Posts by axil

    Researchers from Crete have just discovered that if a polariton BEC is squeezed between two metallic contacts, and excited by applying a tiny voltage pulse over these contacts they could change the spin state of the condensate. Because all particles in a BEC occupy the same quantum state, the whole BEC responds in unison, assuming one of the two spin states, up or down. This process operates like a memory cell, and the information is kept in the spin state. This sounds like a possible LENR activation stimulant that might apply to the Quark reactor.


    They use extremely low power in the voltage pulse to switch the optical state. The switch is actually bistable. The voltage is only required to switch the device between states, and the total energy required is just 0.8 femtojoule.


    The other find was that the light emitted by the polariton BEC demonstrates clarity of the optical signal. This signal has a pure, 100-percent polarization state, in contrast to spintronics, where you have both states, and one state is stronger than the other, This switch mechanism might be a result of the KERR effect.


    The activation stimulus changes the magnetic nature of the polariton BEC so that it emits a pure monopole magnetic beam. A typical polariton lasts for just a few picoseconds so this activation signal must be reapplied at a rate that can activate the new polaritons as they a reformed.


    Another indicator that the Quark reactor is using this polariton activation process is the nature of the light that it emits. If the light that the Quark reactor emits is in a pure, 100-percent polarization state, we know that Rossi is using a polariton BEC in the Quark reactor and a high frequency low powered activation signal.

    With reference to post #2, Piantelli says PP fusion, the kind of fusion that Ni/H LENR requires, is, to all intents and purpose, impossible. It is impossible even inside the core of the Sun.


    However, you could get Helium from successive additions of a pseudo particle (H-, Negaton, e- p e-, etc) to Titanium isotopes or Carbon for instance. 12C is in this way a true catalyst.


    Lastly, Shoulders says that very large charge clusters turn the charged ions into a sub- nucleon soup, which makes these fusion reaction calculations irrelevant. Polariton clusters (EVO) can turn matter into a quark soup and Ken Shoulders has seen it occur in his experiments.



    Kenneth Shoulders - @41m29s - On the Cold Fusion community


    "I can take the top list of everybody that I know of in cold fusion…


    where its at… that is supposed to be a forward moving field… it’s dead…


    dead in the water… they really are bad… take a list of the top guys in


    that business, or ex-business - I can name guys like Storms, McKubre,


    Miley - all those and everybody of their ilk - that I know well - that I


    have associated with closely - and when I look at what they do - I have


    very little admiration for it - I guess I put storms at the top of the


    list - those that seemingly survived all the pitfalls and perils of


    being at a high echelon in the field - and that’s about it on that


    bunch…"


    "SPAWAR has EVOs and they don’t know they have them"




    I address why cracks and pumps are important in LENR in this recent post:


    LENR and UDH

    To the best of my understanding, polariton formation requires that the electron must be restricted to a limited position so that entanglement with photons can occur. To equalize energy, the photon must continually interact with the electron until the energy transferred between the two is zero. There may be electrons in orbit but they play no role in LENR. Electron localized confinement is a key requirement in LENR. This is why cracks and bumps in a lattice are now recognized as one of the LENR active topologies that fosters the LENR reaction. Also, optical cavities as formed in palladium hydrogen loading and acid treatment of CELANI's constantan wires created pits that are the LENR active areas on the surface of those wires.


    In Mizuno surface preparation, he uses electric arcing to pit the surface of this nickel and palladium surfaces. Piantelli uses vapor disposition to roughen the surface of his nickel bars to form sharp surface features and crevices.


    Energy equalization is also a requirement to generate UDH . An atomic condinsate is formed inside an optical cavity as hydrogen atoms become thermally equalized with each other and with the lattice in which the optical cavity has formed. This is why Holmlid uses iron oxide to generate UDH. This material supports a preponderance of optical cavities on its surface in which hydrogen atoms can accumulate and become equilibrated, coherent, and entangled.


