Steve_Casselman Verified User
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Posts by Steve_Casselman

    Could you please describe the physical make up of these alpha-beta phase waves. Electrons are connecting the atoms in the lattice together, so does this term mean waves of electrons, in the same quantum mechanical phase, moving collectively in the lattice?

    I'm talking about lattice waves The Pd bonds can only be of the alpha or beta length so I think of them as alpha-beta phase waves. In PdDx systems, these waves are driven by the movement of deuterons. In most experiments, the sample is charged and then left to outgas through whatever surface defects/weaknesses exist on the sample. This outgassing slowly sets up waves via Helmholtz resonance and drives the Pd to exhibit coherent lattice waves. Once these waves get started they propagate like phonons. The problem we see in experiments is the use of bulk Pd that have small grains of crystals. This breaks up the lattice waves so they can't propagate very far. That's why I advise using a pure single crystal that is grown like they grow silicon wafers.

    When the lattice waves coherently go to the alpha state all the atoms close down at the same time in a volume. This leaves no place for the deuterons to go. The change from the beta bond lengths to the alpha bond length is a quantum change and is very fast. This can push to deuterons into each other at very high speed overcoming the Columb barrier. The energy is then transferred to the lattice driving the bonds from alpha to beta. If this happens close to the surface you'll get the standard pot marks you see in experiments. Remember that the typical experiment creates lattice waves by the gas leaking out.

    Codepsision and nano-particles grow crystals. Storms uses impurities that act as nucleation points to grow crystals. If you look closely you see that experiments that work promote crystal growth. F&P slowly annealed their samples causing crystal growth. Fleischmann claimed that poured cathodes worked best because when you pour pallidum and let it cool slowly it forms more crystals than if you roll and pull a cathode.

    If you look at my proposed experiment I use a pure charges crystal that is plated to keep the gas in the Pd then I propose driving it from the outside to create lattice waves. This should allow the sample to work for a long time without being charged. Other systems just let the gas leak out and then you're done.

    Carl Page, with Peter Diamandis, the founder of the famous X-Prize who launched the private space industry, have just announced during the ICCF 24 the creation of the "Solid-State-Fusion Prize" endowed with 2 million dollars.

    I thought this announcement would make the front page of the newspapers, especially considering that we are in a vacation period, and that there is relatively little political news, and that journalists prefer to deal with positive subjects during this period. But I find very few occurrences by doing a search on GOOGLE. How do you explain this strange fact?

    It's not on their site yet.

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    What Hagelstein does not do is explain how his theory would explain Fleischmann and Pons experiments and why they could not reproduce their own work. This is the foremost result any CF theory must explain.

    Each corner of your cube has 3 'corner to corner' bonds, plus two more -one to each face-centred intercalated atom closest to it, making 5 in all. With four corners so I would say 4x5= 20. But I'm happy to be wrong, I'm not a crystallographer.

    Look in the middle of this page where they could how many atoms are in the unit cell (4)

    Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) Unit Cell | Materials Science & Engineering Student
    The Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) unit cell can be imagined as a cube with an atom on each corner, and an atom on each face. It is one of the most common…

    You have to take into consideration whether or not bonds are shared between other unit cells.

    I have some questions about my idea. I was not sure about how much energy it takes to move a Pd-Pd bond from the alpha to the beta bond length. I used 1 eV just to make the calculation easy. But that number is crucial in figuring out how many bonds, and therefore how many atoms, it takes to be in alignemt in the single crystal. Pd is polycrystalline. depending on the manufacturing procedure those crystals could, on average, be small, the size of the google crystals, or large enough to accept a fusion event. If the energy to change the alpha to beta is larger than 1 eV it will take a smaller size of crystal to absorb a fusion event. If the energy to change bonds is less than 1 eV then it would take more atoms to participate in the fusion event. It would give a good bounds (sanity check) calculation for the size of crystals needed.

    the other piece of information I need is the number of bonds in the unit cell. I don't think it's the coordination number (12) but it's close.

    Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) Unit Cell | Materials Science & Engineering Student
    The Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) unit cell can be imagined as a cube with an atom on each corner, and an atom on each face. It is one of the most common…

    There are 4 atoms in the unit cell.

    If you look at a face and disregard the edges, it has 4 bonds. 6 faces = 24 bonds. Divide this by two because each face is shared with another face in another unit cell.

    Now there are 12 edges with one bond but each edge is shared with 4 other edges from other unit cells that 12/4 = 3 so there are 12 + 3 = 15 bonds per unit cell.

    Does that sound right?

    Thanks in advance

    I looked at the Google work. The size of the crystals they grew were very small. Too small to absorb the energy from a fusion event (according to me).

    I'll keep working to get my experiment done. Thanks for the advice.

    I've been keeping track of the field since 1989. The paper I'm citing is from the field of hydrogen storage and not cold fusion. I have no compatriots. I'm an independent inventor with 14 patents in high-performance computing.

    The mechanism I'm proposing is very simple as is the experiment I propose. If Rossi's stuff worked It would be all over the place so I assume it doesn't work. You make no points for or against what I'm proposing so I'll leave it at that.


    Thank you for the mini-autobiography , I'm impressed.. Can you describe some of your cold fusion work?

