Posts by can


    A probably obvious observation could be that the shorter mode arises when the previous contact-arc events leave thin protrusions that can't support large amounts of current in the next one, which would make it interesting to check the behavior when a large amount of fine particles are present/put in the contact area, while still using distilled/deionized water. This might be easier to test by constraining the active volume with a test tube (e.g. immersed in the jar) rather than using the entire jar.

    I wonder if the ringing being present only under dry conditions is somehow related with me hearing the resonant acoustic noise more easily when the electrodes are only partially immersed in the solution or just wetted with the acidic electrolyte. However, so far my AM radio seemed to pick up resonant RF noise only when the electrodes are partially immersed in water, even if a similar noise could be heard acoustically outside of it. (possibly this could be related with broadband noise overpowering the resonant noise on the AM radio under those conditions; it's not exactly a precision instrument).


    I haven't performed any particular calculation yet, but attached are the digitized versions of Transient2 and Transient3a.

    Good to have narrowed down the issue purely to a RF noise issue; so far I haven't had any. Arc discharges produced by rapidly putting in contact the electrodes in deionized water will likely be more intense on average than under typical conditions during the experiments with electrodeposition-short circuits in an acidic solution.

    At this point your latest test seems more similar to the contact-arc tests that I used to do quite some time ago or to Parkhomov's Woodpecker device.

    In that case:

    • Using graphite electrodes will prevent or strongly mitigate (depending on the impurities present) sticking issues;
    • A strong magnet strategically placed in proximity of the moving electrode might be able to pull it back when the electrode makes conduction with the other, producing a strong magnetic field due to the large currents involved;
    • As the water will become more conductive over time you might notice a decrease in discharge intensity.

    It might be interesting knowing if by increasing voltage the frequency of the RF signal increases and viceversa.


    Do I understand correctly that you brought the electrodes in slight contact in a controlled manner, producing a resonant (self-oscillating?) electrical arc for a brief period of time until basically the electrodes welded together? (which would mean that I previously misunderstood what you planned to do as your first tests today)

    For what it's worth, a few months ago I tried contact separation tests using 5V, a similar inductor as the one I recently prepared and the previous chinese-made ATX power supply. Interestingly the presence of very limited amounts of distilled water in the contact region appeared to make the plasma formed brighter, but alkaline impurities (e.g. when using tap water) quickly damped the effect.


    Some of the tests I did in the past weeks (e.g. as seen in the video I linked on the top of the page) seem to indicate that sustained arcing could be possible. As it appeared easier to observe after reusing the electrolyte from earlier testing it could mean that it's useful to have particles already suspended in some amount within it, in addition to those formed in the process. This condition could be seen as similar in a way to what Abundo did with the fluidized bed cathode in his Mizuno cell variation that I previously cited.

    I think in my case the particles might also come from the thermally decomposing iron chloride and possibly water cavitation on hot electrode portions and/or near the electric arcs formed, destroying the electrode itself and part of the loose deposition layer formed.

    A high water conductivity (which increases with temperature), also from circuit simulation, appears to works against the observation of discharges, but I suspect that using temperatures on average near or above the evaporation temperature of water makes them more easily observed due to the voids (=dielectric) formed by cavitation. Furthermore convection currents overall should help mobilizing the larger particles in the solution and to some extent inside the gap.

    Almost just for the sake of citing this, on a loosely related note, in his abandoned 2011 patent application Brian Ahern suggested that a colloidal solution of metal particles could be formed by energetic (a 50-500 mJ/pulse figure is quoted in the patent) high voltage discharges ablating electrode material in an aqueous cell.


