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    Large electron screening effect in different environments

    Matej Lipoglavsek, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    (18) (PDF) Large electron screening effect in different environments. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/p…in_different_environments [accessed Nov 16 2020].


    Matej :)joke..TM 18.16

    "42 is the answer to the ultimate question of the universe.".. no-one laughs...


    Some results may be relevant to LENR reactions.


    Finally In 2010 , after 5 years of failure to get an enhanced fusion"Electron screening " effect"

    Breakthrough only when the target foil was damaged... by work hardening or radiation damage..


    The latest Japanese alloys have crystal defects introduced... radiation damage/work hardening.. Takahashi/Mizuno

    "

    As it can be seen from table 1, large electron screening potential was observed in all targets with the highest value observed in graphite target. (42.9)These results can be interpreted in the following way. The presence of a hydrogen impurity atom in the hexagonal graphite lattice creates a lattice distortion [22] placing the proton always closer to one carbon atom than to the others.

    This is different from cubic lattice of our metallic targets,where in the undamaged lattice the hydrogen finds an equilibrium position equidistant from the metallic atoms.

    However, the palladium and tungsten targets were radiation damaged and protons were trapped into crystal lattice vacancies [14], where they are again closer to one metallic atom thanto the others. But we observed lower electron screening potentials in Pd than in the graphite target.

    The reason for this is that in polycrystalline metals, hydrogen can also be trapped at grain boundaries and voids [14], where we assume lower electron screening, making the effective electron screening for the two kinds of trapping sites lower.

    Next,the observed electron screening potential in the Pd target was lower than in the W target. A possible explanation for this is that our palladium sample was cold rolled, while the tungsten one was annealed. It is known that the cold rolling process increases the number of grain boundary defects, but when the foil is annealed the number of these defects is reduced. Due to this, the resulting effective screening potential in the Pd target is lower than in W.

    The TiH target did not have the full TiH2 stoichiometry,since the powder has been stored in air for several years. The measured stoichiometry of 1.03 means that TiH1.03 is a mixture of fcc and tetragonal fct lattices [23]. As we have shown in earlier experiments with Pd targets[12], the hydrogen on regular interstitial sites in a fcc lattice does not produce a large electron screening effect. Only when the protons are pulled way from their fcc equilibrium positions, a large screening effect occurs.This is the case in the fct lattice in TiH.

    Finally, from the presented results

    we calculated that the dependence of the electron screening potential on the proton number Zof the projectile seems to be higher than Z2..



    Some recent experiments in the HELIS facility show increased neutron production ~ 2.5 MeVs ?

    for 25 kev input.

    .of course 25 kev is equivalent to 29 million K in a hot collision environment


    which is not LENR.. at least not in the same league as 100C ( Fleischmann and Pons) and 300C (Mizuno... Takahashi...etc)


    "

    . The DD reaction yield values calculated for given experimental conditions are also indicated. Figure 1 shows

    that the experimental DD reaction yields obtained on the targets significantly exceed the calculated

    values. , the experimental yields are, respectively, 2 and 4 times higher than the calculated values(from known cross sections)

    under irradiation with the deuterium ions beam.


    These calculated values wre based on known cross sections for these two reactions..

    d+d→p(3 MeV)+T(1 MeV))

    d+d→n(2.45 MeV)+3He(0.8 MeV)


    Although these results are interesting .. they may not be relevant to LENR at much lower temperatures.

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…res_at_the_HELIS_facility


    1.The Guardian :

    French professor faces disciplinary case over hydroxychloroquine claims

    "A French professor who touts the anti-malaria drug hydroxychloroquine as a coronavirus treatment – without evidence, scientists say – will appear before a disciplinary panel charged with ethics breaches, an order of doctors has said.

    https://www.theguardian.com/wo…raoult-hydroxychloroquine

    https://expertscape.com/ar/infectious+diseases/a/Raoult%2C+D


    2.The Guardian: "No clinical trials have yet found in favour of using hydroxychloroquine against Covid-19"

    Actually 107 of 139 studies show positive effects for HCQ.

