Posts by Alan Smith

    According to your business exemple, you suggested to switch old diesel trucks by news powered by fuel cell .

    Would it not be interesting to buy rather classic petrol engines trucks that will burn hydrogen directly without CO2 too ?

    They would be cheaper to buy, allowing a faster cash back ?

    This is indeed possible, but you have to weigh a number of things before deciding how to use the hydrogen. I will entirely overlook the fact that there are very few petrol-engined lorries left. I think they have not been made in the EU since the 1950's. It is possible to re-convert modern Diesel engines to spark ignition, but expensive. Also the hydrogen tanks are not cheap and the effect of burning hydrogen over a long period in an engine not designed for it is uncertain, diesels for example use the fuel as a cylinder lubricant too.

    I think the credit terms available to fleet operators wanting to buy new trucks, the possible imposition of carbon taxes on freight companies, and the availability of cheap hydrogen are the key factors. It's a longer term game here, not many freight companies in the EU run vehicles more than 5 years old, by 2030 all the Diesels might be gone.

    Sorry I believe that is a wrong assumption. It can and will reduce the power going out if it us impossible by the laws of physics and it's electronic design, to do so. Increasing resistance of the filament will insure this at some point.

    It is only a wrong assumption if you believe that everything is being driven at near it's natural limit by a plain vanilla DC PSU. Imagine a PSU with current-limiting. It will deliver pulses of current up to its pre-set maximum continuously. If the voltage output is sufficiently high it will do this without regard to changes in resistance since control of its output is external to the heater. I suppose that you could argue that the slope of the saw-tooth output curve would change since increased resistance would increase rise-time, but this actually means the PSU spends more time on, rather than more time off. Fewer but longer pulses.

    Right now I'm only one slice of toast into the day, but I think i'm right.

    Didn't Wyttenbach mention it the other way around .... better coat Pd with Ni .... ?

    When it comes to depositing fragments of one material on another it is not generally possible to determine which way around they are. We tend to thing that whichever has the largest mass is most important, but if you think about it, that is not necessarily a good way to judge. It's like asking 'is the butter stuck to the toast, or the toast stuck to the butter?


    Trina Solar, a leading total solutions provider for solar energy, announced on October 31 that it has supplied 17MW of PV modules to the largest floating PV plant in Europe.

    The ‘O’MEGA 1’ PV project has been developed by Akuo Energy, France’s leading independent producer of renewable energy, under the specific constraints of the French CRE4.1 tender, won with Trina Solar low carbon footprint modules. Once operational, the plant located in Piolenc (Vaucluse) will produce 100% renewable energy covering the consumption of more than 4,700 households. The plant is spread over a 17-hectare property and will avoid the emission of roughly 11,100 tons of CO2 per year.

    ‘O’MEGA 1’ is powered by more than 46,000 units of Trina Solar’s TSM-DEG14.20(II) dual-glass PERC monocrystalline modules in its low carbon footprint version. The DUOMAX M Plus module offers high output performance for large utility-scale solar farms. Available with industry-leading 1500V UL/IEC rating, the DUOMAX M Plus top-end efficiency and high-power density ensures maximum energy output while withstanding challenging environmental conditions. Its durable dual-glass structure made with high quality solar glass and encapsulation protects solar cells from strong humidity over lifetime, preventing energy loss from PID (potential induced degradation).

    (My comment: it has error correction! Always amazes me that biology can do that)

    In the case of a virus or a bacterium, a mutation that renders it less transmissible, less able to reproduce, or more visible to a host's immune system is an error that will always be corrected.

    Scathing COVID-19 book from Lancet editor

    Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet, has written “a sort of history, diagnosis and prescription” of the COVID-19 pandemic in real time, writes reviewer Stephen Buranyi. Horton’s new book is haunted by the question: how did two of the richest, most powerful and most scientifically advanced countries in the world — the United States and the United Kingdom — get it so wrong, and cause such ongoing pain for their inhabitants?

    Nature | 6 min read

    Bold push for new super-collider

    The CERN Council — the body that oversees the European particle-physics lab — has given a strong, if preliminary, endorsement for the building of a 100-kilometre successor to the Large Hadron Collider. CERN hopes to raise €21 billion (US$24 billion) to build its new circular machine, starting around 2038. It would collide electrons with positrons to produce myriad Higgs bosons and dissect their finer properties. The tunnel could later be reused for an even more powerful proton–proton collider that could, in principle, discover entirely new particles. The machine won over competitors, including a linear electron–positron collider and one that would accelerate muons instead.

    Nature | 5 min read

    Source: 2020 Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics


    Well, my thoughts on 'single most convincing' change from time to time. It's a bit like 'your favourite film' - also subject to change. Currently I like these two papers:-

    Storms GD 1.pdf

    Storms GD 2.pdf

    Ed Storms and Brian Scanlon both have backgrounds in top-flight nuclear physics labs. Ed has complained to me that 'nobody seemed interested in replicating it', but to me it is simple clear and positive.


    Emission of radiation is characteristic of nuclear reactions. Such radiation is required to

    carry away momentum and energy from the reaction and deposit it as heat in the environment. In

    contrast, the nuclear reactions associated with cold fusion appear to produce less radiation than

    expected when detection is attempted outside of the apparatus. This unexpected behavior has

    encouraged a search for low-energy radiation within the device. This search is important because

    detected radiation clearly shows that nuclear reactions are occurring and provides information

    about the process. Consequently, such observations are far more supportive of a nuclear reaction

    than the conventional measurement of heat.

    In addition to heat energy, cold fusion is found to produce helium1-12 and occasionally

    tritium13-21. The helium is expected to originate as energetic alpha particles and the tritium as

    energetic tritons. A search for such energetic particles has been undertaken by other workers

    using CR-39 as the detector.22-26 However, energetic particles can also be detected using a silicon

    barrier detector (SBD), from which their energy can be obtained, or by use of a Geiger-Mueller

    (GM) counter, using absorbers to determine their energy. These methods are used in this study to

    measure the energy of the detected radiation. This paper further describes studies reported

    previously. 27,28

    Two methods to initiate a fusion reaction have been explored. First, a discharge has been

    studied in low-pressure D2 gas using various kinds of cathode materials. Second, fine powders of

    materials containing palladium have been exposed to pressurized D2 gas. Both the SBD and GM

    detectors were used in the former study while only the SBD was used in the latter work.