New Experimental Summary From Ed Storms,

  • Cold Fusion Explained

    Edmund Storms, Kiva Labs, Santa Fe, NM, USA.

    [email protected]

    Keywords: cold fusion, LENR, CMNS, gap, nuclear mechanism, electron structure


    ABSTRACT.


    A brief summary is provided of the experimental behaviour on which the claim for the fusion process called cold fusion is based. This information is used to support the reality of the claim and to provide a general description of how the process is proposed to work. New experimental results involving the electron emission from the surface and the effect of electron current caused to pass through the host metal are also provided. The nuclear process starts as the result of an unusual chemical condition during which many electrons and a few hydrogen nuclei can assemble at unique locations in a physical structure where they experience nuclear fusion. Although the proposed mechanism is not described in mathematical detail, its major features are identified and used as a model to guide future studies. This information is important because the fusion process promises to be a source of clean and inexhaustible energy as well as revealing a new kind of mechanism that can cause a variety of nuclear interactions.


    Full paper at :- https://www.researchgate.net/p…437728e&showFulltext=true

  • Link with LEC experiments it seems...


    If I understand well, H4 and burst of electrons are key to this theory... with the cracks ... Many experiments to test... Many interesting experiments already done to supporth those ideas.


    If it can give ideas to experimenters.

    “Only puny secrets need keeping. The biggest secrets are kept by public incredulity.” (Marshall McLuhan)
    twitter @alain_co

  • Cold Fusion Explained

    Edmund Storms,

    . The nuclear process starts as the result of an unusual chemical condition during which many electrons and a few hydrogen nuclei can assemble at unique locations in a physical structure where they experience nuclear fusion.

    Ed Storms has focused his experience and understanding in this field to provide this hypothesis. From my experience, I would say the same thing except that "~many electrons and a few hydrogens can assemble" without a physical structure. You may find it entertaining to compare the model in this short pdf to Ed's summary. https://www.lenr-forum.com/att…cluster-with-gravity-pdf/


    Spoiler: Richard Feymann's letter to Ken Shoulder was posted to this forum. In it Feymann explains how the electrons cluster. At the edges of a flow of electrons (current) there will be eddies. These eddies are clusters of electrons. Pair that though with the coincidence, that Pharis Williams' phat equation suggests that electron clusters can be stabilized by photons at the ionization frequency of hydrogen. https://www.lenr-forum.com/att…th-the-phat-equation-pdf/


    I very strongly believe that very serious LENR researcher should consider the data and arguments in Ed Storm's "Cold Fusion Explained".

  • I very strongly believe that very serious LENR researcher should consider the data and arguments in Ed Storm's "Cold Fusion Explained".

    So do I.


    I have another very simple idea about the pooling of electrons at active LENR sites, which Ed calls 'NAEs'. It isn't a theory, just a hypothesis, as follows.


    There is reason to believe that hydrogen loaded metals (like Pd) may contain nano-locations which are high temperature superconductors. Fermi electrons that arrive in these locations from a region of normal conductivity are trapped there, since to leave it they would have to move out of the superconducting region against the 'resistance gradient'. It is the deep still pool in the middle of a flowing river.


    Re - superconductivity in Deuterated Pd...

    Superconductivity and low-energy nuclear reactions
    It is proposed that the excess-energy released in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (aka cold fusion) is initiated in a phase-transition yielding a fractio…
    www.sciencedirect.com

  • There is reason to believe that hydrogen loaded metals (like Pd) may contain nano-locations which are high temperature superconductors. Fermi electrons that arrive in these locations from a region of normal conductivity are trapped there, since to leave it they would have to move out of the superconducting region against the 'resistance gradient'. It is the deep still pool in the middle of a flowing river.

    There are any number of ways to produce conditions that lead to superconductors that will in turn lead to the LENR reaction. The best method in my opinion is spark initiated superconductivity in nanoparticles.


    EVO production by spark initiation is accomplished as follows:


    The first step in the creation of an EVO formed through spark initiation is as follows.


