It could be Shell S-105 catalyst.
I would even go one step further and conjecture that F&P created Rydberg matter in their cells. Atoms adsorbed on surfaces of metals are known to desorb into Rydberg states in the presence of alkali metals.
Metal lattices act as a sponge for Hydrogen.
Once Hydrogen gets out (or in) they pass surface located catylyst(s) and form Rydberg Hydrogen and/or UDH / UDD. Alkali metals are often mentioned being the catalysts.
The optimum situation is hydrogen equilibrium where constant in / out movement of Hydrogen takes place at nano-scale.
Most people think equilibrium is a static situation. It's not.
Besides, equilibrium occurs when high Hydrogen loading ratio is sufficient (remember McKubre and others talk about a minimum loading ratio for LENR to happen).
The thought of hydrogen equilibrium being a surface crucial condition occurred to me earlier when I noticed a change of conditions over the development period of Rossi.
He started (around 2012) with 15 - 20 bar Hydrogen pressure at 400 - 500 degrees C, call this equilibrium state X.
Then (around 2015) he moved to a higher temperature range of around 1100 degrees C at significant lower Hydrogen pressure, call this equilibrium state Y.
Both X and Y are points of a Pressure/Temperature curve that form the equilibrium curve of Hydrogen/Nickel.
The combination H/Ni is just an example of course, one could also apply the equilibrium mechanism e.g. to Pd/D.
Another commonality observation:
Above thoughts are on relative high hydrogen gas pressure and metal lattices. In some occasions the presence of EMF or permanent magnetic fields is claimed as improvement or even being essential to increase LENR effects. Those conditions prolong the paths of released (hydrogen) ions that increase the chance that Hydrogen ions get in touch with present catalysts. In the case of hydrogen absorption/desorption from metal lattices, this happens very close to the metal surface. Nano metal cavities could enhance the effect of (electro)magnetic fields being present.
Contacting Hydrogen ions with alkali metal catalysts is also happening in low pressure free moving Hydrogen when high electrical fields are present (e.g. in the case of BLP or Unified Gravity), causing Hydrogen ions which are contacted with free moving catalysts (e.g. Lithium vapor).
Summarizing for all observed LENR methods:
Molecular Hydrogen -> Hydrogen ions/atoms -> Hydrogen ions/atoms + Alkali metal -> Rydberg Hydrogen -> Ultra dense Hydrogen -> UDH + trigger -> LENR
Deviating a bit from my focus on Brilliant Light Power, there is another company that seems LENR related that applies Hydrogen, Nickel and high pressure, using hydrogen storage as a starting point to create LENR processes.
An interesting table occurred to me lately:
(metal lattice Hydrogen storage)
(Hydrogen gas in vessel space )
Rossi Holmlid Brillouin Energy Corp Brilliant Light Power Inc Unified Gravity
All have their theories, but could all be related to the same phenomenon: Hydrogen in different than commonly observed state.
(and all indicate the use of catalysts)
Brilliant Light Power never got my large attention but their latest series of YouTube publications made serious solid impressions.
Thanks to some very innovative new engineering (e.g. liquid silver electrodes, high temperature solar cells) they claim a good and short term outlook of new prototypes that point to a realistic market introduction.
Looking to the technological background, it seems to me that the whole Hydrino model looks very similar to Holmlids Ultra Dense Hydrogen and Hydrogen Rydberg states.
I tend to think BLPs process is also based on Ultra Dense Hydrogen.
The conditions of BLPs process has a number of different approaches to Rossi and some similar approach to Holmlid:
- BLP uses near vacuum (approx. 1 mBar). Holmlid claims long lifetime of UDH at mBar pressure region
- In their next prototypes BLP will apply a gas mixture of 97% Argon + 3% Hydrogen to get a much better control of the energy conversion and remain in control.
Any thoughts on BLP process having similarities with the use of Ultra Dense Hydrogen?
Thanks for posting this.
Two observations derived from Szumki's patent applications:
- using current to enhance / increase Hydrogen loading. This will be applicable to electrochemical loading via electrolysis but also via EMF pulsing (causing eddy currents).
- examples using Ag doping. Zilver is popping up in recent observations (e.g. Brilliant Light Power application).
The difference is that Unified Gravity Corporation found a sweet spot around 200eV. Lower or higher than that the rate of nuclear reactions decline. This is far different than the minimum 300,000eV to millions of eV mainstream scientists claim are required.
I refered to the principle and its prior art.
Although such optimimum may be a smart finding, nothing of that has been translated into claims
Rossi rather foolishly claimed it was a transmutation product in a typically misguided attempt to protect his IP, but he has always had a tendency to 'shoot from the hip' over things like this
I am not sure Rossi was naive or schrude on this.
