That is also apparently a continuation of International Patent Application WO2019/016606A1 from July 2019. It includes provisions for HV deposition and so refers to Mizuno's earlier work. Regarding the missing secret sauce, there is passing mention of reactor activation ("step 306") but no details are provided in that document, and the references to activation are missing from the US application.
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Does anybody know of a good ammonia-cracking technology?
Looks like Ni on Si can do it pretty well at ~600°C but Ruthenium-based catalysis is more efficient :
It seems to be a documentary on Cold Fusion
I did not watch it.
That hosting site (dokbox.tv) seems to require a subscription - £3.99 a month for "basic". That title shows up in UTube and Reddit, but "Video unavailable.This video is private."
Gregory Byron Goble The Silicon Valley tech community is as thoroughly "networked" as anywhere in the world, so I would be surprised if Ricardo Levy wasn't well known to some group at Google. Their initial funding of $775K had to come from somewhere, but it's spare change to Google. And whether there is any deeper connection between the Aquarious Energy patent application and Google's prior work is impossible to know without inside information.
This group seems to be affiliated with Stanford U. From the links below they have a strong mix of applied physics background and tech startup management. The patent application is very broad and includes many claims already covered by prior art. For example, use of carbon nanotubes, phononic stimulation of fusion, and lattice-resonant THz EM radiation. Because it explicitly claims the production of "Low Energy Nuclear Fusion" it seems unlikely to be granted. But if they have something new that works and adds to the practical art of LENR, they can still do well despite what old-school VCs might want.
Some will, and usually some won't. I'm not talking forensic chemistry here, but bench-top cookery. Such things are my usual first step when pondering possibilities. ETA - maybe the oxide helps - nobody knows right now.
I don't have a suitable stainless steel assembly on hand, but I can probably put together something with 3/8" tubing and swagelok fittings to hold some Ni and CaCO3 powder. It would connect to an RGA port. By means of the capillary sampling, that would also serve to evacuate the vessel before heating in my small furnace while monitoring the gas content. Not exactly bench-top cooking but close enough.
My money's on the nickel.
Maybe, but it's a complex chemical environment, including Pd and hydrogen as well as the Ni. It seems to me that to be a proper test, only one variable should be changed. For example, your proposed test with Ni powder would certainly be much simpler to do, but the metal particles might be passivated by the oxide surface layer.
Consider then that the deposited CaCO3 has been ground into the Ni mesh by the burnishing, breaking the surface oxide layer. Some of it has also been mechanically intercalated with the deposited Pd. Either of these conditions might be essential to the decomposition effect.
And then there's the Lindlar Catalyst hydrogenation reaction. The diagram below is from the article linked in my earlier post. All the elements involved are in the cell.
If that is so, you have made a valuable discovery that would reduce the cost and emissions from cement manufacture by an order of magnitude.
Well, I'm open to other explanations. Even a way to test the idea. Hmm, how about processing the mesh with DI water instead of tap water. No CaCO3 would be deposited, so if the hypothesis is correct there would be no evolved CO2 when heated. I'll get right on it....
Unexpectedly low temperature to decompose CaCO3 -> CaO + CO2 - it suggests that the presence of Ni or Pd has something to do with it
Yes, I saw that article previously, and reached the same conclusion. I can't imagine where else such an amount of CO2 could arise, so it seems likely to be catalyzed by the metals.
I have seen platinum and palladium with native silver and gold naturally occurring in carbonate (mostly calcite) veins, associated with selenium.
My recent tests have shown large amounts of CO2 in out gassing when the prepared mesh is heated above ~250°C. This can only come from the decomposition of the CaCO3, leaving CaO in its place. If the Calcite is an active catalyst in the loading of hydrogen into the Ni substrate, its conversion to the oxide may actually inhibit the desired result. This experiment gets trickier the more we learn.
Palladium on CaCO3 is known as a Lindlar Catalyst. It's widely used for hydrogenation in synthesis of organics such as Vitamin A. In such applications a "catalyst poison" is added to reduce the hydrogenation to a single bond. What I see in my prepared mesh is a very crude form of such a catalyst, where the Calcite is mixed into the deposited Pd by the burnishing process. Details of this structure can be seen in the image below, from my paper from August 2019.
Wyttenbach I was aware of that, and did several cycles of bake-out followed by several cycles of oxide reduction (MR4.1 and 4.2) prior to this run.
I found at the start of this project that the "official" recipe presented by Rothwell resulted in deposition of Calcium Carbonate on the Ni mesh, and that is unique to the Mizuno recipe as far as I know. It results from using tap water, concentrated by evaporation of the open bath, and leads to the generation of copious Carbon Dioxide when heated above 250°C. Conventional lab practice would be to use deionized water in a closed container, and to give some reason or goal for the treatment. I found this departure from normal practice to be curious from the beginning, and asked about it several times but received no further clarification.