    Among other methods, EVO production requires the production of nanoparticles as follows:


    Spark ablation nanoparticle synthesis


    Spark ablation utilizes two electrodes of the metal(s) of choice and applies a fast high-voltage spark onto the two electrodes. The spark produces an aerosol of pure particles from the two ablated metals. These nanoparticles are the seeds around which EVOs form.


    The next step in EVO formation is the development of a superconductive supercurrent formation on the surface of the nanoparticle.


    A superconductor is defined as a substance that offers no resistance to the electric current when it becomes colder than a critical temperature. Some of the popular examples of superconductors are aluminium, magnesium diboride, niobium, copper oxide, yttrium barium, various metal hydrides, hydrogen, water crystals, palladium, and iron pnictides. Spark formation of nanoparticles can produce enough compression and heat to form superconductive nanoparticles through probabilistic processes where some fraction of the spark generated nanoparticle population become superconductors. The same nanoparticle formation process can occur in cavitation bubble collapse.


    Superconductive nanoparticles can also be produced by Rydberg catalytic process as seen in Holmlids experiments and in R. Mills BrLP systems.


    The last step in the formation of the EVO is the generation of a Bose Einstein condensate around the electron outer shell that forms on the exterior of the superconductive nanoparticle when those electrons are exposed to light.


    In my opinion, Sveinn Ólafsson is now producing EVOs around Ultra Dense Hydrogen nanoparticles (UDH) that he is producings in his experiments. Sveinn is seeing these EVOs produced in his cloud chamber after laser excitation of these UDH particles. Holmlid has mistaken these EVO as mesons.


    Many years ago and now mostly forgotten, Brian Ahern discovered that nanoparticles can produce the LENR reaction as described by Wang as follows:


    LENR “Cold Fusion” phenomenon details to be revealed December 7th

    November 19, 2011 by Brian Wang

    https://www.nextbigfuture.c...

  • It seems you are saying. Spark ablations create a positive core that become a superconductor, (unknown insulator), then electrons that interact with light to form a Bose Einstein condensate. Hence, some resemblance to a spherical capacitor as is proposed for ball lightening. You have left out too much detail.


    If you would make a more detail powerpoint presentation then convert it to a pdf, then post it, we could study it and comment.

  • Superconductivity as a factor in the Cold Fusion reaction among the old guard in a post from the Vortex blog as follows:


  • The is some proof that the LENR reaction is coherent. The light produced by the LENR reaction is seen to be polarized as a laser would produce.

  • https://jorge.physics.ucsd.edu/hole.html


    Hole Superconductivity

    holeeleccol.gifThe theory of hole superconductivity (also known in some circles as 'The holistic theory of superconductivity') asserts that superconductivity can only occur when 'hole' carriers exist in the normal state of a metal. A 'hole' is the absence of an electron, and hole carriers exist when an electronic energy band is almost full. Holes are different from electrons , as the picture to the right clearly shows. A hole in a full band has difficulty propagating due to the disruption it causes in its environment. Superconductivity occurs due to pairing of hole carriers, and is driven by the fact that paired holes can propagate more easily (have a smaller effective mass) than single holes. As a consequence, their kinetic energy is lowered. In contrast, single electrons can move easily and so they don't pair. 'Dynamic Hubbard models' describe the different physics of electron and hole carriers in metals. The different mobility of holes and electrons can be illustrated by a garage analogy. The reason for the increased mobility of holes upon pairing is that they 'undress' when they pair, and turn into electrons. This leads to a new understanding of superconductors, that a superconductor is a giant atom. If the theory is correct it implies that the electron-phonon interaction is irrelevant to superconductivity, that BCS theory is incorrect and that London theory is incorrect. The theory also explains the Meissner effect and predicts a Spin Meissner effect.

