It is well known that most (if not all) tests in the NA and EU are CT 35+
Not here in Geneva, Switzerland. Only a minority, less than 5%, have a CT>35. The CT median is 25-26. In either NP or saliva.
It is well known that most (if not all) tests in the NA and EU are CT 35+
Not here in Geneva, Switzerland. Only a minority, less than 5%, have a CT>35. The CT median is 25-26. In either NP or saliva.
Along what is being suggested in the paper, perhaps desorption of hydrogen or deuterium in pores and cavities in the material, similarly to what was described in 2009 (see references below), with possibly in addition to that the help of alkali and other impurities which would be easily introduced by electrolysis and in the initial Pd manufacturing.
Agreed though using another alkali to have H atoms in an excited state seems impracticable to me in that experimental framework. The challenge is to have a desorption energy high enough to produce excited H atoms at the right energy level so that the RM can form. Standard desorption of H from a metal is at a too low energy level to produce excited enough Rydberg atoms. On the other hand, forced desorption e.g. through electrolysis from the bulk of a metal, or through temperature cycling with a fast increase in temperature, can lead to H atoms that have a high enough energy level and this close to a metal surface. If the desorption energy is not high enough ordinary H2 molecules will form and the increase in pressure (in a dry cell) will make the formation of RM still more difficult.
Rather than alkali impurities, if some part of the metal surface has some carbon or oxygen, the H atoms will be able to desorb from these parts of carbon or metal oxide layers directly at the right energy level with RM forming at the remaining free parts of the metal layer (or through H spillover if another metal layer is in the vicinity). As such, some carbon or oxygen may be better "impurities" than another alkali.
With regard to the link between UDH and F&P-like CF electrolysis experiments, desorption of D atoms into cracks forced by electrolysis from saturated Pd --> formation of RM of D in these cracks --> condensation of RM of D into UDD --> annihilation of UDD into mesons --> kaons/pions = strange radiations, works only if in the first step the desorption of D is boosted by electrolysis or with the presence of carbon or oxygen impurities to reach a high enough energy level of H Rydberg atoms.
May be you missed it: Mills did measure the H*-H* bond as 495eV. Homlid's data is problematic as he has no H*-H*. He has clusters of them (H*n) where other resonant couplings do occur too.
I admit that I don't follow anymore Mills. I read his Theory of Everything maybe 10y ago and found so many discrepancies that I gave up.
If Mills measured 495eV, it is actually in the same range as Holmlid (~600eV). My point is that if the bond energy is truly in that range I cannot see how UDH can revert to RM where electrons excitation levels are max in the 20eV range.
What is the distance between 2 protons in Mills model?
Thank you can, you're a gold mine when talking about UDH.
I understand that transition states may exist between UDH and RM, and that these "highly excited UDH states" may revert to RM because of the similar energy levels involved, however this would mean the existence of excitation energy levels of several hundreds of eVs of chemical origin. To put things in perspective a covalent "strong" bond is typically in the eV range (e.g. 4.5 eV for H2 as shown in the picture). 600 eV is in a different league. And if truly the case my point still stands on how to transit from "lowly excited" UDH back to "highly excited" UDH. To have transition states does just displace the issue but not solve it.
I'm not saying that Holmlid is wrong. Just that this claim is extraordinary. And if truly the case, that the understanding of how bonds of several hundreds of eVs can be created between a group of protons and electrons would be a huge step forward in the understanding of UDH.
Any green tech oriented SPAC that could benefit LENR on the horizon?
I think it's being suggested that such high-excitation UDH is close to the energy level of the RM it is formed from, for example in the graph provided in the latest review paper:
The graph is not up to scale. It is only schematic. The energy well of the UDH should be 2 orders of magnitude (~100x) lower than shown. See the text and energy values that come with the graph, in both the original paper and the review.
When it's formed, UDH is highly excited and easily reverts to ordinary Rydberg matter. This excitation energy, as pointed out earlier from the latest review paper, often isn't easily dissipated to the surrounding environment, but is retained in the form of internal cluster motion.
This aspect remains obscure to me. How can RM atoms characterized by excited states in the eV range form UDH/UDD back and forth when the (ultra-)condensation energy is believed to be at least two orders of magnitude higher? Something doesn't add up here.
Mutations so far did not bring any additional risk. Do not believe anything the fear & hate press writes. In Geneva with >80% UK (18.104.22.168) variant the case mortality did go down as already 3 months ago Germans did predict.
Yes. Actually, since mid-January, after an excess mortality observed in November and December 2020, the mortality rate is now significantly lower here in Geneva than the average of the previous years. And the curve still went down the last week of February with no sign of short-trem inflexion back to "normal" levels. Therefore less mortality is still expected for at least the month of March.
