Posts by jeff

    A team from Russia, Dubinko, et al, has successfully utilized MD methods to demonstrate the existence of discrete breathers in NiH systems. This is the next logical step in characterizing realistic 3-D NiH systems, and has the potential to identify atomic configurations that are candidates for an NAE environment.


    See the following thread: http://www.quantumgravityresea…allic-hydrides-1.7.19.pdf


    Now I can (perhaps) justify investing in a desktop supercomputer, downloading LAMMPS, and start experimenting.


    Jeff

    For simple differential thermometry, consider wiring two thermocouples in series, with the polarity reversed. The output of the series string will then be proportional to the temperature difference between the two junctions.

    A pair of thermocouples reverse connected will only be accurate if the temperature difference is zero. The reason for this is that the Seeback coefficient is not a linear function of temperature. So if TC #1 is at 300C and TC #2 at 301C the voltage difference will not be the same as of TC #1 is at 500C and TC#2 is at 501C. Consult the following URL to see how the Seeback coefficient varies with temperature. For a small differential temperature delta a linear assumption may be acceptable.


    https://www.google.com/search? q=J+thermocouple+graph&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjS1b3jmKPTAhVO0GMKHa-UDFUQsAQILQ&biw=1338&bih=847#imgdii=GhM165JLsS8NnM:&imgrc=xhxM153nEHAGXM:

    Experiments and experimenters are very welcome here.


    A number of years ago I had the opportunity to build a 1000V, 50A pulse generator using IGBTs. Pulse width was fixed at ~ 5.7 us with a rep rate from zero to 5000 pps. Proper gate drive voltage and current are key to making IGBTs turn on and off properly. Gate driver ICs are available from several manufacturers, as are pulse isolation transformers that permit stacking or bridging of IGBTs to obtain voltages higher than can be sustained by a single device. As was previously mentioned, it is important to maintain isolation between the input and output in order to avoid unwanted Ldi/dt voltages from appearing in the low voltage circuits. Separate grounds are essential, and here the isolation transformers are a help. I have used this pulse generator to heat a Celani type setup, but did not observe any excess heat.

    It is difficult to generate much power at frequencies over 100-300 GHz using electronic components. There exists a so called wavelength gap between the highest frequencies that can be generated by electronic means and the lowest IR frequencies, usually generated by lasers. Phonon frequencies fall into that gap. Low power (milliwatt) THz sources are available and typically consist of a ~10 ps pulsed laser exciting a nonlinear optical medium.


    So far as superwave, assuming it is generated by conventional semiconductors, the max frequency is probably no more than a few hundred MHz. Note the risetime given for power FETs is typically in the tens of ns. Take the inverse of the risetime and that will give a good estimate of the max frequency in a signal. Higher frequency power sources are available but involve microwave semiconductors and special design techniques involving transmission lines, and matched impedance, etc. It also becomes increasingly difficult to transmit power across any distance due to the dielectric and conductor losses in cabling.

    Hank,


    Since I'm running experiments in my basement the idea of a hydrogen tank scared me also. Instead, I'm using a Parker/Balston hydrogen generator. It works fine for pressures up to 50 psi, which is sufficient. Another advantage is that, should I elect to do so, it is possible to replace the DI water with DI deuterium oxide and run with D2.


    Jeff

    Hank,


    This protocol you describe is very similar to one I have used with the exception that an external H2 source is used throughout, to the exclusion of LiAlH4; the motivation being that an external H2 source offers better control of H2 pressure than decomposition of LiAlH4. I have used both bulk metallic Li as well as passivated Li powder. So far the amount of excess heat measured is no more than a few watts, not sufficient to claim beyond experimental error that an unambiguous excess heat signature is present.


    In reviewing your protocol something does come to mind: perhaps the Ni and Li should not be in physical contact. Instead the Li is heated until sufficient vapor evolves and is condensed on the Ni. This approach would prevent the Ni from being totally covered in Li, a situation that may prevent the necessary NAE. It also would permit the Ni and Li to be maintained at different temperatures. We might consider heating the Li to near its 1300C boiling point while maintaining the Ni at a temperature low enough not to destroy the surface morphology.


    In any case, the next experiment I plan to run will separate the Ni and Li with a permeable barrier.


    Jeff

    Did you observe the very low vacuum measurements with the pump operating, or had you closed the valve to the pump? If the latter was true you may have observed getter action by the contents of the cell. Some metals will adsorb certain species of gas molecules quite efficiently. In fact,this phenomenon is used to obtain ultra high vacuum and to produce extremely high purity gasses.


    Jeff

    The chopper circuit was designed to operate either in a chopped or a DC mode. The purpose of using a chopper is to be able to drive harmonic rich power to the heater element. There is some evidence that doing so may enhance LENR activity.

    Here are detailed schematics for the chopper circuit mentioned above. Also included is an HSPICE schematic and a model file for the IRFP4410 MOSFET. The circuit has been simulated and built and operates in accordance to the simulation results.

