k.e.kopp Member
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Posts by k.e.kopp

    Electric Fusion Systems Inc. (EFS) employs multiple strategies through its Light Element Electric Fusion (LEEF) technology to minimize neutron production, enhancing safety and reducing potential radioactive waste. These strategies include:

    1. Aneutronic Fusion Reactions: Focusing on fusion reactions between light elements that inherently produce minimal or no neutrons, such as proton-boron or deuteron-lithium reactions.
    2. Advanced Plasma Control: Precisely controlling plasma parameters like temperature and density to favor conditions that minimize neutron-producing reactions.
    3. Low-Z Material Usage: Utilizing materials with low atomic numbers in reactor components to reduce neutron generation from (n,2n) reactions and other neutron-producing interactions.
    4. Magnetic and Electric Field Confinement: Designing tailored confinement fields to guide and control the plasma in a way that reduces the likelihood of neutron-producing collisions.
    5. Energy Threshold Management: Carefully managing the kinetic energy of reacting particles to ensure fusion reactions occur close to their minimum energy thresholds, below which neutron production is less likely.
    6. Self-Shielding in Fuel: Incorporating materials within the fusion fuel that can absorb or scatter neutrons, effectively reducing the number of neutrons that escape the reaction zone.
    7. Fuel Geometry and Density: Engineering the geometry and density of the fuel to enhance its self-shielding capability, ensuring that any produced neutrons are more likely to be reabsorbed within the fuel itself.

    Interesting theory to be certain, how does this fit into the work EFS is doing? I would love your help to understand your theory.


    EFS LEEF (Light Element Electric Fusion) technology by Electric Fusion Systems Inc. represents a novel approach to nuclear fusion. Here are some key differences between EFS LEEF and other fusion methods:

    These innovative aspects of EFS LEEF distinguish it from conventional fusion methods like tokamaks or inertial confinement fusion, which typically involve higher temperatures and pressures, different plasma conditions, and often produce more neutrons and radioactive waste.

    EFS's fusion process operates at significantly lower temperatures compared to traditional "hot fusion" methods, but it doesn't take place in a solid medium like many Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) are thought to. Specifically, EFS's Light Element Electric Fusion (LEEF) technology works at temperatures in the hundreds of Kelvin range, which is much cooler than the several million Kelvin temperatures commonly associated with other plasma-based fusion approaches.

    No, neutrinos are not typically involved in the direct reaction of Lithium-7 (^7Li) with a proton (p) to form two helium-4 (^4He) nuclei, commonly written as:

    7Li+→2 7Li+p→2α

    (where α denotes an alpha particle, or a helium-4 nucleus), is a nuclear fusion process that does not directly involve neutrinos in its primary reaction pathway. The reaction proceeds as follows:

    1. A Lithium-7 nucleus and a proton come together under conditions of high temperature and pressure (as in a fusion reactor or stellar environment).
    2. If the kinetic energy of the colliding particles is high enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier (the electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged lithium nucleus and the proton), they can fuse.
    3. The fusion process results in the formation of two alpha particles, along with the release of a significant amount of energy (approximately 17.6 MeV).

    In this reaction, the energy is carried away by the kinetic energy of the alpha particles. Neutrinos are not produced in this specific fusion pathway, which is one of the reasons why this reaction is considered "aneutronic" – it doesn’t produce significant neutron or neutrino radiation. Aneutronic fusion reactions are particularly desirable for fusion power generation because they produce less radioactive waste and are safer compared to reactions that emit large numbers of neutrons.

    Neutrinos are typically involved in other types of nuclear reactions, such as beta decay processes, where a neutron is converted into a proton (or vice versa) within an atomic nucleus, with the emission of a beta particle (electron or positron) and an antineutrino or neutrino. Such reactions are common in certain types of radioactive decay and in the nuclear fusion processes occurring in stars, but they are not a feature of the ^7Li + p reaction.

    Lithium-7 + 1H Reaction Overview

    The reaction between Lithium-7 and a proton can be represented as:

    7Li+1H→4He+4He(17.6 MeV)7Li+1H→4He+4He(17.6MeV)

    In this reaction, a Lithium-7 nucleus and a proton fuse to produce two alpha particles (helium-4 nuclei), releasing a significant amount of energy, approximately 17.6 MeV. This reaction is aneutronic, meaning it does not directly produce neutrons, which is highly beneficial for fusion energy applications as it reduces the production of radioactive waste and avoids the neutron-induced material damage common in other fusion reactions.


    Thanks all for the patience! The wheels of progress do indeed turn slow!


    Based on the discussion thread, here are the identified questions, objections, and points, along with detailed technical replies designed to educate regarding EFS LEEF technology:


    1. Question about Uniqueness and Patents (Rob Woudenberg): The concern is about the uniqueness of the fusion process involving lithium vapor and hydrogen plasma, and the status of patents.


    Reply: The EFS LEEF technology, while it may share some common elements with other fusion technologies, distinguishes itself through its specific approach to fusion, particularly the use of Heavy Rydberg Matter and specific reaction conditions. Regarding patents, it's common for details to remain confidential until patent applications are published. The uniqueness of EFS LEEF lies in its method of energy extraction and the specific conditions under which fusion is achieved.


    2. Direct Electricity Production from Plasma Oscillation (Curbina): The question centers on the efficiency and feasibility of capturing energy directly from plasma oscillations.