    [...] Liquid dielectrics produce similar energy focusing capabilities as the ceramic matrices. Liquid systems provide a direct method for producing nanoparticles in situ. The high voltage discharges through a fluid ablate electrode materials that are rapidly quenched and suspended in the polar fluid. Once formed, the nanoparticles can be hydrated/deuterated by the ionization of the water during the discharges. As such, the high voltage pulses fill the H2O/D2O volume with a constellation of suspended particles filled with interstitial hydrogen (H)/deuterium (D) atoms. The particles stay in suspension due to Coulomb Repulsion as each particle is surrounded by polar water molecules that attach the oxygen to the metal cluster surface and has the two deuterium atoms from the D2O molecules facing out. The deuterium atoms have a net positive charge associated with them, so each metal cluster looks like a large positive ion that repels all the other such clusters. The nanoparticles remain equally spaced in the dielectric liquid due to this repulsion process that is very effective at small mass/charge ratios. The suspension of the nanoparticles in the polar water medium is referred as a colloidal suspension.


    Thanks for your continued efforts. Any word on your planned changes compared to last time? Earlier you mentioned about using zinc-plated mild steel electrodes.

    I tried making a web image search and I realized that mine initially had an appearance similar to this:

    I can make a photo tomorrow of fresh samples to make sure, but here are a couple older photos I made partially showing how they looked like on the top portion that was not immersed in the electrolyte:

    I understand from this link that this typical yellowish color is due to a zinc-chromate finish:

    For the record, following early narrow-gap electrolysis tests in KOH electrolyte at the end of last November where I observed the electrodes to cause persistent outgassing (possibly Zn reacting with KOH forming H2 as you pointed out at that time) even after removing power, I completely removed such layer by immersion in liberally diluted 10% HCl (no electrolysis) for less than 30 minutes at ambient temperature. Outgassing in following tests (again using KOH electrolyte) was not observed after that.

    All recent tests with electrolysis-discharges in HCl solution have been made well after removing that surface layer, so if you want to reproduce the same testing conditions you might want to incorporate this preparation into your next experiment.

    Unless I'm doing some silly mistake, a calculation with the provided figures doesn't seem to point to nuclear energy densities. R.Mills has always referred to exceptional power densities, not energy.

    0.08 g (80 mg) silver shots at 1% molar H2O should be 0.0008 g of H2O.

    Of this, 2/18 would be hydrogen, so 8.89E-5 g of H, or the same amount in moles of H.

    A net energy release up to 200 Joules per shot is claimed. Assuming it's just from H transitioning to lower Hydrino energy levels, that's 200/8.89E-5 = about 2250000 J/mol H => 2250 kJ/mol, about 8 times that of hydrogen combustion (286 kJ/mol).

    This is less than I expected but it should be a conservative value.


    A possible issue could be that Mizuno-type experiments aren't well suited for a commercial product. Putting aside industrially low temperatures for the heated fluid, I understand that one main problem is that the tungsten electrodes tend to wear up quickly, so eventually they won't be able to work as intended anymore.

    Back in 2012 Italian researcher Ugo Abundo came up with a variation which used a fluidized bed cathode (made of tungsten/tungsten-iron powder suspended in the electrolyte) which solved some of these problems. Power was conducted impulsively with discharges through the conductive slurry using rectified 120-220V DC. Later variations used deliberately pulsed power. Abundo later on went semi-commecial and apparently moved onto more complex systems that don't seem focused on heat production but I haven't followed his work closely since that.…CCF19_ABUNDO_Gen_Pubb.pdf


    It would probably be easier for me if I also used a higher power supply voltage, but the point of these experiments besides testing some ideas I had was also checking out if something could be seen also using already available, zero/near-zero cost equipment and a variac just isn't in my case.

    Brillouin are passing intense, narrow current pulses through low-impedance hydrogen-loaded dry cores heated to a few hundred C, which supposedly can be used in an industrial setting and won't quickly wear down as in (dusty) plasma-based systems. I think they used to have electrolytic/"wet" systems but I haven't checked those early systems in detail.