Epidemiologists didn't expect this "negative excess mortality". Some say it is the result of vaccination. IMHO it is more a natural "negative rebound" after the excess mortality observed in Nov and Dec caused by the death of most fragile people, together with, as you rightly said, a now more prevalent less deadly mutant.
Stevenson you may be interested to read what has been said in several threads here on how SR can be meson radiation generated from the spallation of ultra dense hydrogen. All 11 points/characteristics of SR that you mentioned above are met when mesons are generated from UDH through e.g. a laser.
It's interesting to put those numbers in perspective. It is easy to normally assume that the number of cosmic muons reaching the Earth's surface would instead be many orders of magnitude larger, in comparison.
I suspect Holmlid et al. might be planning a system where the generated mesons and muons would be scattered and stopped by layer of UDH surrounding the laser target, but whether this would be materially feasible (i.e. possible to develop into an actually useful product) within short timetables is not clear to me, even if technically it should be.
That would make sense: a central-symmetric reactor with multilayers of UDH where only the central UDH layer would be targeted by a laser and the secondary layers only used to harvest energy.
FYI in the past I had some email exchange with Holmlid in which I shared my surprise that as many as 10^13 atoms may be annihilated with a single laser pulse that lasts a few nanoseconds only. He said that he was relatively confident with this number though he assumed some homogeneity in the angular distribution of the products of the reaction. I personnaly doubt that such a high number of reactions can take place otherwise the muon shower generated by his own experiments would have killed anyone in the tens of meters in Uppsala. Also the numbers don't add up when calculating the energy dissipated in the vicinity close to the reactor, and this even when one very conservatively assumes (1) that the generated muons fall in the minimum of the Bethe-Bloch curve of muon stopping power, and (2) the presence of not much msterial close to the reaction that could stop the muons.
For our own experiments we put in place an important radio protection system made of lead, cadmium and water with boric acid, but that system seems like a drop in an ocean to stop 10^13 relativistic kaons->pions->muons generated every tens of nanoseconds. Either I'm missing something or the numbers put forward by Holmlid are grossly overestimated....
An important challenge, IMHO the most difficult, is to harvest the energy generated by the spallation of the hydrogen. The products of the reaction are relativistic and hard to stop in order to capture their kinetic energy through any energy loss mechanism, e.g. nuclear scattering. See Particle-Interaction-Matter-upload (1).pdf from CERN
for an excellent introduction to particle interactions with matter and stopping power.
Also, Holmlid claims that each laser pulse can annihilate 10^13 hydrogen atoms. That's a large number. To say the least. If converted to muons, a small reactor would generate as many highly penetrating muons per second as the whole surface of the earth is receiving per second. Not good for human health. Meaning that energy generation through UDH spallation becomes scalable only if the products are stopped early, otherwise not only hydrogen would be annihilated but also the human race. Playing with a new technology that generates an energy level that is 100 times higher than current most highly energetic technology (fusion, that we still don't master...) does not come without risks.
There is no need to lead any charge. Any doctor who wants to use ivermectin is free to do so. It is being widely used, even though most experts feel that tests show it does not work.
This statement makes no sense. Merck, the Big Pharma that makes the ivermectin, says it does not work! It discourages the use of this drug. Why would this company tell people not to use its own product? If it was only interested in making money, why would it not want people to use the drug? This is contrary to the company's interest.
Maybe because it's not their "own product" and that there is no money to make given that Merck's patent on ivermectin expired in 1995 and since then Merck donated (i.e. not sold) more than 4 billions doses worldwide? See https://www.merck.com/stories/mectizan/
Or that ivermectin would impact their multi-$100M sales of Mk-7110, MK-4482 and Rebif repurposed for COVID-19 treatment...
Again, here is the science on ivermectin:
I'm still waiting for the first negative study of ivermectin on COVID-19, despite what you continue to claim....
Out diffusion seems to accumulate the missing fusion ingredient in the so called catalyst. There are many examples. The most interesting is cited as follow from the book Fire From Ice: "Yamaguichi and Nishioka detected a gigantic burst of over a million neutrons per second (sustained for two to three seconds) from a thin plate of palladium coated with special oxide and gold films on either side. Employing a pressurized gas cell, they initially infused the three-centimeter square plate with deuterium. Apparently what prompted the unusual outpouring of neutrons was lowering the gas pressure around the millimeter-thin palladium. Soon two more huge neutron burst appeared each a few minutes after beginning depressurization. ...Coincident with the first neutron blast, the flat plate buckled like a potato chip and the gold coating on one surface changed color - consistent with the gold film alloying with the underlying palladium at a temperature probably exceeding 1064 C. The temperature of the plate's steel sample holder rose 50 C.
Unfortunately, they could not repeat this result. They believed that controlled out-diffusion caused the result.
