Posts by Alan Smith

    Hi There!

    Yes, I have ways could monitor temperatures practically anywhere in the system. Monitoring temperature in the Hexane slurry itself is definitely on my list. But I am a little unclear as to the nature of your speculations? When you say 'hydrated, do you mean 'hydrogenated', or 'hydrated' as in wet? (The opposite of 'dehydrated' - English is a bitch sometimes! :) ) And in either case, what are you speculating I might see?

    Here are a couple of shots of the Ultrasonic nickel cleaning rig prior to some testing. The pictures show the cooling medium reservoir and the 12V peristaltic pump circuit. The cooling medium will probably be water-ice/salt based but could (if required) be switched to dry ice/methanol. The pump and tubing chosen can certainly handle that. The fan shown is to provide some additional cooling for the pump motor and also the lower part of the transducer horn. The oven-glass vacuum flask sits directly on top of the transducer (about which more later) and is fed hexane -if additional hexane is required from the burette mounted on top. Because of the release of hexane (which has a high enough vapour pressure to be problematic) fumes into the vacuum assembly where it may contaminate the oil and cause problems it is not my plan to run the new pump continuously but just maintain sufficient vacuum over a period of some hours to remove unwanted oxygen. I have an auto-switch that can give me variable (and settable) on-off cycles to look after this aspect of the operation. The detachable collar and the 2 springs visible on the vacuum flask are to ensure good contact with the transducer horn. The top surface of the horn has been modified with a 'poured-in-situ' solid epoxy casting which fits exactly to the base of the vacuum flask, which suitably protected with a smear of vaseline was used to form the top surface of the poured epoxy. So, removable but a perfect fit requiring only the addition of a little more vaseline to improve energy-transmission even more.

    A friend working in the semi-conductor business gave me a good tip to reduce vacuum-oil contamination btw. Put a small tube into the oil reservoir of the vacuum pump, as far below the surface as you safely can and bubble air through it while the pump is running -or even when it is 'offline'. They do this in his plant to reduce solvent contamination - the bubbles carry away volatiles - and also the air carries away a surprising amount of heat and helps to keep the oil cool. In the plant they drill into the oil reservoir and make this air-bleed a permanent fixture, but I am reluctant to do that - preferring the dip-tube method - since I don't want to risk putting metal fragments from the drilling operation into the system. The pump will get an oil-change later, since I have no wish to bugger any seals. Even rubber ones.

    Researchers in this field have tended to use another alkane-group medium to create a metal-powder slurry for ultrasound treatment - decane rather than hexane - which is both more viscous and less volatile, but I have settled on hexane for practical and economic reasons. Decane is around 10X the price of reagent-grade hexane is the economic reason for choosing it, but the other factor is that hexane's lower viscosity will compensate for the fact that I am using a loose-coupled 100W system rather than a 1 or 2 kW direct immersion probe that better-funded labs have used. Being more mobile, a hexane slurry should give me more agitation and more cavitation than something more syrupy. Alkanes are used btw, since they contain no bound oxygen, being 'pure' hydrocarbons. And the lower power is hopefully made less of a factor in that I have no limit on how long I can run the system for other than an occasional need for sleep.

    Testing the ultrasound system has thrown up something interesting. A broad-band transducer (20-200kHz) seems to give me much better cavitation/agitation in neat hexane than a 'tuned' 28kHz horn of the same power -even though the driver circuit itself is 28kHz. Since the two transducers are of differing diameters with the broadband one being exactly the same size as the flask, rather than larger as the tuned horn is, I can only assume that this is because of better acoustic coupling. This is rather like matching antennas to transmitters in the radio game!

    Finally an overall view of around half of LFH's laboratory space, which is being constantly upgraded (as I find time and money to do it!). Testing of this system is continuing, and the first live run during this week.


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    Don't bother - it is not worth the pixels. I suspect that you are being made fun of. 'I would probably know' is sufficiently hubristic in this context to trigger the glandus satriricus of almost anybody who has one.

    If the contribution from wind turbines and solar energy to global energy production is to rise from the current 400 TWh to 12,000 TWh in 2035 and 25,000 TWh in 2050, as projected by the World Wide Fund for Nature, about 3,200 million tonnes of steel, 310 million tonnes of aluminium and 40 million tonnes of copper will be required to build the latest generations of wind and solar facilities.

    These are some really strange figures. Even if demand for electricity rises 30X over the next 20 years lets look at them a little closer. You are talking about 3,550M tons of metal (excluding concrete) to build the installations. This suggests that we would end up with 100M 35.5 ton (metal parts only) generators of various kinds. Which seems quite a lot- especially as solar panels are using less and less metal. And IF each of those generators produced (for arguments sake) 1MW, we would get.....?