    It seems that regardless of the experiment type, narrow intense pulses are part of what enables excess heat observations, but it's true that this means one has to be careful with input power measurements and the overall efficiency of the system before envisioning a cold fusion-powered world. On the other hand, there's a risk of throwing away interesting results by only considering the overall efficiency as worth of study.


    I deleted it due to needless detail and speculation and lack of proper sources on some paragraphs. I guess though that the following considerations are harmless and of general interest (not Rossi-specific).

    * * * * *

    a-b) If you're assuming that a BLP-like reaction occurs, initially mostly light, EUV and soft x-rays (as often mentioned by Randell Mills, e.g. here - a randomly picked paper from his published works) as the hydrogen atoms transition towards lower energy levels. These would have an energy of a few keV at most depending on the level into which they fall. Some people like Simon Brink have calculated the energy released by the transition of hydrogen from the ground state to the various sub-ground levels (for example see table halfway in this page).

    c) Any sufficiently thick (fractions of mm) transparent material would attenuate all of the x-rays produced by this step. Since they would have quite a low energy the difficult part would actually be detecting them under normal conditions. Check out attenuation distances with the tool available on

    d) It can be supposed that if the shrunken H atoms could be disposed of or somehow excited back to the ground level before they can accumulate and get triggered for a larger energy release, perhaps spontaneous nuclear reactions and other emissions caused by their short atom-atom distance/small size could be prevented. However for this to produce useful energy, the transition to lower levels must yield more energy than that required to go back to higher levels, but seen it this way this could be considered as getting energy from "nothing" and be unphysical.

    Among other things it points out that the hydrogen gas used needs (?) to be mono-isotopic (i.e. pure) citing Leif Holmlid's work, but Holmlid has suggested that it doesn't have to, and that the condensed hydrogen clusters (ultra-dense hydrogen) in his case can be formed by mixed pairs composed of protons and deuterons.

    E.g. here:…abs/pii/S0022286018308172

    Or in plain words:


    [...]"Hydrogen" should, in the context of the present application, be understood to include any isotope or mix of isotopes where the nucleus has a single proton. In particular, hydrogen includes protium, deuterium, tritium and any combination of these.


    [...]Dense hydrogen is then spontaneously converted to ultra-dense hydrogen called H(0) with a bond distance of 0.5 - 5 pm depending on the spin level. This material is a quantum material (quantum fluid) which may involve both electron pairs (Cooper pairs) and nuclear pairs (proton, deuteron or triton pairs, or mixed pairs).

    Detailed discussion and dissection of the LENR-Cars patent application would probably deserve a dedicated thread, though.


    If I wanted or could do things traditionally (i.e. Mizuno-style plasma electrolysis) I wouldn't have called the thread "unconventional".

    The basic idea behind the tests performed in the past few weeks here has been trying to apply low-voltage, high current short pulses using readily available equipment and in the simplest manner possible. To do this I take advantage of electrodeposition through a pair of narrow-gap electrodes in order to cause short-circuits that take place at a relatively high rate due to the electrodeposited material that progressively electrically bridges both electrodes.

    I use 12V DC from an ordinary computer power supply, but since there's a coil/solenoid in series with the circuit also acting as a current limiting resistor, higher voltage spikes will be generated.

    Does this actually produce excess heat? Probably not, but perhaps things can be settled down once a test with proper input and output energy measurements will be done.

    For the record and avoiding being called a hypocrite for not reporting this, yesterday I tried adding a couple KOH flakes to the solution (used/already prepared) and I couldn't manage to reproduce the resonant sound except for very partially until I added back relatively large amounts of HCl and replaced the evaporating water with iron chloride (I'm assuming that's what the acidic solution it mostly is) solution from another jar.

    Probably not much of general interest to report except usual experimental observations (see spoiler tag below), but here's a video of something that in retrospect might have been (slightly) more interesting than I assumed.