    Materials: The high temperature superconductivity of the cuprates (hole-doped and electron-doped ), the arsenides, magnesium diboride, transition metal elements, and elements under high pressure have a natural explanation within this theory

    Chukanov has observed Hole superconductivity in his experiments involving ball lightning/EVO as follows:


    US6936971B2 - Methods and systems for generating high energy photons or quantum energy - Google Patents


    Abstract

    The invention generates high-energy particles, or quantum energy, from a quantum macro object. The method used comprises: (a) isolating a gaseous substance within a bounded area; (b) energizing the gaseous substance, causing the gaseous substance to transition into a glow discharge plasma state; (c) increasing the gas pressure within the bounded area to transition the glow discharge plasma to a quantum macro object comprising a positively charged nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud; (d) inducing an active impact upon the quantum macro object such that the potential energy existing within the quantum macro object is converted and released in the form of quantum energy in a continuous and inexhaustible manner. The bounded area is typically created by a dielectric of various sorts, such as within a dielectric container or properly charged air.


  • The is some proof that the LENR reaction is coherent. The light produced by the LENR reaction is seen to be polarized as a laser would produce.

    You do realize coherence and polarization of light are not the same thing, right? I don't think you do actually, but you will Wiki it right now and cut and paste stuff.

  • You do realize coherence and polarization of light are not the same thing, right? I don't think you do actually, but you will Wiki it right now and cut and paste stuff.

    Yes, coherent light can be polarized, but polarized light is not always coherent.


    Coherent light is made up of waves that have a similar wavelength and are synchronized. Polarized light is made up of waves that oscillate in a specific plane and have a well-defined direction of polarization.


    Coherence is caused by stimulated emission, while polarization is a vector property of light. Polarization can be created through optical elements or during propagation in a resonator.


    Some examples of coherent light sources include: Lasers and Sound waves.


    Testing for the LENR reaction via analysis of the light that it generates is an approximation if the test is for polarization.


    But one coherence fullproof effect that has been observed is the production of the Kerr effect that has been produced by the EVO that leaves the surface of a metal disposed to reflect polarized.light. This is seen in the witness marks imparted on a metal surface that an EVO produces. This effect is also seen in strange radiation marks seen on metal surfaces.


    I did produce a post on how the LENR reaction can be detected via observation of polarized light. See this post fto refresh your memory about MOKE.

  • From page 37, I quote from Ed "a new kind of electron interaction must counter the mutual repulsion. The assembly must also have a quantized characteristic to explain Figures 31 and 32." Electron gravity is such an electron interaction. It counters mutual repulsion of electrons. Of course, a force of gravity is not expected to be real rather the force is proposed as electromagnetic resulting from physical strings which were observed as an itonic net by T. Matsumoto. The quantum effects are in my latest post in the thread for electron gravity. RE: Electrogravity (electron-gravity) as a cause of nuclear reactions. . Quantized characteristics appear in figures 15 and 16. I have used figures 15 and 16 as support for the claim that there are quantum energy effects in electron gravity catalyzed fusion. I propose that Pharis Williams' phat equation describes quantized energy levels in the planetoid that causes fusion. Only the outer most energy levels are exposed on a planetoid. A particle with quantized energy is free from a planetoid by collision.

  • On page 37 Ed States” Normally, the chemical energy states do not interact DIRECTLY with the nuclear energy states. This means that a condition not present in a normal chemical structure has to be created somewhere in the chemical structure before fusion can occur. This unique structure is proposed to form only in physical gaps, having a critical size in the nanometer range. These gaps can be produced by many different treatments and in many different kinds of materials, including by nano-machining".


    On page 38 Ed suggests that because of a likely role of electrons: “Giving this insight, perhaps cold fusion should be called electron-enhanced-fusion (EEF)."


    I like the critical dimension idea. It is expressed in Miley, G. H., Hora, and X Yang. Condensed Matter “Cluster” Reactions in LENRs, in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Nuclear Science, 2008 Washington, DC. Miley et al identified these clusters occur in “Dislocation Loops by Repetitive Loading -Deloading” electrodes. I have refered to this in my model.


    I have presented a model for a catalyst for cold fusion. The catalyst is not a chemical state in the usual sense of the term. Further, the catalyst does interact DIRECTLY with nuclear energy states. I have posted many pdfs to detail this subject. I would welcome any comments.


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