axil Verified User
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    Possible Theories of Cold Fusion - LENR-CANR.org


    by Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and G. Preparata


    Quote

    We consider now the difficult problem of hydrogen delocalisation inside the lattice of deep electrostatic holes. As delocalisation depends on the occupancy by the protons of highly excited states of the well, this configuration must be energetically advantageous. It then becomes clear that collective phenomena must come into play as, otherwise, the hydrogen nuclei (H+, D+ or T+) could not avoid going into the ground state. The many-body interactions of the hydrogen nuclei must therefore be able to supply the energy required to raise the nuclei to highly excited states of oscillation. It is again evident that this cannot be achieved through short-range forces, thus providing another clear illustration of the inadequacy of conventional theories. On the other hand, the superradiant plasma of hydrogen nuclei considered elsewhere [70] leads immediately to such highly excited states of the oscillating nuclei by virtue of the superradiant behaviour of the ideal plasma: the highly excited states of the oscillating nuclei compensate their high kinetic energy by the interaction energy with the coherent superradiant electromagnetic field. If this is kept in mind, then one can readily understand the odd properties of H in Pd: thus the high diffusion coefficients reflect the «quasi-free» character of the hydrogen «band» in the lattice of deep holes; the inverse isotope effects of the diffusion coefficients and of the critical temperatures for transition to the superconducting states are due to the bosonic character of D+ as opposed to the fermionic character of H+ and T+, the Pauli principle restricting the configuration space of H+ and T+ but not of D+ . Finally, the high chemical potentials are a likely consequence of the formation of clusters in the size range of a few microns, the size of the coherence domains of hydrogen plasmas [15]. A further aspect of the superradiant behaviour of these systems is referred to in sect. 5.

    Ever before polariton condensation is discovered, M Fleischmann posited that such a condition must have existed in the LENR reaction. Also a condensate of a micron sized cluster (aka EVO) that forms a coherent domain is the active factor in the reaction.


    How was this original thinking about LENR reaction theory of M Fleischmann lost or ignored over all these many years?


    Fleischmann knows of Surfaced Enhanced Raman Scattering and LENR nano plasmonics in wet cell.


    Let us not forget who started the field of LENR back in 1974. Fleischmann was the founder of the field of nanoplasmonics. The surface plasmon polariton is one of the many similar quasiparticles in condensed matter physics that forms the basis for the LENR reaction. Inherent in the many qualities in its quantum mechanical nature, the most important of which is its imaginary mass and it readiness to form coherent condensates, this particle is the gateway into the ability to create vacuum fields in condensed matter physics systems.

    Are you going to fix general relativity to be fully compliant ?

    I am not fixing anything. I am just describing a little of what science has discovered over the last 100 years.


    LENR has looked toward defeating the coulomb barrier (aka fusion) to produce transmutation. But the real way to action transmutation is to modified ever so slightly the Higgs mechanism. But to master transmutation, it is first necessary to understand what the Higgs mechanism is.

    To continue the example, given conservation of mass and energy, one balances them before some sequence of event and after that sequence of events, but conservation is violated. The simple solution is to invent entropy, an unknown to account for our inability to measure and account perfectly for mass and energy in the after a series of events.


    Quote

    Noether's theorem or Noether's first theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system with conservative forces has a corresponding conservation law.

    For example, sym­me­try with re­spect to time gives rise to the law of con­ser­va­tion of en­ergy, maybe the most im­por­tant con­ser­va­tion law in physics. Any so­lu­tion of the equa­tion is independent of the direction of time, the solution does not de­pend ex­plic­itly on time. So en­ergy con­ser­va­tion results.


    Every conservation law has an associated symmetry.


    When a symmetry is broken, so to is the associated conservation law.


    LENR overunity is accompanied by spontaneous symmetry breaking.


    The mexican hat potential is associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking.


    270px-Mexican_hat_potential_polar.svg.png


    Both superconductivity and the Higgs field are derivative of this potential. This potential is how superconductivity and the Higgs field are connected. They can break energy conservation when spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs.


    If the vacuum expectation value is changed, the mass of any particle that exists under that state will change. This is how the charge in the mass of the up and down quarks produce transmutation under the Higgs mechanism.


    What is important in LENR, condensed matter systems involving superconductivity produce changes in the vacuum expectation value and can change what the Higgs field does. When you can change what the Higgs field does, you can change the way the universe works.