    The electrodes here were short-circuiting in an undesired manner outside the jar, causing an incandescent spot near a mica spacer. Upon rewatching this several times I think this was actually caused by a continuous arc and not just joule heating of a low resistance path, as it appeared to produce a sort of "glow" around the incandescent area. Still not sure, though. Anyway, since it was not operating intermittently and did not produce any RF noise at all, I don't feel this was a desired mode of operation.

    In practice this also means that if I were to install o-rings (proposed method for holding the electrodes together instead of clips) they could possibly be quickly damaged by the heat of such hot spots, which might also form when immersed in water as well.

    Experimental notes

    Misc observations

    Dr Richard

    AFAIK, Brillouin apply narrow pulsed square wave or DC to layers of metals alternated with dielectric materials. Not too much related with QX/SK or BLP other than the presence of a pulsed (on-off) signal.…12/SRI_ProgressReport.pdf



    The cores consist of a metal substrate, which in some configurations includes a heater and thermocouple, with several spray-coated layers. Generally, these coatings alternate between a hydrogen-absorbing metal and an insulating ceramic. One example is shown in Figure 1. Other designs may have more or less layers. All of the layers are porous, allowing the gas(es) in the reactor chamber access to all coatings. There is a heater and thermocouple in the center of the core. The power to the heater is measured directly from the voltage and current supplied by the direct current (DC) power supply.



    The outer active layer is stimulated by sending pulses through the outer layer or layers and returning electrically through the innermost layer. The nature of the pulses is such that its current travels primarily on the surface of the metal in contact with the ceramic (the “skin effect”). This effect is caused by the very fast rise time of the pulses. An example of this pulse design, which Brillouin refers to as a “Q Pulse”, is shown in Figure 4. The pulse width is from ~80 – 1000ns with a duty cycle of less than 1%. This example shows a pair of pulses with alternating polarity, although same polarity pulse trains have also been used.

    Today I put the previously (re)made coil into test. In short, it seems that it brought visible changes in that the apparent discharge rate was much slower than in previous tests and produced louder resonant noise (see embedded video below), but it didn't seem to produce very bright discharges. The latter could have been due to experimental conditions and other differences out of my direct control.

    The text below is directly from my notes, so it might not match exactly the previous reporting style.


    2.1 Coil

    (Photo previously posted)

    Figure 1: The newly prepared coil.

    • 3.35mm outer 1.75mm inner, ~18 meters stranded wire, probably should be considered between AWG13 and AWG14. I think I recall it was marketed as 2.5mm2 wire.
      • Since I previously measured roughly 2.95 Ohms, that's 0.164 Ohm/m, higher than I thought
      • Length was measured as 36 x 50cm lengths, so it's an approximate measurement
    • This is shorter than I originally thought I had
    • Melting damage was sustained on part of the insulation which got damaged while I was undoing the previous coil, so it's compromised.
      • Hopefully this will still be fine. I will need to get new wire at some point and it will be probably worth thinking of getting proper magnet wire by then.
    • Obtained a 95-99 turns coil around a 2Kg steel dumbbell

    2.2 Other stuff

    • Electrodes
      • Same configuration as last time, not disassembled yet
      • They have been quickly washed under running hot water after the last experiment
      • Inner gap scraped and cleared with a mica spacer
      • Mica spacers on the top and the bottom of the gap respectively forming a 1.4mm and 0.4mm gap close to their position
      • One clip (insulated with folded mica spacers) at about the center to hold the electrodes together
      • Replaced insulation on the external surfaces of the electrodes on their bottom end
    • Jar
      • Cleaned with warm water and soap, then rinsed again
      • Some residues from the acidic solution remain on the internal walls and might need a deeper cleaning to be removed
    • Electrolyte
      • Starting with about 10ml distilled water
    • Instrumentation
      • Clamp meter and multimeter for real-time reference of experimental parameter
        • Will not be logged
      • AM transistor radio
        • Tuned to 1600 kHz
        • The audio output signal will be recorded at 192 kHz
      • Video camera
        • Panasonic SDR-H20 to be used as needed to produce video documentation of any interesting reaction

    Figure 2: The setup just before starting it.