    22 of 22 early treatment studies show positive effects for HCQ.

    https://hcqmeta.com/s/earlyvall.html

    Do you have WinZip installed ?

    ALPHABET doesn't like WinZip:)

    Sorry I can't help you with centrifugal force in three dimensions

    Randell Mills has some formulas for proton and neutron magnetic moment.. but they won't help you.


    If you are retired... then you have plenty of time to go through Wyttenbach's proton magnetic moment calculation

    and other calculations.. but they are not in (3d,t) framework.

    The (3d,t ) framework doesn't provide the wraparound electromagnetic interaction necessary for stability of magnetic mass flux

    via the Biot-Savart law.

    Faraday , two hundred years later would be surprised to find that magnetic flux can be the basis of mass and gravity.


    A centrifugal force calculation by Wyttenbach is Pg 20.

    280. ^ Newtons doesn't sound much for a human.... the same 'mass' as my dog...

    Dogs and humans exist in (3d,t) but I have never talked protonese to a proton to ask them what 4D is like.

    However I am only mortal , whereas protons are timeless.

    The nuclear data center publishes only experimental data.

    At http://cdfe.sinp.msu.ru/services/calc_thr/calc_thr.html


    The binding energy calculator uses some semiempirical model probably a bit more modern than

    the earlier Weizsäcker models,

    Semi-empirical models are a well trodden path

    Some recent models are


    1995 Duflo Zuker 28 parameter! and 10 parameter models

    discussed at The anatomy of the simplest Duflo-Zuker mass formula

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/0912.0882.pdf

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…13AXJ8KBbp1fbRX-Lg&_iepl=


    2013 EIDIP

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…LEAR_BINDING_ENERGY_MODEL


    2018 Isayev..https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rafael_Isayev2

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…ION_OF_THE_ATOMIC_NUCLEUS


    in general the fit for helium=4 is much worse than for other isotopes for the semi-empirical models.

    However a good fit for Helium-4 would be a good start to develop a model on..... perhaps a deficit of 100eV?


    The computer zip file does not open on Chromebook.







    ДЕЙТРОННОЙ КЛАСТЕРИЗАЦИИ АТОМНОГО ЯДРА Исаев Р.Ш

    ПОЛУЭМПИРИЧЕСКАЯ ФОРМУЛА ДЛЯ ЭНЕРГИИ СВЯЗИ НА ОСНОВАНИИ ДЕЙТРОННОЙ КЛАСТЕРИЗАЦИИ АТОМНОГО ЯДРА Исаев Р.Ш

    You are one of the sheep being led to slaughter

    Isaiah 53.7 .. a lamb to the slaughter..

    normally a young animal was the sacrifice

    but Jed is no spring chicken.:)

    plenty of old sheep are on statins..yes the average doctor can not be held responsible. Sie wissen nichts

    o, this is where I'm stuck-getting the formula for calculating the binding energy.

    There is a USA National Nuclear Data Center - NNDC webpage.. maybe you can enquire from them... for their formula..2010.

    http://cdfe.sinp.msu.ru/services/calc_thr/calc_thr.html

    For He 4 Z=2, N=2,

    Result :

    Of course the old concept of 'binding energy' is a bit rough.

    and not very good for elucidating internal structure

    On one Wyttenbach spreadsheet the accuracy of 3.09 eV ..is a bit better than the delta =82500 eV in the "Result"above


    The next Swiss Army knife:) orbital spreadsheet is more exact. (delta= 0.108 eV)

    Tab.9 4He compression with orbits Page 21.

    https://www.researchgate.net/p…context=ProjectUpdatesLog

    Typical QCD/ Standard model mathematical gobbledegook

    Lost in gluonic travesty.

    .no relationship with measured deuterium mass/magnetic moment or structure


    "

    The first moment of the gluonic transversity distribution
    in the deuteron has also been investigated. This quantity is
    particularly interesting since it is a clean measure of gluonic
    degrees of freedom, safe from leading-twist mixing with
    quark distributions.

