Posts by Dr Richard

    Do we really want to focus all the heat in the centre of the reactor? If the fusion reaction is in response to THz infra red stimulation as the evidence suggests, surely a uniform IR irradiation along the length of the reactor mesh region would be more effective? I'm more in favor of the 2m heater having just one bend to fit a 1m long reactor completely lined with Ni/Pd mesh,

    Here are some stainless steel tubes sealed at one end with a flange ready fitted to the other - 2mm thick 304 ss and various diameters, one metre long. Could be useful as cheap reactor if the Ni mesh can be inserted just from one end ;-


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    From streetfurnituredirect.com.

    Mizuno should throw caution to the wind at the present time and do as many large scale tests as he can to confirm his R20 data. Strike while the iron's hot - otherwise I worry that other replicators may not set the conditions quite right and and important breakthrough could be lost, or end up simply not being believed as has happened before in cold fusion - if he's worried about a runaway reaction, surely an emergency release valve could be installed in the reactor activated by excessively high temperatures?

    Or maybe because of IR stimulation? I do not think an exponential response to stimulus is surprising in chemistry or physics.


    IR stimulation seems very likely theory for increase in XSH with increased temp-change in IR to shorter, more energetic Thz frequencies triggering increased muon release, so increased particle interactions or fusions maybe? Can test by pumping in a mix of nitrogen with deuterium which should block muon activity/use IR laser to trigger reaction instead of the heater/maybe Holmlid replicates?

    Interested to know which other LENR's could be operating to generate such high levels of XSH - but think we have to sacrifice the theoretical for the practical and proceed with replicating these as useful space heaters pumping out kW of heat for 100W inputs. Certainly keep my greenhouse warm this winter!

    Holmlid states:

    The difference between the results using D(0) and p(0) needs to be discussed. From several experiments, it seems likely that positive kaons are formed at lower density of H(0), while negative kaons are formed preferentially at higher density. In the present experiments, that should mean that positive muons should be formed using D(0), since the signal in Figs. 5 and 6 is slightly lower for D(0). This agrees with the conclusion that D(0) here gives more positive muons and thus a time constant close to the free muon decay. The reason for this density effect is however not obvious. One might speculate that in D(0) only every second nuclei is a proton, and thus that the 2 p → 3 K transition is less likely, but this does not give any clue to why positive muons should be formed more often in that case. Another possibility would be that at high density, neutral kaons are formed preferentially and at low density, charged kaons are more common. However, charge asymmetry is required to explain the observations in such a case.

    Anybody's guess as to what the ratio of negative to positive muons created in Mizuno's reactor could be. Clearly there are many possible LENR reactions going on here to generate excess heat, muon-catalysed fusion of D-D just being one of the more well established mechanisms among others. I would replicate Mizuno's reactor with thick stainless steel walls because D would be absorbed into the Fe metallic lattice and possibly undergo fusion here too, thin walls may form small (NAE) cracks letting in air etc

    Rob Woudenberg wrote: My own preferred theory is that D(0) (Ultra Dense Deuterium à la Holmlid) is formed which is triggered by the IR radiation of the sheath heater, generating charged particles from D(0) that are absorbed mainly by the reactor wall. Therefore the heat is created mainly in the reactor wall. Or even Helium is formed by fusion (Did Mizuno detect He?).

    Some reasoning why D(0):

    - High absorption seems not required

    - (Very) low gas pressure, Holmlid's papers show formation of D(0) at comparable gas pressures

    - No runaways observed (?) because amount of IR radiation by the sheath heater determines greatly the amount of charged particles (or fusion) released.


    Nice one Rob, this solves the mass problem of only 54g Ni mesh generating all that heat - muons generated from the Pd/Ni mesh holding UDD stimulated by the Thz far IR radiated from the internal heater then triggering fusion reactions in the R20 reactor wall! 20 Kg of stainless steel! This can all be tested by further experiments using the R20 reactor - see if XSH is increased by including Holmlid's UDD catalyst KFeO2, or there are ways of blocking muon/heavy electron fusion reactions using N2 or Neon gas. But first do the simple controls suggested by anonymous:


    We only need a "dummy" i.e. control gas in the reactor. Because of the design of the experiment, the heat has to come out somewhere from the core heater or the reaction itself. If the reactor is first loaded with say helium or nitrogen and then run, and the temperature at the reactor cylinder thermocouple(s) and the Delta-T between the input and the output airflow is measured and recorded; and then the reactor is loaded with the D2 gas to near optimal parameters and the core heater is turned on to the same power setting; if the temperature is significantly higher for both the output airflow and the cylinder thermocouples, that is proof positive for excess heat from the rig. Simple -- no extra swapping of components, just hook up the inert gas cylinder first, run the control run; and then pump it out, load it with the D2 gas for the active run, and take the data. This would end any doubt that LENR works.


    And if it can be demonstated that its all down to muons inducing fusion reactions in the stainless-steel reactor walls well, that discovery would certainly make a good Nature paper. Maybe even Holmlid could be persuaded to try replicating Mizuno's expts (using YAG IR laser instead of the heater maybe?). Certainly food for thought.

