at which nuclear fusion reactions or transmutation of elements are possible due to the tunnelling effect.

    Taking into account the formation of such hydrogen mini-atoms the previously calculated rate of low-energy nuclear reactions in metals 1−6 increases more than by 5 – 6 orders of magnitude, that is, to values corresponding to experimental data. Formation of hydrogen mini-atoms in the medium of free electrons is of primary importance in the mechanism of low-energy nuclear reactions.

  • "For long unknown to men, this isle so wondrous and rare,


    Was bathed in starlight of the stars and stripes of freedom fair,


    Amidst the icy depths and darkness of the great North,


    It guards an everlasting crater, with infernal forth.



    Far from mortal sight, when its fury does awaken,


    It spews ashes dissolving like salt in the salted ocean,


    Only narwhals can flee from its wrath, dire and bleak,


    As history foretells, the parchment will be torn, the past bespeak.



    Sixty years ago signed by old Ukrainian Tsar and youthful President,


    Sacrificed by young Ukraine and aged leader, evident,


    August draws near, with thunderstorms and cannons loud,


    As destiny's tapestry weaves, its threads unbowed."

  • In this old-fashioned industrial hall, with an old cyclotron from the Cold War era, Professor Oganessian's team in Dubna managed to discover 6 new elements. One of them bears his name, an honor to which neither Kepler, nor Newton, nor Lavoisier never been entitled.



    But they only managed to synthesize a few atoms! It turns out that in deep space we will need the superheavy elements from 115 to 118 and even beyond, for corect conversion purposes.



    It is time to use a more efficient method for the synthesis of these elements.


    The Element Creator - Periodic Table of Videos
    Professor Yuri Oganessian himself shows us where his team created many super heavy elements, including Oganesson.Also featuring Professor Sir Martyn Poliakof...
    www.youtube.com

  • Yes: all these news was known for years to all those who read the publications of our friend Steven Krivits.




    But the analogy with Notre-Dame Cathedral is very apt. I have always been a strong supporter of the construction of ITER and I never stopped promoting this project at my very modest level whenever I spoke to a minister or an elected representative of the people.





    When the first plasma fire has blazed through its stainless steel bowels, the extraordinary college of leading scientists and engineers who built ITER must not be dispersed.



    There, in the garrigues of beautiful Provence, I hope that a consortium of captains of industry led by the two most dynamic and richest among them will make an offer to take over this fabulous concentration of human talents. .



    -you know their name-



    Together, like Hughes de Payen and his companions on the shores of Champagne country Orient Lake, they will found the industrial consortium that will build the fusion engine of the cosmic cruiser that humanity needs.



    World’s Largest Fusion Project Is in Big Trouble, New Documents Reveal
    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is already billions of dollars over budget and decades behind schedule. Not even its leaders can…
    www.scientificamerican.com

  • They don't even last a millisecond. Radioactive decay. It isn't possible to get any meaningful amounts.

  • Quoted from Oleg :" They don't even last a millisecond. Radioactive decay. It isn't possible to get any meaningful amounts."


    Are you sure? Its depends of the number of neutrons. Double magic number isotopes of Keplerium and Newtonium are quite long-living. Sufficiently to be used in deep space engines.



    I was a member of the editorial staff of this scientific journal (French edition of 21st Century Science & Technology) and we defended a Promethean vision of science, particularly in the nuclear field. But I regreted the excessively polemical tone of many articles.



    This was also the case with the American edition. I confess that I have never understood the usefulness of certain fiery editorials.



    It is better to listen to what others have to say than to anathematize them. There are valid points of view on all sides. We often find that the people we think are adversaries end up saying the same thing as us, with different words.

  • Have been reminded of this post (further up the thread)



    Early Coherers used a "tapper" to disrupt the RF conduction effect. I wonder if Colman was originally trying to create some kind of magnetically disrupted "non-tapping coherer"?



    Coherer - Wikipedia
    en.wikipedia.org


    Successful inventors very often "stumble upon" an odd effect while they are working on something else - and have the presence of mind to not simply dismiss the observation, but investigate it further. Hence, to understand the sequence of events that led to a particular invention, it is always important to look for the "origin story".

    "The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

    Edited 3 times, last by Frogfall ().

  • A good (open access) article on the history of the Coherer, including work by both Édouard Branly and Oliver Lodge.


    Edouard Branly, the Coherer, and the Branly effect [History of Communications]
    Critical to the success of Marconi's pioneering work on radio telegraphy was the device needed to detect the radio telegraph messages on reception. Marconi…
    ieeexplore.ieee.org

    "The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

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