# Bubble fusion (theory)

• As far as I understand, there is no theory of sonoluminescence, and therefore there is no theory of bubble fusion. But such a theory must exist. Let's solve this problem together. In my opinion, the main thing here is the correct formulation of the problem. So, I dare to assume that we only need to find a solution (wave function) for a one-dimensional Schrodinger equation with a peridic potential, the period of which oscillates along the measurement line. In other words, we need to formulate the quantum mechanics of a charged particle in the field of a chain of nuclei along which a sound wave moves. I suppose first the potential can be simplified to a stationary wave consisting of the sum over all n expressions

V(x) = \delta(x - n(a\cos(Kx) + a))

where K is the wave vector of the sound wave and where a is average length between adjacent nuclei.

I will be glad if you start brainstorming this problem.

Edited 2 times, last by bayak ().

• It turns out that this approach is well known and it is called quantum mechanical consideration of vibrations of a one-dimensional lattice of nuclei. Moreover, it turns out that the classical consideration of lattice vibrations leads us to the concept of a phonon and a discrete spectrum of the phonon wavelength.

And yet let me continue the topic. In my opinion, the most interesting solution in both classical and quantum mechanical representations is the solution in the form of the sum of all allowed phonons, that is, the sum over all wave numbers. Indeed, in this case we will have a solution in the form of the Dirac delta function. In other words, the sum of all possible harmonic waves turns into a traveling single (shock) wave.

Now we have hope that the width of this shock wave will be narrower than the width of the Coulomb barrier.

• So, to overcome the Coulomb barrier when gas bubbles collapse, we need to create a shock sound wave there. And since the permissible wave numbers of phonons that are excited in a chain of nuclei folded into a ring depend on its diameter, the accelerated compression of the chain induces a shock sound wave running in a spiral to the center of the ring.

• Even if our reasoning about the role of the shock wave in bubble fusion is correct, it is not yet very clear what the geometry of the chain of nuclei along which our single shock wave moves is. In other words, we will need a mathematical description of the one-dimensional winding of the ball, that is, a description of the winding of a ball of thread.

I'm a little confused by the lack of feedback. Unclear explained or the topic is not interesting?

• I'm not much of a theoretician. But others may comment.

• I'm a little confused by the lack of feedback. Unclear explained or the topic is not interesting?

Just diving straight into a topic without reminding people what actual physical thing is being discussed (not just naming it, and assuming everyone is up to date with the experimental evidence) can be a little off-putting. Maybe a link to some papers, that show actual measurements of the physical effect, could be a handy introduction. Or perhaps some videos - maybe something like these:

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"The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

• Of course, thanks for the links to the video, but new ideas are needed for brainstorming. For example, from the first video, it can be understood that when a bubble collapses, its boundary in the form of a sphere turns into a torus, which degenerates into a jet of liquid that creates a shock wave in it. Is it true that a sound shock wave of wall gas or liquid is generated along the surface of the collapsing bubble?

• Of course, thanks for the links to the video, but new ideas are needed for brainstorming. For example, from the first video, it can be understood that when a bubble collapses, its boundary in the form of a sphere turns into a torus, which degenerates into a jet of liquid that creates a shock wave in it. Is it true that a sound shock wave of wall gas or liquid is generated along the surface of the collapsing bubble?

I have seen evidence of it being a much more complex phenomena, ultrasonic cavitation is an hydrodynamic self organizing system, it has behaviours that can be characterized as coherent matter waves and form complex estructures, some of them akin to the Lichtenberg shapes of electric discharges. But these hydrodynamic coherent structures also interact with each other when formed.

I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

• I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

• As far as I understand, there is no theory of sonoluminescence, and therefore there is no theory of bubble fusion.

In the second video is was stated that there are currently something like thirteen different theories (each with different proponents) surrounding the observed phenomenon of sonoluminescence. Of course none of them may be correct - but as people have been thinking about this phenomenon for a long time, would it be worth examining the existing ideas, and associated evidence, before starting with a clean slate?