The copper discussion originates from his first generation E-cat models where temperatures were in the order of 400 - 500 degrees C.
It may well be that both were valid: CuO to reduce NiO, but also transmutations into some Cu isotopes. Who knows...
Another observation from the article written by Hank Mills:
He mentions Unified Gravity Corporation using Lithium being bombarded by protons using High voltage electrodes in (semi) vacuum, see their patent application.
But maybe Lipinski (Unified Gravity Corporation) wasn't aware that this principle was already published by The Cavendish Laboratory (university of Cambridge) in 1932-1933, work performed by Cockroft and Walton.
See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Oliphant
With respect to removing Nickel oxide layer, I would also like to refer to a patent application of Francesco Celani (US2012134915), which cites a Dutch patent application NL1001123C2. This patent application discusses various methods of reducing NiO, including the use of Hexaan. But more relevant, it also suggests that if NiO and CuO are both present while reducing oxides using Hydrogen at a few hundred degrees C, in essence the oxide of the more nobel metal (NiO) gets reduced first, suggesting that CuO acts a a kind of catalyst to remove NiO.
Link to the Dutch Patent application
The inventor is presently employed by Shell
if 2.3 pm H(0) clusters are present inside a suitable metal lattice exceeding the temperature threshold where the clusters are superconductive would cause the formation of higher energy states (H(1), H(2), etc) of much larger size (150 pm). This would cause a condition similar to the previous “magnetic ignition” suggestion, where enormous stresses and possibly a shock to the lattice,
About two years ago I asked a group of Hydrogen Embrittlement experts about the cause of embrittlement.
Hydrogen Embrittlement is often a problem where metals are welded by atomic Hydrogen welding (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_hydrogen_welding).
Hydrogen embrittlement is not a well understood mechanism. There may be a relation with UDH.
With recent discussions focussing on Ultra Dense Hydrogen (UDH and/or UDD), I wonder whether these forms of Hydrogen would be traceable when performing isotopic analysis.
Would it? Or what other analysis methods would reveal the presence of UDD/UDD?
They work with ZrO Zirkonium Oxid which has already widely been used by many Japanese researchers and especially by NANOR!!
It's a nice try to patent the same findings again.., may be they added at least some details.
The essence in these two patents is that there is a combination of Ultra Dense Hydrogen and already known 'foam' structures' that can hold UDH.
This combination has not been claimed before.
Kotzias also coauthored a paper with Holmlid, published earlier this year
Yes, indeed, I forgot to mention that; Thanks for filling that in.
Bernhard Kotzias was also involved in earlier PAs by Airbus related to LENR:
Two new Airbus patent applications were recently published.
Inventor Bernhard Kotzias.
Both are related to the use of Ultra Dense Hydrogen (UDH).
Both are in German language.
Did You measure this behind a dense H shield Holmlid generated ????? (and patented..)
Holmlid's patent application process seems to be withdrawn.
("The application is deemed to be withdrawn")
Possibly Holmlid realized that his earlier publications shot him in his own foot (prior-art)
Maybe a blessing.....
Rossi was asked point blank if muons were producing his reaction, He said no. Is Rossi lying?
Is he lying or (often) mistaken and correcting his ealier quotes later onwards?
Performing fundamental research one often needs to correct earlier findings while progressing.
Thanks for sharing that link axil.
Could it be that Rossi has been inadvertently getting dense hydrogen all along?
I missed that part (I am also following Vortex), but since I follow Holmlid's progression, I have the same suspicion: Rossi's may have UDH present. He may not have been realizing that around 2011- 2012.
Remember that in the early days (mid 2011) of Rossi's information, Iron oxide was found in the ashes (Bob Higgins has focused on this as well). Potassium was also mentioned. Holmlid's catalist is Shell S-105 which contains those elements as well.
By now Rossi will be aware of Holmlid's papers and I would not be surprised if Rossi's new developments Quark-X, or whatever he's calling it, are totally focusing on UDH.
The article MFMP is referring to originates from 2003.
Why this all of a sudden gets their attention is a surprise to me.
Besides, it's a pity that Violante did only partial transmutation analysis for this paper.
Nickel transmutation data in addition would have matured this paper significantly.
Is there a clear relation between muons and ultradense Hydrogen?
From Prof. Em. Holmlid's articles I learned that ultradense Hydrogen (UDH) can have a relative long lifespan (e.g. he claims to have measured meisner effect with UDH).
I am not a quantum physicist, but it seems to me that there could be a relation between UDH and muons in that UHD largely exists of muons positioned around protons. However, it's also known that muons have an average lifespan of 2.2 us. This seems to contradict my suspicion there might be a relation between UDH and muons. Or is it that protons can stabilise muons in certain situations?