    First lattice QCD study of the gluonic structure of light nuclei
    Frank Winter,1 William Detmold,2 Arjun S. Gambhir,3,4 Kostas Orginos,5,1 Martin J. Savage,6
    Phiala E. Shanahan,5,1,2 and Michael L. Wagman2,7,6

    https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstre…df?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

    George Sardin extracted data from Llubjana Uni. exptal results.. done in 2004..

    by two physicists

    Sardin asks

    "

    From the standard model, how could the +2/3, +2/3, -1/3 fractional charges of the proton give the
    same charge distribution as that of the neutron with instead +2/3, -1/3, -1/3 fractional charges?
    How can it be explained without appealing to dubious arguments? Or as usual, what does not
    correspond with the QCD is ignored!
    Can we really believe that a charged particle, that is to say
    the proton, juxtaposed to a neutral particle, that is to say the neutron, could give such a symmetry
    of the structure of the deuteron
    ?

    It's a case of do not seek and you shall not find' on the part of physicists

    with their heads in Standard Model sand.. Its not just Sirca and Kosnik.. but a whole generation.

    [1] Nejc Košnik and Simon Širca, Structure of the deuteron (Department of Physics, University of
    Ljubljana, Nov. 17, 2004)

    Both changed radically to prevent anything like that from happening again.

    It happened again..2001. . Are the lessons of Vioxx already forgotten?

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1779871/

    Bad Merck ..Never trust Bigpharma prognostications...and don't trust NEJM.

    "

    Merck subsequently admitted that it had incorrectly described the statistical approach, and the New England Journal of Medicine issued a correction indicating that statements regarding an increase in risk after 18 months should be removed from the article.w14 Again, mistakes that favoured the company, with colossal economic implications, made it through the journal peer review process to the profession and the public.

    Medical journals

    The New England Journal of Medicine has had a prominent role in the story. It published the VIGOR and APPROVe studies, responding to their inaccuracies with “an expression of concern”w9 w10 and a correctionw14 and publishing a methodological paperw15 and other related comments and editorials.w16-w24 But other academic medical journals also played important parts.

    https://www.npr.org/series/503…xx-the-downfall-of-a-drug

    Professor Didier Raoult filed an appeal with the Council of State. He challenges the decision of the Medicines Agency not to widely authorize the prescription of hydroxychloroquine against Covid-19.

    and says that he now has to ration his HCQ

    https://francais.rt.com/france…uine-faute-d-autorisation

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    Interview~ Dr. Hector Carvallo: Pioneer In Ivermectin, Iota Carrageenan, Bromhexine And COVID-19

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    Q. For those who follow the WHO?...

    Carvallo. the blind following the blind. TM 10.20


    Is ivermectin the Remdesivir of the poor people

    Carvallo.. No. the difference is that Ivermectin actually works. TM.11.35

    If only one could switch the runaway effect seen in Staker on and off at will.

    The LENR effects have been proven multiple times...

    Staker showed they exist for days before runaway and that they are larger after runaway.


    Making LENR effects(mainly heat) larger and controllable is what much of the current R&D effort is about..

    The atomecological approach may yield more stable reactors than

    Pd only...(Staker) bimetallic or oligometalic (current Japanese/Italian research) reactors.


    The motor effect was discovered in 1820 by Oersted.. the first commercial electric motor was in 1873.

    It was called " machine de Gramme."

    https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zenobe_Gramme

    Hopefully the first commercial LENR reactor takes less than 53 years.to appear..

    (1989+53= 2042.).

    We (Alan Smith, Jürg Wyttenbach and myself – Gerold Schneider) started working together in October 2019 with the idea to continue with some of the experiments done at what is now called the NetZeroChem lab by Russ George and Alan Smith with the support of Jürg Wyttenbach.

    Vive le(s) nouveau(x) NZC reacteur(s)!