Alan Smith Thanks. The current run (4.3) was preceded by two cycles of bake-out, then two prior experiment runs (4.1 and 4.2) with added hydrogen (Deuterium). Your experience suggests that several more cycles may be needed to remove remaining traces of oxides and adsorbed gases and water. That's easy enough to do, and can be monitored from anywhere that has internet access.
So the short answer to Nick's question above is, more of the same: pump out, cool down, add Deuterium, add heat and see what happens. Up next MR4.4
Wyttenbach My answer when you asked the same thing yesterday remains: the CO2 comes from dissociation of CaCO3 deposits on the mesh. That in turn results from the last step in the mesh preparation recipe - a 1-hour soak in domestic tap water at 90°C. My local water, like Mizuno's has about 50 ppm of CaCO3, and that increases during the hot soak from evaporation of the water bath. I have SEM/EDX images that show the presence of Ca over the entire mesh surface after that treatment, and will post those when time permits.
The oxygen probably comes from reduction of surface oxide on the Ni mesh, which has been stored in air for two years or more. The rise in water and other hydroxyl ions is evidence of that process.
thank you very much for your willingness to share
We're all starved for entertainment these days, and this site is more interesting than the usual reruns and sitcoms (other than The Expanse, which continues to amaze me).
But it's serious work and essential mental exercise more than just entertainment. So getting back on topic, I need some help understanding the
RGA plot shown in #2925 above. I suspect you spent a bit of time looking at such things earlier in your career, so please share any thoughts in that regard.
What is the next step with your apparatus?
No definite plans yet, since there are some questions raised by the latest results that need analysis and discussion. One concern in particular is the wide temperature profile shown by the thermal camera display. The external heater coil is wound around the cell with uniform turn spacing. So the middle gets hottest, and the ends coolest. The rolled meshes are the entire internal length of the cell (250 mm), so they see a similar temperature profile.
A significant finding of this series of tests is that the core (thermowell) temperature matches the external temperature within a few degrees once equilibrium is reached. The rolled meshes are the entire internal length of the cell (250 mm), so they see a similar temperature profile to the exterior, aided by the high thermal conductivity of the deuterium gas in the cell.
As a consequence of this, if there is a critical temperature for certain things to happen (loading, crack formation etc.) it will only be seen by a small area of the mesh at any heater power. For example, there was a possible increase of neutron detection following about 10 minutes after each of several power bumps. That might result from a critical reaction temperature moving to a new area of mesh.
So one possible next step is to wind the heater coil on my second reactor in such a way as to cause a more uniform temperature profile along the tube. I envision the equivalent of how a Helmholtz coil creates a uniform magnetic field. There's no easy math for the thermodynamics of the physical cell, so trial-and-error, fine tuning, new calibrations, then more tests. This would mean a commitment to many months of work on my part, not to be made lightly.
This test used two sheets of Ni mesh prepared with Pd according to the recipe of Rothwell and Mizuno. During six days of testing at up to 300°C, no excess heat or unusual radiation was seen. Substantial out-gassing of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen were observed when the cell temperature exceeded 200°C. Live video showing the data and thermal camera image was streamed to YouTube covering the entire duration of the test, but the video is unfortunately not available after the live stream ended. Post analysis and more details of the experiment can be found at https://tinyurl.com/vudbmro.
The complete .csv data files are available at https://tinyurl.com/y28dysc4
The question is where the Oxygen is coming from - CaC02?
Thermal decomposition of CaCO3 (limestone) to CaO (quicklime) + CO2 is one of the oldest and most widely used chemical reactions in human civilization. In this case, it's probably helped by the catalytic properties of Ni and Pd, since lime kilns usually run at 900°C. The oxygen is probably stripped from metal oxides by hydrogen reduction.
During 24 hours at 200 watts, the cell still matched calibration temp (292°C) within ±1 degree. The pressure rose substantially during this interval, rising from 450 to over 1100 Pa. The rate of pressure rise appears to be tapering off rather than linear.
RGA analysis shows a wide range of masses, in clusters around the main fractions seen previously: Hydrogen at mass 2, 3 and 4; Oxygen and water at mass 16, 17, 18; Nitrogen at 28; and CO2 at 44. Understanding this complex gas composition will need help from someone skilled in the art of RGA analysis, but the presence of so much CO2 seems to indicate continued out-gassing rather than leakage as the primary mechanism involved.
To further test the source of rising pressure, the cell will be left at 200 watts for another day. The rate of pressure rise should continue to taper off confirming lack of air leakage into the cell. The live stream is still running after 6 days at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NXCxsrwHOE