Posts by Ecco

    My source was MFMP, having been told by Piantelli.
    I'm not clear on how the hydrogen was used in this case it seems, after re-reading the article.


    I'm guessing that the nickel sample was previously exposed to hydrogen. Subsequent low temperature exposure to liquid helium would then cause the hydrogen to desorb in atomic form from the sample, which is where something unexpected could happen.


    In later patents by Piantelli et al. like for example EP2754156B1 it's hinted that as long as hydrogen atoms are dissociated and ionized in the process, a transition metal lattice is not strictly required to observe the effect, which is mostly about creating a special reactive form of hydrogen. Piantelli calls it "H-", but it might be something different than the name suggests.

    A question as a non-expert in neutron detection. Can a muon signal (as Holmlid is detecting) be in some cases mistaken for a neutron signal, especially when muons are not expected? I guess this would not be the case with a cloud chamber, but what about when a cloud chamber is not used?


    My guess is that the slower muons could undergo capture in the detection material, giving rise to an elusive neutron-like signal. I could be wrong, however.

    There are indications that the software picked up the wrong peak for 61Ni in the preliminary analysis, so there might not actually be statistically significant anomalies in the Ni isotope distribution. Besides this, a screenshot of the entire spectrum in the report appears to show unexpected peaks elsewhere, but it would probably be premature to call them anomalous without a more detailed look.

    Irradiation of deuterated metal surfaces by energetic photons (X-rays, etc) has indeed already been used and suggested in LENR experiments and patents.
    It's also true that uranium metal is capable of absorbing an large amount of hydrogen, by atomic percentage.
    I haven't searched in detail for references on possible cold fusion experiments in the '20s, but the author appears to have done basic fact checking at least. I'm not sure about Keshe, though.


    I don't see why this should be considered as propaganda.To me feels more like it the notion that LENR is 100% safe.

    I suspected that some E-Cat related websites were harvesting emails and IP addresses (and on a few occasions more than these) but I didn't expect this from the Sifferkoll blog.


    EDIT: To clarify: I'm aware that the owner has been doing this for quite some time with traffic logs, but on identifiable user comments it's not a very polite thing to do.

    There appears to be a reference to past attempts (by other researchers?) with Li and other metals, but the patent description and especially patent claims 9-15 (which I guess would be the ones that matter) are mostly referring to mixtures of Ni, Fe and Cu powder, with optionally C and/or Cr. In this case the mixture should be dry. They also claim using particles of size in the range of several µm.

    Some more tidbits from the patent, hopefully this will pique the interest of others too.


    It's claimed that most transition metals, actinides and lanthanides work, but the main elements used appear to be Ni and Fe. Small amounts of Cu are good too.


    Quote

    In order to improve energy production and waste treatment, the inventor made long researches on the low energy transmutation assisted by transition metals. The following species has been identified as suitable to assist transmutation: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, lanthanides and actinides. They can be industrially pure or alloyed. A low presence of Cu within the compound of metal powder appears experimentally to be favorable. However, Cu is not a driver metal. Cu has a function of enhancing the transmutation.


    Quote

    In one embodiment, the dusty compound comprises Ni and Fe. The composition can be 50% to 95% Ni and 5% to 50% Fe in mass. The composition can be 70% to 90% Ni and 10%) to 30%) Fe in mass. Ni atoms are transmuted into Cu during the process.


    In one embodiment, the dusty compound comprises 1% to 10%> Cu in mass. In one embodiment, the dusty compound comprises 2 to 7% Cu in mass. Cu is part of the dusty compound while not being as such a driver of the transmutation reaction. Cu is also a product of the transmutation reaction from Ni. Dusty copper enhances the thermal conductivity of the dusty compound.


    Quote

    An addition of graphite may be done in the dusty compound. The dusty compound may comprise 25% to 40% graphite in mass, preferably 30 to 40 %. Graphite is useful when heating by micro-wave. Graphite may have particles of an average size not greater than 10 um.


    Simplified theory of operation:


    Quote

    Energy is provided to heat the hydrogen, the nuclear waste and the metallic driver at the beginning of the process. Heating can be provided by an electric heater and/or by a microwave generator and/or a laser. The electric field is polarizing the particles of nuclear waste and the metallic driver. Polarization enhances the transfer of protons from the nuclear waste to the metallic driver. The phenomenon involves the transfer of protons activated by ultrasound. After some time, heating is stopped and the process is exothermic.[...]


    It appears that the electric field generator is the main driver here. Switching it off or inverting its polarity damps the reaction.


    Quote

    In case the process should be interrupted, switching off the electric field generator causes a quick decrease of the transmutation. It is good to switch off the micro-wave generator, if any. It is also recommended to switch off the ultra- sound generator, if any. The electric heater or heaters may be switched off. Cooling is maintained. In other terms, any energy input into the reactor 1 is switched off. However, setting the electric field generator to an inverted electric field of absolute value significantly lower to the absolute value of the electric field during the deactivation phase is possible. Hydrogen may be removed from the chamber 7 by a nitrogen flush, preferably at low temperature.


    They don't claim generating magnetic fields voluntarily:


    Quote

    Generally, there is no voluntary generation of magnetic field.


    Transmutation of medical waste 60Co to 61Ni or 62Ni is mentioned. This reminds me of when Rossi claimed using a proprietary process for enriching 62Ni.


    Quote

    An experiment has been made to treat 60Co often present in medical wastes. The hypothesis of transmutation of 60Co into stable isotopes 61Ni or 62Ni is based on measurements. The level of emission of neutrons and of gamma rays of the treated material formerly containing 60Co is close to zero. [...]