    Bruce-H .. read Takahashi , Kasagi, Mizuno Iwamura

    and then from the USA try reading Michael Staker.. for a start


    Why? Because I want to know if LENR is a real phenomenon.

    Takahashi..2019

    http://jcfrs.org/file/jcf20-proceedings.pdf

    The anomalous heat effect (AHE) by the interaction of hydrogen-isotope-gas and

    nickel-based nano-composite samples as Pd-Ni/zirconia (PNZ) and Cu-Ni/zirconia

    (CNZ) powder samples at elevated temperatures around 300 °C has been studied

    intensively [1,2] under the NEDO-MHE project in 2015-2017 [3], for verifying the

    existing of the phenomenon and finding conditions of excess power generation in

    controllable way. As reviewed in ref. [4], the 8 year-long (2008-2015) series of study

    on AHE by interaction of metal nanoparticles and D(H)-gas under the collaboration of

    Technova Inc. and Kobe University has become the basis for the collaborative research

    of NEDO-MHE. The AHE phenomenon has been replicated by independent

    experiments at Tohoku University as well as at Kobe University under the collaboration

    study of the NEDO-MHE project [5, 6, 7]. Observed excess thermal power level of

    AHE were on the level of 3-20 W, and more enhancement was required for industrial application.


    Kasagi/Iwamura.. 2019

    http://jcfrs.org/file/jcf20-proceedings.pdf


    Permeation-induced transmutation phenomenon, which is completely different

    from conventional transmutation by nuclear reactors or accelerators, was first reported in

    2002 [2]. D2 gas permeation through a nano-structured multilayer thin film composed of

    Pd and CaO thin film and Pd substrate with a target element induces nuclear transmutation

    reactions [3]-[6]. The temperature of the Pd complex is typically 70°C and the pressure

    of D2 gas is 1 atm. Permeation-induced nuclear transmutation reactions were firstly

    observed at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and were successfully replicated by other

    institutes such as Toyota R&D center [7]. Typical target element is Cs and produced

    element is Pr. Transmutation reactions of Sr, Ba, W into Mo, Sm, Pt were also observed

    by this method. It seemed that 2, 4 or 6 deuterons make fusion with the target materials.

    In this research, deuterium diffusion through nano-sized multilayer thin film was a key

    factor and the elemental analysis was important technique


    Mizuno/Rothwell.2019

    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MizunoTincreasede.pdf


    Abstract

    We have developed an improved method of producing excess heat with nickel mesh coated

    with palladium. The new method produces higher power, a larger output to input ratio, and it

    can be controlled effectively. With 50 W of input, it produces ~250 W of excess heat, and

    with 300 W it produces ~2 to 3 kW. This paper is a comprehensive description of the

    apparatus, the reactant, and the method. We hope this paper will allow others to replicate the

    experiment.


    Staker.2019

    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StakerMRpreprintco.pdf

    The magnitude of excess heat (Figs. 21 and 22) confirms Fleischmann–Pons heat effect from nuclear origin.

    The amount of excess heat per cubic centimeter of Pd (150 MJ/cm3) or per Pd atom (14 000 eV/atom) is too large for a chemical reaction, which produces energy per atom less than 2 eV/atom.

    Because I want to know if LENR is a real phenomenon.

    Platonic interest or pathological trolling?

    So Bruce-H does not know that LENR is a real phenomenon?


    LENR is a real phenomenon... for those who can read..

    what has Bruce-H been doing on LF for the past few years? dreaming?


    Bruce-H .. read Takahashi , Kasagi, Mizuno Iwamura

    and then from the USA try reading Michael Staker.. for a start


    all meticulous results backed by sophisticated calorimetry..

    that confinement of deuterium at the atomic level can overcome the Coulomb forces and create the conditions needed to induce fusion.

    much of LENR work for 3 decades .has been based on confining /squeezing deuterium into stressed metal deuteride lattices..


    it is commonly acknowledged that the mechanism of excess heat without neutrons is not understood.


    it is also common knowledge that structure and function of nuclei are not understood,,

    " the Coulomb forces" are a postulated barrier