If by "out diffusion" you mean desorption of H or D from the bulk of a material at the surface of that material, then yes this is how Rydberg Matter is believed to be created. When the material is a metal that can form a metal hydride with H or D, the desorption of H or D from the bulk of the metal should be stimulated in order to produce H or D atoms in an excited Rydberg state, and this in a low pressure environment.
Good find, thanks!
I tried to check whether there was some follow up on this paper, but failed to find some.
Some publications by Shmalko can be found at ResearchGate(membership required) but only 1 is related to the subject, the publication itself.
This particular paper basically confirms my expectations that Hydrogen/Deuterium that interacts with specific metal lattices allows for excited forms (e.g. Rydberg matter) of H/D. In other words UDH/UDD could be (indirectly) created by these effects (sorbtion-desorbtion).
You can find following this link the 18 articles that cite that paper:
Some are from the same group.
Returning back to the subject of Rydberg matter, do you think that there is a clear difference in the need for the additional catalyst, e.g. that of Potassium doped Iron Oxide types, between creating UDD or UDH with the presence of Palladium?
I am wondering this because I have the impression that Pd-D combinations seem to have more nuclear phenomena than Pd-H combinations (without additional catalysts) in many publications.
Recent publication by Forsley also indicates this:
Title: "Transmutations observed from pressure cycling palladium silver metals with deuterium gas"
Hydrogen, deuterium, and helium gases were separately cycled through a Johnson-Matthey purifier containing coiled palladium silver alloy tubing: Pd25Ag (75 wt% Pd and 25 wt% Ag). During the cycling of D2 gas, evidence of anomalous heat production was observed. However, during the cycling of H2 and He, very little (H2) or no (He) unusual heat events were observed. After cycling the D2 gas through the coiled tubing for several months, Pd25Ag samples showed an increase in Cu and Fe compared with the amounts in unexposed Pd25Ag. Chromium, manganese, and zinc were detected in gas-cycled Pd25Ag samples, whereas they were not detected in unexposed Pd25Ag samples. In particular, Zn was present in the gas-cycled Pd25Ag material in larger quantities than either Cr or Mn. Although a small amount of Cu was present in the Pd25Ag coil before the D2 gas cycling, 7 times more was present after the cycling. Multiple material characterization techniques were used to obtain both pre-test and post-test elemental composition. The results indicate that novel post-test elements, primarily on the surface, were created by unknown nuclear mechanisms at low energy.
See Shmalko et al, the formation of excited H species using metal hydrides:
Also attached here for convenience [email protected]
In my opinion this article is top of the list among the most underrated articles in LENR. Published in 1995 way before UDH/UDD studies by Holmlid. A nice link between LENR and Holmlid's work.
Then, based on the literature on H and D desorption activation energy for various metals, it becomes clear that H works with Ni but not with Pd or Ti, because for the latter the external stimulus to desorb H at a high enough activation energy to form excited Rydberg H atoms would be too high, whereas D works particularly well with Pd and Ti but not with Ni.
The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 increases over 5 months in patients with anosmia/dysgeusia
The factors involved in the persistence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are unknown. We evaluated the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in personnel from 10 healthcare facilities and its association with individuals’ characteristics and COVID-19 symptoms in an observational study. We enrolled 4735 subjects (corresponding to 80% of all personnel) over a period of 5 months when the spreading of the virus was drastically reduced. For each participant, we determined the rate of antibody increase or decrease over time in relation to 93 features analyzed in univariate and multivariate analyses through a machine learning approach. In individuals positive for IgG (≥ 12 AU/mL) at the beginning of the study, we found an increase [p= 0.0002] in antibody response in symptomatic subjects, particularly with anosmia/dysgeusia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.753 – 4.301), in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. This may be linked to the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the olfactory bulb.
It is becoming clear that the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 can last at least 6 months in symptomatic patients 1, but it seems to decline in asymptomatics 2. Similarly, a reduction of antibody response in asymptomatic individuals was shown in a study with a fewer number of individuals (n = 37) 3. The antibody response in COVID-19 patients is associated with the establishment of a memory B cell response which is higher at 6 months 1, however, it is not clear whether there are features that correlate with this sustained B cell response. We previously showed that an anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological analysis allowed us to follow the diffusion of the virus within healthcare facilities in areas differently hit by the virus 4. At 5 months of distance, we analyzed the duration of this antibody response and evaluated whether there were features correlating with maintenance, reduction or increase of the antibody response.
