Posts by Alan Smith

    No herd immunity in hard-hit Spain


    Only 5% of Spain’s population has had COVID-19, despite it being one of the European countries most affected by the pandemic. A serological survey tested more than 61,000 people from randomly selected households for antibodies against the coronavirus. The highest rate of infection was around 10%, in Madrid. That is well below the required level — something more like 60% (maybe) — to achieve therd immunity, which might slow the outbreak. Scientists don’t know for sure whether a past infection will give a person immunity, or to what extent. The study comes on the heels of similar results from France and elsewhere. “In light of these findings, any proposed approach to achieve herd immunity through natural infection is not only highly unethical, but also unachievable,” write virologists Isabella Eckerle and Benjamin Meyer in a commentary accompanying the research.

    https://nature.us17.list-manag…d=e5429f9193&e=2a67e2dc07

    Reference: The Lancet paper

    The patent citation to the patent application of Yoshiaki Arata (LENR related) is interesting but unclear.


    Arata was (when alive) a great researcher and incredibly diligent ( as told to me by colleagues) but he was always a bit mysterious about the 'actualité' of his methods and materials.

    For those with an interest in virology.



    https://patents.justia.com/sea…coronavirus+spike+protein

    METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR CHIMERIC CORONAVIRUS SPIKE PROTEINS

    Publication number: 20170096455

    Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods comprising a chimeric coronavirus spike protein.

    Filed: March 20, 2015

    Applicant: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Inventors: Ralph Baric, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Boyd Yount

    the present invention provides a chimeric coronavirus spike protein comprising, in orientation from amino to carboxy terminus: a) a first region comprising a portion of a coronavirus spike protein ectodomain that precedes the receptor binding domain (RBD) as located in a nonchimeric coronavirus spike protein, of a first coronavirus; b) a second region comprising a coronavirus spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) of a second coronavirus that is different from said first coronavirus; c) a third region comprising a portion of a coronavirus spike protein S1 domain as located in a nonchimeric coronavirus spike protein immediately downstream of the RBD, contiguous with a portion comprising a coronavirus spike protein S2 domain as located immediately upstream of a fusion protein domain in a nonchimeric coronavirus spike protein, wherein said third region is of said first coronavirus; and d) a fourth region comprising a portion of a coronavirus spike protein from the start of the fusion protein domain through the carboxy terminal end as located in a nonchimeric coronavirus spike protein of a third coronavirus that is different from said first coronavirus and said second coronavirus.

    ================================================


    Methods and compositions for chimeric coronavirus spike proteins

    Patent number: 9884895

    Abstract: The present invention provides compositions and methods comprising a chimeric coronavirus spike protein.

    Date of Patent: February 6, 2018

    Assignee: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Inventors: Ralph Baric, Sudhakar Agnihothram, Boyd Yount

    ================================================

    https://patents.justia.com/sea…coronavirus+spike+protein

    PREFUSION CORONAVIRUS SPIKE PROTEINS AND THEIR USE

    Publication number: 20200061185

    Coronavirus S ectodomain trimers stabilized in a prefusion conformation, nucleic acid molecules and vectors encoding these proteins, and methods of their use and production are disclosed.

    Filed: October 25, 2017

    Disclosed herein are recombinant coronavirus S ectodomain trimers comprising protomers comprising one or more proline substitution(s) that stabilize the S protein trimer in the prefusion conformation. One class of mutation, comprising one or more (such as two) proline substitutions at or near the boundary between a Heptad Repeat 1 (HR1) and a central helix of the protomers of the coronavirus S ectodomain trimer was found to be surprisingly effective for stabilization of coronavirus S protein trimers in the prefusion conformation. ... In some embodiments, the recombinant alphacoronavirus or betacoronavirus S ectodomain trimer comprises S ectodomains from a NL63-CoV, 229E-CoV, OC43-CoV, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, HKU1-CoV, WIV1-CoV, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), or HKU9-CoV, that comprise the one or two proline substitutions. In some embodiments, the recombinant alphacoronavirus or betacoronavirus S ectodomain trimer comprises: a recombinant SARS-CoV S ectodomain trimer, ...; a recombinant MERS-CoV S ectodomain trimer, ... In some embodiments, the protomers of the recombinant alphacoronavirus or betacoronavirus S ectodomain trimer can be linked to a trimerization domain (such as T4 Fibritin trimerization domain). In additional embodiments, the protomers of the recombinant alphacoronavirus or betacoronavirus S ectodomain trimer can be linked to a transmembrane domain.

    ===> FIGS. (2B) The HKU1-CoV S1 CTD forms quaternary interactions with an adjacent CTD using a surface similar to that used by SARS-CoV CTD to bind its receptor, ACE2. (2C) SD-1 is composed of amino acid residues before and after the S1 CTD. (2D) SD-2 is composed of S1 sequence C-terminal to the CTD, a short peptide following the NTD, and the N-terminal strand of S2, which follows the S1/S2 furin-cleavage site.

    CERN- new measurement of proton mass.