    Figure 3: Closeup of the jar. It now has hard to remove deposit on its internal walls.

    Experimental notes

    • 09:35:38 Started Audacity
    • 09:36:08 Zeroed out clamp meter
    • 09:36:38 Experiment started
      • Turned PSU on
    • 09:37:01 12.07V, 0.06A
    • 09:37:08 Slight bubbling
    • 09:38:44 0.25 A
      • Current spontaneously increasing before adding HCl
    • 09:39:12 HCl added
      • Seems slow to start
    • 09:42:59 11.05A
    • 09:43:47 39.85A
      • Experiment paused
    • 09:44:40 Added HCl drop
      • Added some solution from old jar
      • Cleared gap with a mica spacer
    • 09:46:36 Restarted
      • Worked for a while at a low loud rate, but then failed and current went to 39A
      • Experiment paused
    • 09:49:15 Cleared gap
    • 09:49:35 Restarted and worked for a while, but then current went to 35A
      • Experiment paused
    • 09:57:25 Tried to run the electrodes outside jar for a while
      • Incandescent spot inside gap formed even though current is low

    Figure 4: The electrodes outside of the solution.

    Figure 5: Incandescent spot formed where presumably it is short-circuiting. Limited current though the electrodes at the time of the photo.

    Figure 6: A different view of the spot formed.

    • 10:03:23 Added water
    • 10:03:44 Restart attempt, but current went to 35A quickly
    • 10:06:00 Tried to restart outside solution, but it seems that inductor is overheating
    • 10:06:17 Seen enough for today
      • Experiment terminated
    • 10:15:43 Electrodes washed under warm water and put into another room to dry slowly


    • The rate of the discharges seemed lower on average, with a base frequency lower than 500 Hz and during a later attempt lower than about 150 Hz.
      • The associated sound was at times significantly louder than usual.
        • This makes me wonder if the louder the better or if it's unrelated with any positive effect this could have.
      • Upon closer analysis, harmonics or patterns very closely resembling harmonics clearly visible at low frequencies, can be seen even at very high frequencies (tens of kHz).
      • The lower frequency does not seem to have affected my AM transistor radio's capability of picking up this signal at about 1600 kHz as usual.

    Figure 7: Spectrum after the experiment began, with a base frequency of about 320 Hz.

    Figure 8: Spectrum with a base frequency of only 145 Hz. Many harmonics visible in the spectrum.

    • Reliability again an issue for prolonged operation (i.e. longer than a few minutes).
      • Accumulation of deposition materials into areas of low current density cause persistent short-circuits.
      • Will probably have to use o-rings and heat-resistant paint like magicsound did to prevent this.
    • No significant change in Geiger counts either up or down associated with the experiment has been observed.

    Figure 9: Geiger CPM for the latest 24 hours.

    Figure 10: Geiger CPM for the latest 2.4 hours. No significant changes observed, but possibly some brief CPS spikes occurred.


    • 001
      • The experiment since HCl was first added. It started slowly, perhaps due to adding slightly less than usual.
    • 002
      • Restart attempt. The discharge rate seemed low and the noise produced was relatively loud. At the end of the video I turn the PSU off due to a persistent short-circuit taking place.
    • 003
      • Another brief restart attempt where the discharge rate seems slightly lower than earlier.
    • 006
      • Attempting running the electrodes out of the jar. Numerous small quiet discharges occurring all over the gap inner surface can be clearly seen. About halfway into the video the aren't visible anymore due to the residual solution in the gap drying out.
    • 007
      • One of the last attempts trying to run the electrodes immersed in the solution. No significant noise production, failed attempt.

    I think he is referring to his latest E-Cat, so supposedly the SK. He apparently modulates power in a PWM fashion.