    The SPICE model I developed only simulates the power MOSFET, the heater resistance, and external components required to monitor power via I/V measurements. In other words, the ICs necessary to generate the pulses and drive the MOSFET are not modeled but are instead abstracted into an ideal pulse generator. What I can do, however, is post both the complete schematic and the SPICE model for the power MOSFET circuit.


    Jeff

    Yes, I agree that unless you know what you are doing it is easy to obtain incorrect power readings for phase controlled AC, or for that matter, for chopped DC. I would advise anyone who wants to use such techniques to get a copy of SPICE (Linear Technology has a free version called LTSPICE) and simulate the circuit first.

    See the attached file. It demonstrates that the voltage and current sense points shown in the previous post yield identical averaged power values when compared to taking instantaneous I and V values in series with and across the load plus the switch MOSFET.

    Actually, carbon deposition on catalysts is something that is undesirable and goes under the name of coking. Much research and effort has been expended in determining how to prevent this phenomenon.


    It is also interesting that another phenomenon, hydrogen embrittlement, is also undesirable and yet may be a necessary condition for NAE.

    The attached file describes a chopper circuit that has the provision of precisely measuring power. It is based on the fact that a low resistance (~2 Ohm) heating resistor has a <1 uH inductance and therefore appears resistive at a~20 Khz switching frequency. Since the chopper is powered from a DC supply, it is straightforward to measure both voltage and current (and therefore power) to a high degree of accuracy. I have built this circuit, and it functions as designed.


    It has advantages over triac or phase control circuits in that both the supply voltage and duty cycle can be precisely controlled. Power output can be controlled either by varying the duty cycle or by adjusting the power supply voltage. I have configured it to do the latter because supply voltage is more easily measured and controlled than duty cycle. As designed, the circuit generates 75% duty cycle, 21 KHz pulses at any voltage up to the limit of the supply which is 40V.

    This theory holds promise for several reasons. The first is that similar correlation effects between amplitude and phase have been observed in other systems such as squeezed light. That means we are not proposing a new phenomenon to drive LENR. The second reason is that it should be possible to incorporate the effects that Dubinko has developed (non-stationary potentials) into numerical, many-body quantum mechanics simulation packages. Some of these simulation packages can simulate thousands of atoms, and that may be sufficient to model nano-cracks undergoing width modulation.


    One caveat is that such simulations are likely to compute intensive to the point that only national labs and some universities will have the compute resources necessary, but that is only an estimated guess.

    ME356,


    If there is any way you can construct or get hold of a calorimeter? It would remove almost all doubts about the COP you have attained.


    I constructed an airflow calorimeter using aluminized construction foam to build the insulating chamber and a 12V DC fan to force air through the chamber. The fan is controlled by a servo circuit that monitors the airflow past a pair of diodes on the inlet port: one in thermal contact with a resistor carrying a small amount of current, and another that is not heated. The servo amplifier attempts to maintain a constant voltage difference between the diodes, and that translates into requiring the fan move a constant thermal mass through the chamber. A pair of LM35 temperature sensors, one each on the inlet and outlet ports, monitors the temperature difference between air at the inlet and outlet. The resulting system yields a highly linear and repeatable response. See the attached figure that shows the results of a calibration run with an inert cell.


    Jeff

    In reading your posts in this and the MFMP forum I have a fairly good idea on how you are replicating Celani's experiment. The only question I have is about pre-treatment of the wire. In his patents and later papers Celani goes into considerable details on the surface treatment which includes silica sol and metal salts. Do you do anything to the wire surface before exposing it to H2? I have pre-treated Ni 200 wire via joule heating in air to ~1000C and subsequent heating to ~500C in an H2 atmosphere. The dark grey oxide was reduced leaving a silvery surface, but I was unable to detect excess heat with an airflow calorimeter with a resolution of <1 watt.


    What appeared to be LENR caused radiation was ultimately traced to Rn decay progeny that adhered to dust particles. Various null tests confirmed a 1:1 correlation to the fan moving air (and dust) into the calorimeter and detection of radiation. So I have not observed an unambiguous signature of and ionizing radiation in Celani-type experiments.


    BTW, the resistivity vs. temperature for Ni is complex: there is not a good linear or even quadratic fit over the 0-700C range.

    Calculating energy to a load can easily be accomplished for arbitrary voltage and current waveforms even if voltage and current are out of phase, as will be the case for reactive loads. The easiest method is to use a shunt resistor to generate a voltage proportional to current and use a voltage divider to reduce the AC mains voltage to a level compatible with IC technology. Using a DAQ module, the two captured voltages are then multiplied, and the absolute value is taken to insure a positive result. This process must be done at a sampling rate sufficiently high to capture the high frequency harmonics that are a consequence of phase controlled power. Each ABS( V*I) sample is equivalent to the energy/sample rate, so the total energy is just the summation of the ABS(I*V) samples. Non-contact current probes are OK if they do not introduce delays and have a sufficiently high bandwidth. It is important that both I and V for each sample represent the same interval in time. The procedure outlined above works for single phase. 3-phase can be measured in a similar way, but the three sense circuits must be galvanically isolated.