    You do the sums.

    I'm not sure that Defkalion ever found any investors beyond the Bank of N.Cyprus. And BTW, blaming Hadjichristos all the time lets the real rascal of the hook. Alex Tsologou (from memory) who in general kept a low profile.

    f IH is investing in Dr. Kim's theory, IH is actually investing in the ill fated Defkalion technology. The common wisdom is that DGT had nothing. But this latest move from IH speaks against this nonsense.

    Axil. I once told you that every time you mention Dr. Kim's name in connection with Defkalion a kitten dies.

    Apart from the fact that AFAIK Dr.Kim never actually saw a DGT reactor in action, DGT's own staff have confessed they had nothing, their former business partner in Italy said they had nothing and Professor Stremmenos their one time advocate told me (in person) they had nothing.

    By what magic do you deduce that they did?

    An interesting abstract from the 16th meeting of the Japan Cold fusion Group earlier this year. If anyone (Jed?) has access to the complete paper I - and others I am sure- would be very interested to read it.

    Thermophysical analysis of anomalous heat generation (AHG) reaction between metal and hydrogen Tadahiko Mizuno (HEAD Co.) Hideki Yoshino (C. P. Company LTD.)

    We have developed a strict method of measurement and analysis to confirm AHG between hydrogen and metal. The factors involved in the energy analysis are electricity, mass (heat capacity), thermal conductivity, mechanical and thermal radiation. These contribute the most to heat analysis and can be easily estimated using matrix equations to calculate unknown quantities. We describe the results of the AHG experiment and the methods of thermal calibration within the framework of our chosen measurement system. To confirm AHG, we elected four factors that contribute to positive heat values: input power, ambient temperature, temperature of the reaction system, and pump temperature. For simplicity, we neglected heat losses from radiation or evaporation of the recirculating water. We estimated that an even larger heat generation would result from incorporating these heat losses into the calculation.

    The observed value of ratio of heat out and input (Hout/Hin) was less than unity for the plasma discharge test. The value of excess heat could be estimated from the input energy that was consumed by the chemical reaction during the plasma discharge. We can compare the AHG test with the calibration and to obtain the mathematically proven that abnormal heat was produced because the correlation coefficient R of the calibration data was very high as 0.9996. We limit out focus to the range of input was from 40 to 50 W; there are 10 calibration data sets and 20 AHG data sets in this range. We use Welch’s t-test to compare the average value of the Hout/Hin for the experimental tests with the calibrations to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the two results. Null hypothesis: H0, the average value of Hout/Hin is equal for the test and control data sets.

    Alternative hypothesis: H1, the average value of Hout/Hin for the test data set than is larger than that for the control data set. From the significant difference test results, when it is the critical region 1%, the P-value (one side) is many orders of magnitude smaller than 0.01, and the t-value is much larger (10.81) than the t-boundary value. Further, we reject the null hypothesis; the average value of the test data is greater than the calibration data with 99% accuracy. We confirmed the occurrence of AHG through experiments and mathematical analysis. We measured excess heat was 10 W at input was 40 W; we estimated that the specific AHG was 0.3 W/g (on the basis of the mass of the Ni reacting material) and 30 mW/cm (on the basis of the surface area of Ni). This excess heat generation was calculated by a rigorous thermal analysis. Until now, AHG was confirmed due to its low experimental reproducibility and disagreement with theory; however, this study definitively confirmed AHG. This finding is a significant advancement with important ramifications. Further research is needed to elucidate the theory and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Varying different parameters, such as the reactant gas, we will be able to develop methods for controlling the process and harnessing the phenomenon for practical applications. We plan to conduct even stricter thermal analyses in the future and to broaden the scope of parameters evaluated.

    On a loosely related note I wonder if by coating a metal that expands a lot when absorbing hydrogen with a very hard one (perhaps a non-metal, like a proton conducting ceramic) that does not expand at all an even higher pressure at the interface between both materials could be achieved.

    It may be that the inclusion of transition metals within a zeolite framework can do this - not so much a coating process, as one dependent on the percolation of metal particles into voids in the Zeolite.


    I'd like to thank you, and Alain etc, for preserving LENR forum as a place where rational debate can be held without censorship. Great example of this is randombit0, whose repetitions are tedious and manner troll-like, but it is right that she should post and those posts be countered. It is only so that truth can be established.

    @THH Thank you for your kind words. Incidentally, I am delighted to note that for the moment (it won't last long) scientific and technical discussions dominate the 'latest posts' , rather than the tedious and repetitive (to me at least) chewing over of legal matters which nobody here can influence or predict in any meaningful way. If this continues for more than the next hour or so we may yet see the return of 'serious' scientists like Peter Ekstrom (to name just two).