    Preface

    The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei

    have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty

    years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary

    headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton

    mass difference. The findings, which have been published in the current edition of Science, are

    considered a milestone by many physicists and confirm the theory of the strong interaction. As one

    of the most powerful computers in the world, JUQUEEN at Forschungszentrum Jülich was decisive

    for the simulation. [10]

    The diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators give the explanation of the Electroweak

    and Electro-Strong interactions. [2] Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns

    which explain the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom.

    The hadronization is the diffraction pattern of the baryons giving the jet of the color – neutral

    particles!

    Most precise measurement of proton mass

    What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan have made an important step

    toward better understanding this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a

    single proton, they were able to improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the

    existing value.


    Measurement_of_Proton_Mass.pdf

    Magnesium will hydride easily. Aluminium not so much. I have at times put aluminium foil inside fuel tubes as an oxygen getter but never seen anything odd as a result. Considering I am standing next to a reactor with 4 kilos of aluminium dust in it at times I hope there's nothing I have missed.

    Then there is Proton Tech of Canada claiming .1 usd per kilo. I am sceptical of that but want who knows.


    What I am concerned about is the fact that Proton Technology are running (or proposing to run) unbounded reactors underground, with I suspect only the haziest idea about what is actually happening inside them. They will contain many temperature zones that might not produce hydrogen but in my opinion some of those zones are likely to produce both toxic and/or mutagenic compounds that will inevitably migrate into the water table.


    "It's not the reactions you want that are the proble, but the side reactions you don't."

    A comparison between BEV's and HFCEV's - and calculations based on how the hydrogen for fuel cells is produced.]


    This article extract (critiqued here) is from https://theconversation.com/hy…he-laws-of-science-139899 where it was published under a ‘creative commons’ license.

    It describes why hydrogen in less efficient than battery power for cars. There are many holes in this argument, not least the fact that we would need to make millions of tons of batteries every year. I will point out more problems afterwards


    NZC energy vector losses..pdf

    With regard to 'in vitro' drug tests. I can tell you for a fact that most scientists working in bacteriology, virology, or human tissue culture regard results from these tests as no more than 'smoke signals' - that's a direct quote from somebody who does it - since there is very little meaningful overlap between the in vitro and in vivo environments.

    The view from Nairobi...


    THE SPINNING MAGNETIC FORCE

    Mahmoud E. Yousif

    E-mail: [email protected]

    Tel: (+254) 722828833, Fax: (+254-2) 4448540

    C/O Physics Department - The University of Nairobi

    P.O.Box 30197 - Nairobi-Kenya

    PACS No: 12.10.Dm, 13.75.Cs, 21.10.Dr, 21.30.-x, 21.10.Hw

    ABSTRACT

    Formulas for magnitudes of the spinning magnetic field (SMF) produced by protons, electrons and neutrons are derived. Interaction mechanism between each group of particles and with others produced spinning magnetic force (SM-force) of different magnitudes. Energies resulted from these interactions and mass changed are derived.


    THE_SPINNING_MAGNETIC_FORCE (1).pdf

    From 'Chemistry [email protected]


    How many vaccines for Covid-19 are in the works?

    The World Health Organization posts a notice board of vaccine candidates each week. As of 29 June, 16 vaccine candidates are in clinical trials. An impressive 129 candidate are in preclinical evaluation.

    You can split the vaccines into four categories. The first are vaccines based on the inactivated Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus that causes Covid-19. The second class of vaccine is based on nucleic acids – there are five based on RNA, and two on DNA. The third class rely on other viruses to deliver antigens. The final strategy is a subunit vaccine: a viral glycoprotein with an immune boosting adjuvant.



    https://www.chemistryworld.com…373-1a9af13f85-44567417#/

    Great piece in today's Guardian.


    Crucially, the hydrogen must be produced from clean sources to be carbon neutral, or “green”. So-called blue hydrogen, created using methane gas rather than electrolysis of water, has attracted significant interest from fossil fuel producers, but it does not come with the same environmental benefits.

    Hydrogen fuel bubbles up the agenda as investments rocket


    Hyundai Motor Group has been actively leading the transition to hydrogen energy in line with its fuel cell vision. In addition to NEXO, the world’s first mass produced hydrogen-powered vehicle from Hyundai Motor, the Group is expanding into other domains such as buses, trucks, vessels, and trains. The Group is also working closely with companies and governments around the world as a co-chair member of the Hydrogen Council to promote hydrogen energy and scale up infrastructure surrounding fuel cell technology.

    Video Links
    1. The History of Hydrogen and Its Value

    https://youtu.be/PRfqdS21Pgg

    2. Why Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles are Eco-friendly

    https://youtu.be/kjS7u2VzUv4

    3. Are Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Economical?

    https://youtu.be/eRPbQpIS0q0

    4. Hydrogen, Is It Safe?

    https://youtu.be/FpcBl8sbOj0

    5. The Future of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    https://youtu.be/WqcxUqR2Als



    https://news.hyundaimotorgroup…-Value-of-Hydrogen-Energy