I just wonder whether a plasma core of approx 1.1 cm (long) x 0.3 cm (diameter) with a heat capacity of 22 KW can be easily converted into a steam / hot water stream.
E.g. my home central natural gas heater also has a heat capacity of around 22 KW, but the combustion chamber has a much larger volume.
For me, this event is really not about mathematical proof or an attempt to proof the technology works.
The real essence of this announcement is that Rossi claims to put a first products into the market.
Market introduction is the key milestone here therefore.
Once products are placed at accepted customers, the E-cat's performance will take care of spreading the news via these customers (or not if failed).
I don't recall Rossi mentioned the reduction in energy costs having an e-cat, but the greater the benefit the quicker it will be promoted by its leasing customers.
In addition, if energy cost reduction is large, a new noticeable competitive situation will be created in the market segments of E-cat leasing customers (probably energy intensive product first). Noticeable significant competition changes will take however somewhat longer.
Word of mouth promotion strategy basically.
Regarding Rossi's method to prevent reverse engineering, I am quite pessimistic this will succeed for a long time.
Hacking the device is a matter of the knowledge of Rossi's small team against the the knowledge of the rest of the World. A matter of time in other words.
(It's probably an SSH or SSL network link technology the device applies, receptive for all kinds of attacks such as DDoS, Man in the Middle attacks etc).
"professional training under NDA"
- He is hiring new staff that is being educated
- He is educating partner staff
- He is licensing his technology and educating the staff of his licensee(s)
If X-ray irradiation can start the reaction, if the reaction itself can produce X-rays/low level gammas, and if conveniently an X-ray tube is a possible reactor configuration, then we have that the reactor itself, depending on the mode of operation, can be the activator for another reactor or even for itself. So perhaps this could be another possible reason for having a reactor transparent to X-rays.
Reminds me of the Cat and Mouse solution that was once introduced.
Maybe not only heat control (by heat transfer rate and capacity) but also X-ray intentsity are both control parameters, or maybe even mainly X-ray intensity.
In that case it would be nice to have a tuneable resistance for X-rays, e.g. at the skin of the reactor.
In one of Piantelli's patent applications there are mechanical control mechanisms indicating such option.
(click the attached picture for a complete view)
Some, or most of the list of applications may be provisional patent application filings.
Provisional filings are not public for the first 12 months after the filing date.
Most important reason for filing a provisional patent applicaton is that the inventor wants to be sure he is the first to file the invented matter.
If found valuable within the 12 month time frame they can be continued by refering to them in a regular patent application filing.
In that case the original provisional patent application number will appear in the regular patent application.
These regular patent applications will become public 18 months after the original filing date and the provisional patent application will be made available for public eyes after those 18 + 12 months.
If not found valuable by the inventor/patent attorney within the 12 month time period, these provisional patent application filings will never be made available for public eyes.
The Rossi filing numbers can best be seached for at the Public Pair section of the USPTO.
Again, you will only be able to find them if they are regular patent application numbers or provisional patent application numbers that are continued by refering to them in a regular patent application and only between 18 and 30 months onwards after date of filing.
I've been accused of making false comments about the early nickel hydrogen work of Focardi, Piantelli, and several other scientists. In particular, the whole concept of how abnormally large quantities or fast rates of hydrogen absorption into nickel can produce an "excited" state of fuel is said to be bunk that I've made up out of thin air.
The devil may be in the details.
The big question is in what state Hydrogen is combined with Nickel:
- Atomic state Hydrogen
- Rydberg state Hydrogen
- Ultra dense state Hydrogen
These different states may not have been known or thought of while doing experiments and publishing data.
So, my idea is that if this is true it might be possible to load any transition metal of any shape with these clusters - provided of course a large enough H(0) production.
I expressed myself in the wrong way, what I meant to say is that the 'Rossi way' may be optimal when H(0) penetration has been maximized to 2.5 um by applying 5 um particles.
Deeper penetration may cause too violent responses.
On the other hand:
Sintering of loaded Nickel particles may occur, causing uncontrollable responses.
Probably one of the reasons why the 'Rossi way' is so hard to control.
As a side note, if the diffusion of ultra-dense hydrogen clusters mentioned in my previous comment is actually able to occur deep into the bulk, it would be possible to arrange a reactor made just for the purpose of "loading" it into materials that aren't catalysts/active on their own (for example plain foils, wires, bars or even coarse powder).