    * * * * *

    Joseph Fine January 12, 2019 at 10:58 AM

    Dear Andrea Rossi,

    In the past you have said the ‘temperature’ of the core of the E-Cat reaches 1 eV (or about 11,600 deg K).

    1) Is this an average temperature during normal operation, self-sustained operation or a maximum temperature that should not be exceeded?

    2) What is the initial temperature following normal startup (for example, ten minutes after you push the START button) ?

    3) Does core temperature reach 1 eV if the E-Cat produces only 10% of rated power, or is this temperature reached at 90-110% (??) of rated power?

    Happy and Healthy New Year,

    Joseph Fine

    Andrea Rossi January 12, 2019 at 2:00 PM

    Dr Joseph Fine:

    1- average/ssm operation

    2- 1 eV

    3- the modulation of the energy generated is made by on/off series, the temperature is always 1 eV

    Happy and Healthy New Year also to you,

    Warm Regards,


    * * * * *

    On a loosely related note, the electric arc in MIG welders is quoted to have temperatures up to 24000°C:


    From what I was aware of so far, negative resistance usually implies (in a more readily understood form IMHO) that the larger the current applied to a circuit is, the lower its resistance gets, so if the power supply is a voltage source (i.e. tries to provide a constant voltage, which is what most common ones do), current keeps increasing in a positive feedback loop up to self-destruction of the weakest component if no limiting is present.

    Ordinary arc lamps / HID lamps operate in the negative resistance region of plasmas and because of this they need so-called ballasts to prevent such destructive condition. These can be as simple as a resistor or also comprise complex electronic circuitry.

    What I'm saying is that negative resistance alone doesn't seem to be that much of an unusual condition for controlled electrical arcs, so there must be something else involved. From my own point of view, if there is LENR somewhere, it must be in generally disregarded or avoided phenomena, so if anything perhaps it might be more interesting to provide all the current the arc wants until something fails, the failure point being in this case a variable under control.

    Robert Horst

    Something worth pointing out regarding the design of such system (if these experiments are worth of it) is that depending on testing conditions and procedures used a thick black foam depositing very fine black conducting material (likely mostly iron with these electrodes) on everything it makes contact with can be produced, as can be seen in this video I posted earlier on, from about minute 0:40 :

    This appears to occur more easily when a large portion of the electrodes is immersed, the electrolyte is reused from prior tests and it's close to or above boiling temperature. It's not clear yet if it's a desirable thing, but I often observed plasma reactions to occur more easily under such conditions. More recently I've been mostly concerned with reproducing the resonating noise and I haven't seen the above effect occurring to the same extent.

    Robert Horst

    I took the chance to rearrange the coil around a new core which although it's still not optimal according to your explanation, it should work better as it forms an "I". I will use it for the next run (TBD when to do it). Actually a few months ago I used a similar one and it seemed to work very well for contact separation tests at a lower voltage under different conditions [1]. A disadvantage is that I will not be able to replace the core easily, but hopefully that will not be needed.

    I used a 2 Kg, mildly ferromagnetic dumbbell as core. The wire makes about 95 turns around it in 3 layers along a 115mm length and a 32mm inner core diameter. More wire specifications:

    • Conductor diameter (inner): 1.75mm
    • Wire diameter with insulation (outer): 3.35mm
    • Approximate wire length: 18 meters
      • Measured as 36 x 50cm lengths
      • This is less than I previously thought I used, by the way

    Unfortunately upon unwinding the previous coil I noticed that the wire insulation partially melted on some of the inner windings and so it is compromised. Hopefully this will still be fine. I will need to get new wire at some point. It will be probably worth getting proper magnet wire, then.


    [1] At that time I found that a more compact 75-turns coil crafted similarly to the one I've used all along in these experiments (but with an air core) performed worse than the dumbbell-cored one, so I'm relatively confident that the latter should have a higher inductance.