We assessed the correlation of the rate of antibody increase or decrease with the different analyzed features. In Tables 1 and 2 are reported the rates for individual classes of features with relative statistical analysis. As shown, in the 5 months of observation, females sustained the antibody response better than males (p = 0.01); similarly non-medical healthcare professionals (specifically, healthcare partner operators) had higher antibody rates (p = 0.0009). The levels of antibodies increased in hospitals located in the Bergamo area (Castelli and Gavazzeni p < 0.0001) (Table 1) which was more hit by COVID-19 (37 – 43% of individuals with IgG ≥ 12)7. More important, the IgG rate in individuals which were positive for IgG (IgG ≥ 12 AU/mL; n = 613) at the beginning of the study was increased (p<0.000001) over time, and this increase was either minor in asymptomatics (n = 91, p = 0.00003) and paucisymptomatics (n = 203) or strong in symptomatics (n = 319, p = 0.0006) (Table 2). On the contrary, those that had an intermediate IgG titer (3.8 < IgG < 12 AU/mL considered as negative) displayed all a significant reduction in IgG rate (p < 0.000001) (Table 1). This may be due to a noise in test analysis as these subjects are considered as negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG according to manufacturer. Many symptoms, including fever, cough, muscle pain, asthenia, tachycardia and anosmia/dysgeusia, correlated with an increase of antibodies in the 5-month observation period (Table 2).
Associated to Zn deficiency?
I have seen crazy low Zn blood levels in COVID-19 patients, especially those with anosmia. I would not be surprised if there is a causal relationship between the two.
If you place the Palladium inside a folded piece of Nickel, I believe the Palladium will be constrained.
That is the first pounding.
Then you fold in half and pound again.
How many cycles?
Only experiment can answer.
Work-hardening may prove useful. Or otherwise.
Like a mille-feuille. One of my favorite cake. A mille-feuille does truly have a thousand layers/leaves (mille feuilles in French), 1024 to be precise, with ten cycles of halving and pounding, 2 power of 10.
I like the idea to have multilayers because most successful LENR experiments have an interface between 2 metals (that can be the same), with examples already cited in this thread. A crack or gap can be viewed as an interface with H or D desorbing from one side of the interface and condensing on the other side. A multilayer structure or mille-feuille could then multiply the chances to have active sites. Then, if we further assume that the condensation of H requires excited H atoms, a method to desorb atoms in an excited state is required, such as heat or an electric current applied to the mille-feuille (electrolysis does that). How much the atoms should be excited can be calculated in assuming that the condensation leads to Rydberg Matter of H or D, based on the work of Manykin et al. In that context, it can be shown that D desorbing from Pd or Ti, or H desorbing from Ni, would work best because requiring a lower excitation stimulus, something reachable with a few hundred degrees or a small current.
A mille-feuille cake recipe of
1) a multi layers structure made of Ti leaves (a thousand layers may be too much, the leaves should still be thick enough to minimize H embrittlement and degradation),
2) low pressure in the sub-millibar region,
3) a current through the multilayer structure, enough to excite the D atoms to the energy level required to produce Rydberg matter,
4) D of high purity added on one side (like the pastry cream in the millefeuille...),
has plenty to tempt my taste buds.
I don't like food additives, I don't think that impurities would add anything to that recipe.
In the Geneva location they now have 40% UK virus cases. The statistics did show a short increase in cases about 2 weeks ago:
May be JulianBianchi knows more details!
But now it goes down as before. Also no excess deaths as claimed by UK. But the number of cases are small. So it looks like B1.171 just brings a small additional bump!
But if you add 484 similar to 501.V2 or B.1.351 the mess seems to start again. Now 90 cases confirmed in UK already.
It's time to teach the people how to treat CoV-19 to make this a mild disease!
It is not surprising to find all variants here in Geneva given that it is so international. I work in the same area as most international organizations (UN, WHO, WTO, etc...) and take the same tram every day from the Geneva main train station as the employees of these organizations. I know that I was exposed to the so-called UK variant (I hate this wording...) at least once but hopefully without any symptoms. I still do not have specific anti-SARS-COV-2 antibodies despite that I have been exposed to the virus at several occasions since March last year. My Vit D blood levels are fine, around 45 ng/ml, I test myself regularly for Vit D together with Zn, Se, Mg, Omega-3s, Vit B1, etc... (our lab propose a COVID-19 Immunity home test on top of blood and saliva SARS-COV-2 antigen tests, way better than RT-PCR). I guess that my T-cells are working well
UK Prime minister urged, ‘Look to Andalusia’s vitamin D use in tackling COVID-19’
UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson has been urged to follow the example of Andalusia and distribute vitamin D supplements to populations most at risk of contracting COVID-19.
In last week’s Prime Minister Questions (PMQs), Conservative backbencher David Davis MP pointed to the Spanish region’s distribution of calcifediol, a vitamin D supplement, to care home residents in November.Latest figures from Andalusia highlight a drop in deaths per million from COVID-19 from 187 in November to just 11 at the start of January - an 82% drop.
“After giving out activated vitamin D to care home residents and some GP patients that death rate almost halved whilst ours was doubled,” Davis said.