Looking to Rossi, although not taken seriously anymore, and even Soininen, recommending Nickel powder that seems to be optimized when particle size is in the range of 5 um, there would be a limited penetration depth possible.
Personally I strongly think that penetration of UDH is an absolute must in the case of using Nickel powder (Rossi, Soininen).
The preparation will require very specific measures though. Hydrogen atoms or even Hydrogen Rydberg matter would also like to penetrate Nickel lattices.
A mix of Hydrogen Rydberg, Hydrogen atoms and UDH within the Nickel lattices may not be desirable to obtain fusion alike effects after triggering.
In my view UHD would be produced and penetrate under low temperature and low gas pressure ("Holmlid conditions"). Hydrogen atoms prefer high temperature and high gas pressure. These characteristics could help in preparing what is desired.
Imagine what would happen when a section of the lattice would be saturated with UDH or UDD and next the temperature would be increased rapidly or another trigger occurs to discomfort UDH / UDD.
According to recent observations by Holmlid et al. the UDD/UDH also has a critical temperature after which it ceases to be superfluid and probably also superconductive (a critical temperature is a characteristic of all superconductors, btw). For Deuterium on Nickel this is about 130°C, which is generally lower than the temperature Celani usually keeps his wires at in his case.
Can, Celani processes his wires, so its surface may not be pure Nickel.
Gas pressure may also have an effect.
Time will tell.
Francesco Celani showed in earlier publications regarding the use of processed Contantan wire that during Hydrogen/Deuterium loading the electrical resistance decreased significantly.
I would be interested to see whether this behavior has also improved by the enhancements shown in his latest paper.
This could indicate the formation of UDD/UDH at its surface, which is superconductive at room temperature according to the observations of prof. EM. Holmlid.
This shouldn't a surprise for those who have read his papers, but perhaps it might be for others that don't see any apparent relation between Holmlid's work and LENR experiments from other authors. Basically, Holmlid is writing here that they're related each other.
I totally agree with this and I would not be surprised if in near future will be proved that Rydberg Hydrogen (as an intermediate) and UDH/UDD are the essential fuels for most of the effects.
The only exceptions are the experiments that have been claimed to have COP > 1.0 that have crossed by desk are those of Dr. Tadahiko Mizuno
He uses nano-structured pure Nickel and Hydrogen/Deuterium in a very pure environment.
But maybe the Hydrogen plasma used in his experiments created Rydberg Hydrogen/UDH/UDD as well for just enough time.
Not really on topic, but when I try to find my way within the massive internet search data, I use a visualization search tool called carotsearch.
It allows me to visualize search results into three types of visualization of which I find the 'foamtree' visualization the most useful, helping to converge in a very fast way to relevant results.
By hovering your mouse over the segments and double click the most relevant one one can zoom deeper into most relevant search results. In parallel the usual textual search results are displayed in a separate page section.
The owners offer a licence to embed this tool on relevant websites (e.g. forums), but is not cheap.
When embedded to e.g. a scientific forum it will help find the potentially best collaborators, who then could be best candidates for contributing using tools described in the article.
In the meantime, work continues on about six projects, scattered across multiple continents.
So, who would be those six?
I can speculate but it would be good to see a list from them.
Celani has suggested that NiCu dissociates H2 better than Ni, Cu, or Pd alone
Celani used Constantan alloy as a basis.
Main ingredients are Ni and Cu, but don't overlook it also contains Mn.
Mn could be essential and serve to create Rydberg Hydrogen.
Taking a few steps back, one could ask themselves: Is it simply atomic hydrogen that settles in the lattice of Ni or its cracked surface, or is it essential that it is Ultra Dense Hydrogen that should be settled in the metal lattice or its cracked surface.
Remember that Ultra Dense Hydrogen is superconductive. External triggers by means of a pulsed EMF could trigger superconductive matter such that local, very high, current loops are formed at ultra small cavities which in turn could generate Ultra High Frequency EMF will occur (Magnetron effect). The Ultra High EMF will create Eddy Currents in the Ni particles. Those Ni particles are not superconductive and therefore such Eddy Currents will generate heat due to the electrical resistance within the Ni particles.
Part of the UHF EMF will be absorbed by the casing of a reactor and even some of it will pass the reactor vessel due to small entries that exist for in/outlet of sensors and heaters.
In the early days Rossi has mentioned that the lead shielding is heated additionally because of 'some radiation' besides the heated Ni particles within that shielding.
It could be Shell S-105 catalyst.