Interestingly, the presenter also made a specific point of dismissing "bubble fusion" entirely, by simply following the "attack the researcher" strategy used by the journal Nature.

new ideas are needed for brainstorming.

It is always dangerous to start brainstorming answers to a question without first brainstorming the question itself, to fully understand what the problem is. For instance, is the problem that there is an observed phenomenon without a single "textbook explanation" - which always results in some people feeling uneasy? (n.b. that doesn't mean textbook explanations are always correct.) Or is the problem that the experimental data currently available, to back-up all the theories, is of insufficient quality to allow anyone to sensibly narrow then down?

Do you know if there is an easily accessible, and comprehensive, repository of papers and experimental data anywhere? Are there any good papers surveying the field?

What experimental evidence exists to support the idea that there is anything nuclear happening inside a collapsing bubble at all?

"The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

• n.b. for everyone's reference - this is the original 2002 paper by Taleyarkhan et al.

Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation

Also see this, from 2013:

Bubble Fusion Bubbles Up Again
New investigation of "bubble fusion" could reignite controversy and might vindicate some controversial claims
spectrum.ieee.org

Also the "Bubblegate Portal" at New Energy Times.

"The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

• Bubble fusion IMO is a specific subset of cavitation, and kind of an outlier, for that matter.

I have discussed a lot of the experimental results of cavitation since Urutskoev’s foil explosions, specially since I got very interested in Cardone - Mignani’s team work, through the series of papers of transmutation of Hg. Stringham’s results are also remarkable, and also Claytor’s. There are many other’s with cavitation like @BJ_huang who noticed excess heat in his mechanical cavitation system, also there’s work by Russians like Afanasaev, Max Fomitchev-Zamilov also has a paper on a mechanical cavitator, Carpinteri also has another. There is the range of astonishing observations related to the NanoSpire reactor, etc.

I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

• This is a very readable (but now dated) overview of Sonofusion by the late Ludwik Kowalsi. Worth a speed-read at least.

• These are from the original paper, and show the original apparatus, and test sequence.

Note that the experiments were not like those of "simple" sonoluminescence. These were fast neutron nucleated bubbles, not simple cavitation.

"The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

• Let's focus on the dynamics of the collapsing bubble. Thus, the bubble geometry changes from spherical to toroidal and cylindrical, and the collapse is accompanied by a jet and a spherical shock wave. But for me, the dynamics of the gas and the liquid wall of the bubble throughout the life of the bubble remains a mystery.

It is possible that this process looks qualitatively as follows: as a result of the action of a harmonic sound wave on the surface of the bubble, a shock wave is generated, which forms a 2-dimensional toroidal flow that captures the near-wall gas of the bubble in the vortex, and then the flow, together with the gases, breaks out (torus turns into a cylinder).

In this regard, it makes sense to clarify the question of the shock wave on the surface of the torus, namely, the question of the width of the shock wave, whether it can be comparable with the width of the Coulomb barrier.

• Note that the experiments were not like those of "simple" sonoluminescence. These were fast neutron nucleated bubbles, not simple cavitation.

I am aware of this, by “an outlier” what I wanted to convey was that this is really hot fusion research.

I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

• I am aware of this, by “an outlier” what I wanted to convey was that this is really hot fusion research.

But it is not exactly. Suddenly, the mechanism of the surface shock wave, and not the collisional mechanism of high-temperature plasma, plays a significant role here.

• At the temperatures that are usually quoted, it certainly will be plasma - as well as forcing some molecular disassociation. The shock will probably free-up some electrons, just on its own.

Note that on the first video, above, the bubble contacts the surface of the liquid - and the "jet" always starts at the surface. For a bubble deep inside the liquid, the collapse mechanism could be quite different (and possibly spherical rather than toroidal).

"The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

• But it is not exactly. Suddenly, the mechanism of the surface shock wave, and not the collisional mechanism of high-temperature plasma, plays a significant role here.

But is implied that the shockwave create the transient condition for a high temperature plasma that would cause fusion. But it is not that simple. There's charge separation and coherence. In that sense the shockwave is important as key to induce the coherent state. But how you model that?

I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

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