    A spectral analysis of the treated material was made with a SEM EDAX instrument. The results are shown on figure 5. The spectrum shows the almost exclusive presence of Nickel evidenced by the three peaks designated "Ni". The position corresponding to Cobalt is indicated by "Co" and reveals a very low content of Co.

    Arnaud wrote:

    The patent talks also of an ultrasonic waves source of 400~2000 W at a frequency between 250 and 600 kHz. What could it be ?


    It's a separate device or an array of devices probably similar to those used in ultrasonic cleaning (ultrasonic transducers).





    Quote

    The reactor 1 comprises an ultrasound generator 16. The ultrasound generator 16 is arranged in the concavity of the lower half shell of the insulation part 15 of the electric field generator. The ultrasound generator 16 is arranged between the lower electrode 13 and the lower plate 15c of the insulation part 15, along a vertical axis. The ultrasound generator 16 is surrounded by the lower cylindrical rim 15d of the insulation part 15, in a horizontal plane. The ultrasound generator 16 has a nominal electric power comprised between 400 and 2000 W. The power is the electric power needed by the generator. The ultrasound generator 16 has a frequency comprised between 250 and 600 kHz, for example 300 kHz. The frequency can be fixed.

    From the above patent:


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    [...] Generating an electric field in the chamber (7), the electric field being applied to the dusty compound and the radioactive material [...]


    Quote

    [...] The reactor 1 comprises an electric field generator. The electric field generator comprises an anode 13 and a cathode 14 arranged in the chamber 7. The anode 13 and the cathode 14 have facing surfaces [...]


    This might be related to the same system described in the provisional patent linked in Rossi's world patent application for his Fluid Heater patent.


    https://patentscope.wipo.int/s…621/PDOC/WO2016018851.pdf


    An interesting patent application was linked on the Cobraf forum on May 29 2016, 21:55. The inventor is a researcher called Giuseppe De Bellis, from Ferrara, Italy (which is where Rossi was located in 2011-2012). It's been noted that it has a canadian patent application with an applicant located in Cyprus and therefore that it might also be related with Defkalion people.


    It's possible that the patent might be describing something similar to early E-Cat devices.


    Full document from WIPO
    https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016026720&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCT+Biblio


    WO 2016026720 A1 On Google Patents


    Abstract:

    Quote

    An exothermic transmutation method for at least partially deactivating radioactive material, the method comprising the steps of: - Arranging a dusty compound comprising at least a transition metal in a chamber (7) of a reactor (1) outside a closed container; - Arranging the radioactive material in said chamber (7), the radioactive material being and staying encapsulated in said closed container; - Providing hydrogen in contact with the dusty compound and with the radioactive material at a pressure higher than the ambient pressure; - Generating an electric field in the chamber (7), the electric field being applied to the dusty compound and the radioactive material; - Energizing the dusty compound by heating, then generating a transmutation of said at least one transition metal into another transition metal and proton emission towards the radioactive material, said radioactive material being at least partially deactivated, - Removing thermal energy from the reactor (1).


    The patent is relatively detailed. It also claims that Sergio Focardi performed some calculations.


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    Theoretical calculations of energy productivity, carried out by Professor Sergio Focardi (Nuclear Physics, University of Bologna), offered a COP value equal to 463 (value significantly higher than that recorded during experiments, which are preliminary).


    There also are details like:


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    Attempts based on Ni62 in a copper tube with hydrogen have been made. The energy production was below expectation.

    @Zephir_AWT: I'm not sure if I'm misunderstanding what you're writing.


    As far as I know, Rydberg matter is composed by clusters of atoms bonding with their Rydberg electron (thus by definition their outermost one) delocalized in a conduction band.

    @axil: even before this, that nuclear reactions can be easily achieved at low energy in the laboratory simply by using hydrogen and a catalyst heated in a partial vacuum means there's something wrong or incomplete in the current scientific understanding of how nature works and will have to be dealt with sooner or later. It is not conceivable that these processes are not already spontaneously and pervasively occurring in the universe.


    This does not only apply to Holmlid's ultra-dense hydrogen, but all other LENR claims and results as well.

    @axil: in inertial confinement fusion both the temperature and density of stellar cores is exceeded - even if only briefly - so I don't think it takes a huge leap to relate those assertions to stellar nucleosynthesis, whether the liquid/metallic hydrogen sun hypothesis is accepted or not.


    Putting this aside, there might be implications for past results in nuclear fusion weaponry too, which work with principles similar to ICF (i.e. the compression stage).

    @axil: the concept of ions condensing to a phase of matter composed of planar solid clusters (which you might define as crystals) strongly reminds me that of Rydberg Matter, which in theory, as far as I know, can by formed by any element capable of being brought in an excited state in sufficiently large amounts. I remember Holmlid writing that this condensation is very difficult to achieve in a gas (e.g. cold Rydberg gases) compared to other methods.

    @sveinol
    Thanks for answering!


    My understanding from the diagram and the associated text was that given enough density and temperature (and speed?) the transition from regular hydrogen to H(0) could be possible, without an intermediate step to H(1). Here's a very relevant excerpt (it even mentions that the condensation to H(0) itself can give off large amounts of energy, which might in part answer the question of @Mats002):



    I'm aware that conditions during ignition in ICF might not be exactly the same as in stars, but as there already are theories embracing the possibility of stars not primarily composed of plasma (such as the one @axil linked) and since prof. Holmlid has already tried to link Rydberg Matter in all its forms with observed and unobserved phenomena in space (e.g. dark matter), I wonder if it's really too much of a stretch to think that it could be also involved with stellar nucleosynthesis.


    I haven't seen recent theoretical papers from Holmlid dealing with H(0) in the Universe in detail, perhaps he has some in preparation?