    From the video, the water level increased slightly due to HCl addition. Up to the point where I determined that evaporation began, 9 ml of HCl had been added since the start of the experiment (as reported; I don't know how accurate every 1 ml addition was measured). So it's probably pretty close.

    Thus, just taking into account evaporation I could come up with this:

    How much of this is due to entrainment (and therefore which should be subtracted), how to electrolysis (which would make results larger than calculated) it's not clear and so the graph should probably not be taken too seriously.

    Remarkably though the energy required to heat up 183 ml of water to boiling temperature is quite close to that put into the cell up to that point. But what about heat losses, electrolysis, etc? EDIT: to be fair, it could be argued that this is mainly due to the heat of formation of FeCl3, so it's probably best to not get too excited yet.


    By the way, while this will be far from being perfect due to parallax errors and limited detail, I tried measuring the change in water level over time since about the time it started evaporating.

    How much liquid does the jar contain in the straight portion between the thin blue lines shown?

    The data files for yesterday's run are available at

    I tried plotting radiation data using rolling averages corresponding roughly to the same displayed values in the live dashboard (assuming 1 sample was 1 second during the live run). Current values are "raw".

    EDIT: log current scale; dashed lines are when 1ml HCl got added. Previous version with linear current scale still attached to the post.

    It appears that when CounterK (the gamma spectrometer?) was down, CounterG (the Geiger Counter) decreased in readings; this could possibly be an issue.

    Otherwise, except perhaps for a few spikes in CounterL (I think the 6Li neutron counter) towards the end there don't seem to have been clear changes overall, although Geiger readings seemed higher than the average between 00:00 and 00:45 as I thought I noticed during the experiment.

    EDIT: While it will be more interesting to see if any change will occur during a more active/optimized session than this trial run, it's possible that in absence of some sort of absorber material (or "insulation", similar to the LFH furnaces) nothing significant will be seen on this regard. I haven't tried yet as so far I've been mostly concerned with reproducing the resonating sound and other reactions reliably, but I planned to eventually add at some point loose insulating material in a jacket around the cell like clay granules (e.g. bentonite) and so on to check out if it would make any difference other than retaining more heat. Funnily enough, clay-based natural cat litter can be a cheap source for such material.

    For what it's worth, at some point I wondered if some sort of manually operated scissor mechanism could have improved reliability and fault recovery. The electrodes could have then been narrow but thick blocks of suitable metals that could withstand quite some wear before having to be replaced. This seemed too much of a complication for something that was originally intended to be simple, though, and it's not clear if it would still work as relatively flat electrodes do.

    EDIT 2019-01-12: better version:

    (with this though spring tension would have to be provided somehow to make the electrodes get closer together when the mechanism is lifted)

    One other issue to think about: if the electrodes are ferromagnetic, the magnetic field resulting from current pulses through them will pull them together. Too much flexibility in the mounting might cause them to latch up.

    In retrospect this could potentially be an important factor in how the electrodes operate - at least in my case - which I haven't fully considered. Oftentimes the resonating hissing sound is accompanied with relatively strong vibrations that could be felt through the table top where I set up the experiments.


    I wasn't aware about that effect. I should probably consider purchasing some suitable o-rings to try extending the duration of my tests, although according to the page I previously posted nitrile o-ring aren't suitable for strong acid environments (i.e. HCl). This means they might have to be replaced at some point, or that they could inconveniently fail during a testing session.

    A large contributor to reliability and quite possibly efficiency though (when immersing the electrodes deeper in the electrolyte) is probably also the high-temperature paint covering the outside surfaces. It seems more difficult here to determine what could be best to use.


    Not that I really have any business doing experimental work. You don't want to know how I'm running these experiments, if it isn't clear already from the videos and photos I posted. Still, it's certainly worth stressing the need to be careful with some materials and tests for the would-be experimenter.

    Robert Horst

    The first link to the pdf document appears to be broken ("page not found").