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    I had to get into string theory because of the imaginary mass of the EVO. I have always followed the connection of dots no matter where those dots take me.


    Our universe has a positive cosmological constant (because it is accelerating) and has positive energy. On the other hand, the EVO which has imaginary mass and negative energy together with a negative cosmological constant, that means that the EVO is anti de Sitter space. That also means that the EVO is the antithesis of our vacuum.


    Anti de Sitter space is now used in a recent variant of string theory known as AdS/CFT, for Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory. So string theory is not useful in the study of our universe, but it is likely very useful in the study of the EVO because the EVO is anti de Sitter space.


    For more background, see

    AdS/CFT correspondence

    AdS/CFT correspondence - Wikipedia


    Quantum field theories are also used throughout condensed matter physics to model particle-like objects called quasiparticles which is what the EVO is made of.


    String theory is just another tool of science and you must know when to use it and when not to.


    But getting back to the EVO, I am fascinated by the crenelated hollow micro balls of transmuted matter that are produced in many LENR systems. How in the world does this ball come to be. It is my suspicion that the EVO has a singularity at its core around which this envelope of transmuted matter forms. Ed Witten has predicted that a bubble of nothing will develop.


    Physicists Are Studying Mysterious ‘Bubbles of Nothing’ That Eat Spacetime
    A spontaneous hole in the fabric of reality could theoretically end the universe, but don't worry: physicists are studying the idea for what it can teach us…
    www.vice.com


    That bubble of nothing sounds like an EVO since it eats matter and makes that matter disappear. The experimental smoking gun is to be found in the microdiamonds that are used in the LION experiment. These EVOs dematerialized hexagonal holes or tunnels deep inside those micro diamonds with the crenelated balls of transmuted matter at the ends of those tunnels. The EVO could be the item that turns string theory into a valuable asset of science.


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    Some interesting "original research" on superconductivity:


    Superconductivity is a set of physical properties observed in certain materials and e-cat devices where electrical resistance vanishes and magnetic flux fields and EVO's are expelled from the material. Any material exhibiting these properties is a superconductor and a polariton condensate. Unlike an ordinary metallic conductor, whose resistance decreases gradually as its temperature is lowered even down to near absolute zero, a superconductor has a characteristic critical temperature below which the resistance drops abruptly to zero, with the exception of LENR fuels which are superconducting at any temperature including high plasma temperatures.[1][2]

    Superconductivity explains many of the features seen in the LENR reaction, but it has major limitations based on the temperature range that superconductivity can occur. How can a superconductor exist at any temperature as seems to be true in plasma based LENR?


    The answer is to be found in how differing states of the vacuum and spacetime interact. They don't interact. This lack of interaction was postulated when the Higgs field first came into being when the universe cooled to allow the electroweak force to decoupled from EMF. This state change in the vacuum allows for bubbles of non-interacting topological defects to exist in spacetime.


    The Abelian Higgs model therefore allows for cosmic strings and domain walls.


    This means that the EVO existes in its own Higgs vacuum state that differs from that of spacetime. The superconductive state inside the EVO is not affected by environmental conditions in spacetime. This solution comes from cosmology and quantum field theory. This also implicate the Higgs field as a major formative factor in the mechanisms that inform the actions of the EVO.


    See

    TASI Lectures: Introduction to Cosmology - M. Trodden & S.M. Carroll

    That is precisely the problem, current physics is in dire need of a total re-doing.

    There are dozens of disconnected fields in science. Just because you might not know the latest advances in cosmology does not mean that solid state physics must be reworked. Cosmology might explain the situation. Then there is string theory. The solution might be found in string theory or in nanoplasmonics. You must know a lot of science in order to say that it needs a total re-doing.

    You make up stuff in every post by cutting and paste various ideas together. You provide a wildly imagined version of what you think really happens with references to others works.as if it is obvious, these references back you. But why should you think that makes you better not worse than those who you think are making up science?

    Putting ideas together is a systems engineering method. In solving a mystery, the method is to put all the clues together to look for a common factor. When that common factor is determined, then the behavior of that common factor is examined to see what it means.


    What I find in most thinking in the field of LENR is that the discontinuities and seeming illogic in common factor anaisys are ignored. For example, the assumed common factor in LENR thinking is that fusion produces transmutation. But when elements like rare earths and lead are produced in transmutation that observation is ignored with no attempt at explaining how lead could be produce by fusion. The conclusion must be that transmutation is not based on fusion but is some other process. Then the gathering of clues begins in understanding what that new process must be to explain how that new process works and how that process relates to all the other observed processes involved.