    Currently, it's all thought experiments. I predicted alpha-beta phase waves in 2012. In 2017 phase waves were recorded in this paper published in Nature

    More importantly, they recorded a "mystery" where the phase of the area they were recording suddenly flipped from alpha to beta through what they surmised was a "lattice realignment" This is also predicted by my theory. They just charged and discharged their samples. In my proposed experiment you change the sample and then plate to lock in the hydrogen. Then you stimulate it at a very low frequency to generate phase waves. When I presented this to McKubre in 2013 he told me a story about how somebody's kid cranked down the frequency on the cube target and the next day the target had melted.

    I'm trying to get the experiment done. I don't have the calorimetry chops or the money or the time to do it myself. I'm doing my day job which is creating a hardware/software codesign project. It's a runtime loadable microcoded algorithmic state machine that is programmed in a subset of C.

    I thought the Telex started it in the 1930s

    It's funny that people here should talk about computer systems. In 1986 I came up with what might be the end evolution of computers. It's called reconfigurable computing nowadays. It is a multi-billion industry (I didn't get the money). I still have ideas I'm working on that will change the computer industry I just need to raise a little money.

    Who is Steve Casselman
    Who is Steve Casselman? These are some notes 1 1987 SBIR

    I'm a visionary. I see how things work all in one flash. Just as I saw how computer systems would evolve and how we would one-day program hardware with software languages I saw how coherent alpha-beta phase waves were one way to explain cold fusion. Only quantum mechanics can explain the weirdness that is cold fusion. My explanation is simple, straightforward forward, and recorded on video. In 2012 I "saw" how it all went together. Just like I did with reconfigurable computing in 1986.



    It's the speed of hydrogen in palladium. It's in the paper I cite. It's the same equation as acoustic resonance but you use the velocity of hydrogen in pallidum. A spherical would be better but you can buy a little cube off the shelf. I got a quote for a 2x2x2 mm cube at $2,000.

    Infinite Energy has published an Interview with Ed Storms, who received the Toyoda Medal at ICCF24

    The interview is done with Ed, Marianne, and Mike McKubre, and Larry Forsley going over his theory in a bit more detail.


    This is a good example to see how my theory of coherent alpha-beta phase waves can explain what is happening with Dr. Storms's experiments.

    Page 34 bottom left paragraph. The quality that makes a batch of Pd active is the size of the crystals. Pd is polycrystalline and if the crystals are not of a certain size (outlined in the poster) then the lattice will not be able to absorb a fusion event. Batches that are cooled slowly grow crystals and batches that are machined rolled, or pulled have smaller crystals.

    "One requirement, I might point out, is that a location exists into which a number of deuterons or light hydrogen atoms could accumulate" Alpha-beta phase waves actively gather hydrogen which can give PdHx greater than 1 at the local level. Storms does not talk about the quantum behavior of an area change from beta to alpha. This is key to the theory. when the coherent phase wave goes from beta to alpha it happens very quickly There is no stopping the Pd bond from transitioning to alpha from beta.

    Storms goes on to talk about gaps He claims that the gaps inside the Pd start small and then grow. From the papers I cite, it's just the opposite, Pd is self-healing and any gaps get filled in as the Pd is charged and discharged. Storms gets right, that any crack or abnormality on the surface is an exit or entry point for hydrogen.

    In most experiments after the Pd is charged it starts to discharge through the weakest places. For a cube, these are the corners for other geometries it would be cracks or other weak points in the lattice. What happens is that as the gas leaks out each crack sets up a Helmholtz oscillator that generates, after a while, weak coherent alpha-beta phase waves.

    Storms talks about putting "inert particles in the material." This works because the particles become nucleation points to grow bigger crystals in the Pd.

    "But the different treatments involved the annealing treatment and not the purity of the sample itself." Annealing grows crystals.

    The one thing that nobody talks about is that, I believe, quantum mechanics is involved. No classical description of the lattice behavior shows how two D or H atoms can overcome the Coulomb barrier. The quantum collapse of the local Pd crystal from beta to alpha pushes the D or H atoms together in a way that can not be stopped.

    I believe that if you use a single large crystal and generate a coherent alpha-beta phase wave you'll get an efficient cold fusion engine.

    The main subject of the poster I presented at the International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF24) was that coherent alpha-beta phase waves are the driving force behind cold fusion. There are two types of bonds in pallidum called alpha and beta. The difference is the distance between the bonds. Alpha is shorter and beta is longer. Coherent alpha-beta phase waves are when the bonds align and create waves. When large areas of pure pallidum crystal are charged with deuterium a large coherent wave is formed. After charging the deuterium slowly leaks at points like corners or cracks. This generates Helmholtz oscillators that find the natural resonance and form coherent alpha-beta phase waves. In the poster, I explain why Fleischmann and Pons were unable to reproduce their own experiments and why random results still dominate the field. In one reference, on hydrogen storage, researchers took real-time atomic force microscope video of phase waves and took pictures of a fusion event which is evidence of my theory. A perfect single crystal can carve out an assemblage of atoms to become a quasiparticle. The fusion energy is absorbed by forcing the bonds to go from the alpha state to the beta state in the quasiparticle.

    This observed formation of coherent alpha-beta phase waves may occur in other face-centered cubic (FCC) metals. After attending ICCF24 I believe alpha-beta phase waves are at the heart of all fusion observed in metals such as nickel.

    Cheers Steve