Fukai Structures and a cage effect

  • Palladium when it loads deuterium above 95% forms Fukai structures. Fukai structures are stable even
    if the palladium is de-loaded. Loading above 95% is a requirement for excess heat in the Pons-Fleischmann experiment.

    Fukai structures create large gaps in the lattice, some 18% vacancies which are called
    superabundant vacancies (SAV). These vacancies form pores some 20 - 30 nm in size.

    Deuterium exists in three states in palladium, as a D2 molecule, as a sigma bonded dihydrogen
    molecule with Pd (van der waals attraction), and as a D+ ion sharing the electrons
    with the palladium atoms in the lattice. The deuteriums' state depends on the background
    electron density at its location. Deuterium in the Fukai pore areas may exist in
    all three states.

    There is also a notion that deuteron flux is a supporting element of cold fusion.

    Peter Hagelstein's Lecture at MIT IAP Tuesday, Jan 28 at 1 hour 53 minutes had a slide
    that mentions a cage effect. He did not talk about it however. I presume the cage
    effect would apply to the interstitial D+ in a vacancy?

    I am putting this out looking for more information about a cage effect possibly in Fukai structures.

  • You should discuss with ed Storms.
    Ed Storms vision is that the LENR reaction cannot happen in normal place like the liquid, or the bulk lattice. It must happen in a very local, clean, uncommon place that he name NAE (nuclear active environment).
    He propose cracks, or like you vacancies.
    Ed Storms have an interesting approach, that you have to observe the experimental results, assume one mechanism for all, no new physics, and deduce what is impossible, and thus what is required.
    For him there is no neutron or gamma produced (no mechanism can filter them by 1/1million), so he assume something like p+e+p fusion or d+e+d p+e+d...

    Maybe the Fukai (do you have vulgarization documents on that?) is the NAE, and the fact that the conditions of fukai and LENR are similar give a hint.

    maybe it does not happen in the fukai, but because of it in the vacancies around, in the induced defects, cracks...

    no idea, but the approach is the good one in my opinion.

  • I started with Y. Fukai's "The ABC's of the Hydrogen-Metal System" which he wrote for ICCF-3 (lenr-canr.org).

    It is short and is reasonably easy to read. After this early work these structures got name after him.

    Ed Storms has said that there are two types of fusion going on, fracto-fusion which may account for
    the small amount of neutrons and tritium, and then the mysterious cold fusion which produces heat and helium.

    Y. Fukai proposed fracto-fusion in 1992 as a source of energetic particles.

    An advantage the scientists have today that was not available even 10 year ago is software and computing resources. Ongoing research
    to characterize the transition metal hydride environment is aided by the software program http://www.quantum-espresso.org/

  • yes, energetic particles, and some rare transmutations probably, are probably not the same animal as the excess heat, the He4 production (in PdD)... those "hot fusion"ashes are much rarer, and not really useful.

    Ed Have a good approach, to start from the observations, then try to classify them like a zoologist, find few key constraints, based on know physics and Occam razor, and don't go farther than that...