    One or two inconsistencies with Mizuno's work compared to others - gas pressures seem very low 100 -300 Pa ideal then reduced XSH > 6000 Pa when compared with Takahashi's expts using 1-2 MPa H or D - explanation H or D permeability important not concentration. XSH not seen at such low loading levels in other work - although Holmlid quotes using H or D gas pressures as low as 10^-5 mBar = 0.001 Pa - weird. It would also be sensible to have measured the temperature of the Pd/Ni mesh directly - only 54g mass of mesh to raise the temperature of the Kg stainless steel reactor vessel by 100 deg C to yield 2-3 kW power output? Temperature of mesh >1000 deg C?

    The 'creative leap' or major advance in Mizuno's work seems to derive from a simple change in reactor design from an external heating system in R19 to an internal one in R20. With an internal heater the Pd/Ni mesh would be directly exposed to the infra-red EM radiation from the heater, whilst the external heater could only raise the Pd/Ni mesh temperature via conduction through the reactor casing plus some low level IR radiation from the reactor walls (sufficient to trigger a low level of excess heat). This interpretation fits in well with Dennis Lett's, Hagelstein's and Holmlid's analyses which all definitively demonstrate that it is the IR EM radiation which triggers cold fusion reactions, muon release etc - and why replication attempts often fail using heating systems situated inappropriately in eg powder/solid systems where the reactor core temperature is raised without any or little direct IR radiation exposure.

    The other major Japanese group (Takahashi et al) working with nanoparticle Cu/Ni alloys have also just reported high excess heat from their system in which they report a transient 3 kW excess heat again by directly irradiating with IR - which all seems very consistent - and exciting that at last we have a breakthrough that is for once consistent with most previous data/theory and can be quickly replicated (if IH is willing to sponsor some of us to do it maybe!) :)

    So many new patents under the IH brolly (umbrella)! If JR, DW and M are also under the same brolly, maybe they might be able to persuade IH to sponsor/fund some replications by LF members? Would be to IH's advantage as this type of sponsorship could lead to further IH patents.

    The IR radiation theory also fits in with Holmlid's recent data using an infra-red YAG laser to stimulate muon release from ultradense deuterium (UDD) - so maybe we have similar UDD forming in M's reactor as a precursor to fusion which is then triggered by IR from the heater - so to refine this one could use some KFeO2 UDD catalyst too, and convert all the heat energy into the appropriate resonant THz frequencies rather than wasting any input power on a broad spectrum approach - maybe use a laser IR diode array instead of the heating element?

    None of this is high temperature as far as fusion is concerned - nowhere near the 100 million degrees hot fusion requires - so LENR must be operating in the metal lattice and the M results suggest that using a mesh is better than a solid or powder since a high surface area would be exposed to infra-red radiation from the heater inside the reactor (it was far more effective inside rather than outside). Only a small area on the surface of a solid or powder would be exposed to this radiation due to shielding. Dennis Letts work with Thz lasers show that the triggering events for fusion do seem to be restricted to surface effects on Pd or Ni loaded with D or H via the SPP's. So my thought was cold fusion may thus require predominately radiated infra red rather than temperature elevation by other heat transfer processes eg conduction or convection. Celani's work with thin Ni/Cu/Mn alloy wires would also support this radiation hypothesis, a mesh made from constantan wire would probably be similarly effective. How magnetic fields interact with this triggering event needs further study although Takahashi's group have reported a suppressing effect of magnetic fields on excess heat. The physics underlying M's simple reactor experiment will probably turn out to be extremely complicated!:)

    An explanation for the higher levels of excess heat could be due to the pumping effect of terahertz infra-red radiation released by the heater located in the centre of the reactor space containing the Pd coated Ni mesh. Forming high density of SPP's (Surface Plasma Polaritons) - all demonstrated by Dennis Letts and Hagelstein's work with discrete laser wavelengths. So increasing power input from 50W to 300W would induce probably a >10 fold increase in THz infra-red resulting in turn >100-fold increase in SPP's and account for up to 3 kW power output. Takahashi's group have also recently demonstrated a transient up to 3 kW excess heat release from Cu/Ni nanoparticles - the beauty of Mizuno's work is its simplicity and the D gas pressure was maintained without leading to runaway which I think Takahashi's group were afraid of - all brilliant work which we should all try and replicate/although I would try using a much larger mass of Pd/Ni or maybe Cu/Ni mesh.

    The mind boggles - how can anyone in 2007 not understand that water electrolysis produces H2 and O2 explosive gas mixtures? Weird science proposing altered bond angles in water molecules, its just crazy stuff and yet the US patent office swallowed this garbage? Surely somebody should have told them to stop their idiocy thereby avoiding explosions & serious injuries. Ohmasa's patent sounds equally dangerous and pointless because there is sufficient O2 in air to burn safely stored H2 gas on its own.