    Reply: The EFS LEEF technology harnesses energy from plasma oscillations via electromagnetic pulse (EMP) harvesting. This is achieved through coils wrapped around the reactor, converting the energy into electricity. This method is based on established principles of electromagnetic induction. The innovation lies in the efficient conversion of oscillating plasma energy, a direct product of the fusion reactions, into electrical energy, which is a significant advancement over traditional heat-based energy extraction methods.


    3. Aneutronic Fusion Reactions and Electron Screening (Paradigmnoia, Curbina): The discussion is about the feasibility of aneutronic fusion reactions and the role of electron screening in EFS LEEF.


    Reply: Aneutronic fusion, which produces energy without neutron emissions, is indeed challenging but highly desirable due to its cleaner energy output. The EFS LEEF approach, while ambitious, is rooted in advancing this area of fusion science. Electron screening in HRM significantly lowers the Coulomb barrier, making fusion reactions more attainable. This aligns with the principles of quantum mechanics and is supported by emerging research in the field.


    4. Electricity Harvesting from Oscillating Plasmas and Resonance (Rob Woudenberg, Cherepanov2020): Questions about the novelty of harvesting electricity from oscillating plasmas and the need for resonance in the system.


    Reply: While the concept of harvesting electricity from oscillating plasmas isn't entirely new, the EFS LEEF approach refines this concept by optimizing the resonance conditions within the reactor. This optimization ensures maximum energy transfer and efficient fusion. The system is designed to maintain resonance conditions that not only support sustained fusion reactions but also enhance energy harvesting efficiency.


    5. Coulomb Barrier and Electron Screening (Drgenek): Concerns about the practicality of electron screening and its alignment with the pathway of impact.


    Reply: The concept of electron screening in EFS LEEF technology doesn't imply precise localization of electrons along the collision pathway but rather an overall reduction in the effective Coulomb barrier in the reactor environment. This reduction is due to the electron cloud distribution in HRM, which alters the electrostatic potential experienced by the reacting nuclei. The effect is not localized to a specific pathway but is rather a general condition within the reactor environment, facilitating fusion reactions more readily.


    6. LENR Considerations and EFS LEEF's Position (Multiple Contributors): Discussions on whether EFS LEEF aligns with Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) and its relationship with mainstream science.


    Reply: EFS LEEF technology, while distinct from traditional LENR, shares the common goal of achieving efficient, clean nuclear reactions at relatively low energies compared to conventional fusion approaches. The technology is rooted in sound scientific principles, albeit it pushes the boundaries of current mainstream fusion science. The approach involves advanced concepts in quantum mechanics and plasma physics, aiming to make a significant contribution to the field of fusion energy.


    In summary, the EFS LEEF technology stands as a novel approach in the field of fusion energy, characterized by its unique method of initiating fusion reactions and its efficient system of energy extraction. While it draws on established scientific principles, it also pushes the boundaries of current understanding, representing an innovative step in the pursuit of practical and sustainable fusion energy.

    Thanks for joining!

    Would this involve an ultra dense form of hydrogen?

    Can you tell us whether this has been determined by solid measurements or is this a theoretical hypothesis?

    There is no unknown or theoretical physics. The state of the hydrogen pre-ignition is liquid so calculated using Avogadro's number, thereafter supercritical and not yet been measured.

    Hello k.e.kopp , thanks for coming to LENR-forum and commenting on our thread about the EFS LEEF technology. The quoted statement is related to the oscillating nature of the plasma achieved in the electric arc that is mentioned? What temperatures does this happen at?


    Albeit you may disagree that this is LENR, the extended definition of LENR includes systems that are by no means low energy, but on levels that are still considered (by ITER pushing experts) to be of low probability of fusion, and you will see that plenty of those systems are using electric arcing, being electric Arcs capable of nuclear reactions themselves, so we consider your system to be on the LENR family nevertheless.

    The chain reacting plasma is not homogeneous and ion energies range from relatively cold to many MEV.

    Hello, Thanks so very much for your interest!

    While as has been noted, the EFS LEEF approach is not LENR, it is unique.

    We have updated our FAQ section with the following information:

    HOW DOES EFS’S APPROACH ACHIEVE PRACTICAL FUSION?

    The standard of fusion system performance is the Lawson Criterion. The Lawson criterion is a figure of merit used in nuclear fusion research. It compares the rate of energy being generated by fusion reactions within the fusion fuel to the rate of energy losses to the environment. The criterion consists of three basic elements: density, temperature, and time. These elements are used to calculate a value known as the “Triple Product”

    EFS’s LEEF Triple Product is favorable for the follow reasons:

    1. EFS’s LEEF fuel operates in a supercritical fluid state with a density orders of magnitude higher than any other known approach. LEEF densities are literally off the chart used to document the plethora other approaches.
    2. Ion temperatures orders of magnitude higher and measured in MEV as opposed to KEV seen in other approaches result in significant chain reactions during every fusion cycle. Again, LEEF energies are literally off the chart.
    3. In other approaches stability of magnetic confinement is the primary driver of the confinement & Fusion burn time. This has been a failure point for other approaches. The LEEF process is cyclical and fusion EMF energy is extracted every cycle via magnetic induction at very high efficiencies exceeding 90% as compared to the ~30% seen in “heat” based extraction used in other approaches. Our induction field by nature is not a steady state field nor should it be lest we suffer the same issues plaguing other programs.
    4. In a preignition state our fuel exhibits a modified coulomb barrier by orders of magnitude through a phenomenon known as electron screening.