    One such process is to explain why hexagon and triangular holes are produced in transmutation. The answer to that process is then related to all the other purported processes that have been resolved. And all the while, all the processes must be allowed by existing science.


    What you cannot do is say that fusion produces transmustation and ignore the transmutation to rare earths and to lead. You must also explain why hexagonal holes are produce together with crenelated micron sized hollows perfect spheres of layered elements are found in transmutation and all reflecting polarize light.

    If you cut and paste Wikipedia into a thesis, but add a few extra words with your personal theory, is that considered plagiarism? Asking for a friend.

    Unlike many here, I don't make up my own science: I try to conform with science that currently exists. Why is it important to reinvent what already exists? If you don't like what I write, then don't read it. But at least in this case you were motivated to look up the description of SMOKE which I doubt that you knew anything about and are now better informed for it. This is the goal of education.

    The stationary EVO produces a matched pair of holes that pernitrate the surface of a metal that the EVO has been created on. These set of holes are produced by magnetic vortex flux tubes that are generated by a circulation of spins produced by the polaritons that comprise the polariton condensate. The two magnetic vortex flux tubes are produced by right and left handed electron spin components of the polariton aggregation. Right handed spins produce the south magnetic vortex flux tube and the left handed spins produced the north handed magnetic vortex flux tube. Matter from the metal surface is dematerialized by the magnetic flux lines that connect these two triangular profiled holes and are carried into the interior of the EVO where dematerialization and/or transmutation takes place. The triangular hole profile originates from the supersolid aggregation of the vortexes lattice within the EVO. The metal surface material that is affected is plastified and flows through the magnetic flux lines leaving these matched holes in the metal surface. An instance of this matter removal and transport is cough in the act as explained in the following video called the cannon. This paired hole transmutation process is common in LENR reactor operations to such a degree as to eventually degrade the materials of the reactor structure into inoperability.


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    Experimental observations supporting the superconductive origin of the LENR reaction


    There are other indicators that the EVO is a superconductor. All LENR systems produce charge separation that is generated by the Meissner effect. Additionally, the light emitted from a LENR system will always be polarized. The EVO also produces polygonal shaped marks: hexagons, squares, spheres, triangles, in transmutation products and matter destruction typified by the shape of the holes produced in materials. This unique shape forming mechanism stems from the supersolid nature of the formation of vortices that result from superfluidity.


    In physics the magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) or the surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) is one of the magneto-optic effects that are a proof of the superconductive nature of the LENR reaction. This mode describes the changes to light reflected from a magnetized surface. It is used in materials science research in devices such as the Kerr microscope, to investigate the magnetization structure of materials.


    When EVOs impact a metal surface, they leave an impression on that surface that reflects their magnetic vortex structure. One aspect of these impressions can only be seen with polarized light and takes the form of a hexagon. The intense magnetic nature of the EVO imprints its magnetic field onto the metal surface so that the supersolid shape of the internal magnetic vortex field is impressed onto the metal surface.


    This effect results from a modification in the off-diagonal components of the dielectric tensor permittivity . These off-diagonal components give the magneto-optic material an anisotropic permittivity, meaning that its permittivity is different in different directions.


    The Kerr angle is the angle that linearly polarized light will be rotated after hitting the modified area. The Kerr elasticity is the ratio of the semimajor and semiminor axes of the elliptically polarized light, generated from reflection of linearly polarized light.



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    The SAFIRE Project: Transformative Technology | Montgomery Childs & Michael Clarage

    Mar 27, 2021




    The transmutation produced as a crenelated ball which is the identical form that was seen in the ULTR experiment. The ULTR crenellated ball was produced by a $30 cavitation cleaner by magicsound. This result shows that the SAFIRE project produces EVOs that can transmute matter into the form of a crenelated ball. The ULTR ball is larger than the SAFIRE ball.


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    Black Holes May Be Covered in Vortex Structures According to New Study. Rotation in black holes may for vortexes due to the formation of Bose condensation.


    As I posted here


    Rotation will produce strange radiation which is caused by EVOs in motion. Rotation will produce EVOs as proven by experimentation done by Alexander Shishkin. It seems like rotating black holes take on the characteristics of EVOs.

    Fredericks has been analyzing tracks for years, he has a very great collection of them, and has several hypothesis about the nature of what leaves the tracks.

    My theory of LENR centers on the ability of a condensed matter system to create a false Higgs vacuum. The Higgs field is a Tachyonic fields. It play an important role in modern physics. Perhaps the most famous is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model of particle physics, which has an imaginary mass in its uncondensed phase. In general, the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is closely related to tachyon condensation, plays an important role in many aspects of theoretical physics.


    Being a Higgs field derived from a superconductive origin, the False Higgs vacuum is also tachyonic. The EVO is a false Higgs field and is therefore tachyonic. EVOs as a tachyon condensate produce strange radiation as described by Fredericks.


    The polariton condensate has been experimentally observer to be tachyonic having a non positive mass.


    Physicists Say They've Created a Device That Generates 'Negative Mass'
    Physicists have created what they say is the first device that's capable of generating particles that behave as if they have negative mass.
    www.sciencealert.com


    Quote

    Physicists have created what they say is the first device that's capable of generating particles that behave as if they have negative mass.


    The device generates a strange particle that's half-light/half-matter, and as if that isn't cool enough, it could also be the foundation for a new kind of laser that could operate on far less energy than current technologies.


    This builds on recent theoretical work on the behaviour of something called a polariton, which appears to behave as if it has negative mass – a mind-blowing property that sees objects move towards the force pushing it, instead of being pushed away.


    There are other indicators that the EVO is a superconductor. All LENR system produce charge separation. Additionally, the light emitted from a LENR system will always be polarized. The EVO also produces polygonal shaped marks: hexagons, squares, spheres, triangles, in transmutation products and matter destruction. This stems from the supersolid nature of the formation of vortices that result from superfluidity.


    One characteristic of Brown's Gas is that (even if you don't accept them as EVOs) it contains extra electrons. According to George Wiseman and others, Brown's Gas contains what's called Electrically Expanded Water that has became gaseous due to electrical charge rather than heating. If this is true then the ignited Brown's Gas flame could be also considered as something similar to an electron beam. If the electron beam collides with let's say a piece of Tungsten, it could induce charge bunching or compression on the surface, inducing self organization and a double layer of coherent matter. This coherent matter could then induce transmutations or other processes that lead to the destruction of the Tungsten. Or, even if a macro-layer of coherent matter doesn't form, it could induce smaller scale surface plasmon polaritons that could start damaging the sample.

    The 10 yen coin experiment shows the action of EVOs in the disappearance and transmutation of matter.


    The 10 yen coin reaction was produced when a sheet of teflon was pressed into the 10 yen coin that had been excited with Ohmasa gas. The coin was deformed in the teflon contact point but not melted with areas of disappeared matter effident. The EVO reaction seems to be amplified when the EVOs are exposed to a insulator like teflon. Far more activity is seen on the coin then on the teflon.


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    SEM inspection of the ten yen coin shows tracks of multiple EVOs eating away at the coin and leaving transmuted material periodically as the EVOs ate into the coin. A faction of matter is rendered as transmuted material that takes the form of micro spheres as is universally seen to form in transmuted material throughout the LENR reaction experience. Carbon shows up in the transmuted material mix which is usually seen in transmutation.



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    Anatoly Klimov has been working on vortex devices for years. Maybe there is some concepts there that will help.

    The function that the domain wall serves in the EVO is to protect the coherence of the Bose condensate from decoherence due to any deleterious environmental effects like existence within extreme temperatures in plasma. Once the domain wall forms, the only force that will destroy the EVO is its own instability. The EVO is metastable. If it grows too large, then it will explode in a Bosenova. Depending on the type of polaritons involved, if the EVO is not fed electrons and/or bosons (i.e. photons) then the EVO will become dormant for an indefinite period of time.


    For example, Ohmasa gas carries EVOs seeded by ultra-dense water produced using cavitation. If Ohmasa gas is placed in a gas storage tank, the gas will remain inactive. Such gas has been stored for 10 years and it still can be activated. If the stored gas is activated by photons (heat and light) it will easily burn through tungsten but at a low temperature of 220C.


    A video has been published by the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project in which Bob Greenyer and George Egely show testing done in Japan with ‘OHMASA Gas’ which has been developed by Japanese inventor Mr. Ryushin Omasa.


    At one point in this video, a flame produced with this gas vaporizes a tungsten rod at a temperature of around 220 C which is well below its melting point of 3422 C.


    See the video below at about the 17 minute mark. This is another proof that transmutation does not produce energy.


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