    The branch of science that deals with this issue is


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cavity_quantum_electrodynamics


    The optical cavity is an important tool in quantum mechanical dynamics and has been recognized as such by the nobel committee


    The 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Serge Haroche and David Wineland for their work on controlling quantum systems.[1]

    JulianBianchi   can : This approach is pointing into the right direction as many others too. Keep in mind that a toroidal orbit has an interesting projection to 4D space! Just forget SU(3,1)...


    Don't blame Axil. He is just collecting interesting papers - not more. He has not yet posted even the simplest "new" (self derived) formula to discuss about.

    All that Wyttenback does is produce mathematical nonsense based of R. Mills theory, when he should be using quantum electrodynamics as a valid basis for his equations. But Mills will never approve, how sad. It is such a shame to waste such a wonderful mind on nonsense. Such innate talent is so rare, allow your beautiful mind to focus on worthwhile things.

    axil

    Directly address the questions. Enough with the copy-pastas.

    I thought you would prefer the research findings of professional science, references as it were. But I did provide my take on how this research translates to LENR and specifically to answering your question. If not, please complain. This is hard to understand stuff.

    can


    see post


    RNBE 2016 William Collis - a heretical theory involving unusual particles.


    take note of



    http://physics.aps.org/articles/v9/43


    This article describes ultra dense water. The electrons (atoms?)are in a six way superposition between the positive core. This means that six electrons become one big electron that is six times more energetic than any single member. Weird stuff. Note the use of the term " smeared out".


    We need to get use to the concept of particles as waves. Like a strum of 6 guitar strings which produce a composite note that include the vibrations of all six strings. It is just like white light is a combination of many primary colors. This " smearing out" is what happens in entangled, and coherent particles in a condensate. This is what a compound quasiparticle is, a new complex waveform that acts like a new type particle.


    I have said that the UDH forms a tachyon and I have verified via string theory predictions that this quasiparticle does what is seen in Holmlid's experiments. I most people cannot go that far, however.


    See


    http://www.pnas.org/content/111/44/15601.full


    Physicists have identified dozens of different subatomic species in the particle zoo, but most physical and chemical interactions arise from only three: the proton, the neutron, and the electron. There are a lot of those: solids and liquids contain on the order of 10^24 particles per cubic centimeter.

    Figure

    • In February, JILA physicists and German theorists described the dropleton (or “quantum droplet”), a quasiparticle made of a network of electrons and holes that combines quantum characteristics with some properties of a liquid. Image courtesy of the Cundiff group and Brad Baxley (JILA, Boulder, CO).

    Each of those quantum mechanical particles may interact with all of the others in the material due to the long-range nature of the electromagnetic force, which adds up to one sprawling headache of a math problem for condensed matter physicists who want to study the properties of matter on the subatomic scale. The problem is particularly vexing for condensed matter physicists who study crystalline lattices or superconductors.


    Enter the quasiparticle, a mathematical construct that makes near-impossible calculations not only possible, but also straightforward. Decades ago, researchers realized that they don't have to tackle the many-body problem that arises from the messy interactions of real quantum particles. Instead, a crystal solid can just as accurately be studied and analyzed as an averaged bulk object along with a collection of quasiparticles: disturbances in the solid that act just like well-behaved, nonrelativistic particles that barely interact at all. They're fictitious and easier to work with, and their collective behavior matches that of the real subatomic particles.


    An electron quasiparticle, for example, includes both the real electron and the nearby particles it affects—and may therefore have a different mass. Another quasiparticle, a “hole,” represents the absence of an electron (i.e., a place where an electron recently passed) and has the opposite charge. It is particularly convenient in studies of the properties of superconductors. The “polaron,” a quasiparticle also related to electrons, helps describe how an electrons disturbs nearby ions. In April 2012, physicists introduced the “orbiton,” a quasiparticle that's like an electron without spin or electric charge—representing a modern thrust to use quasiparticles to separate out the different mechanisms of an electron.


    Closely related to quasiparticles are collective excitations, similarly fictitious entities that can be used to describe and quantify the overall behavior of a complex system. Plasmons, for example, are a collective excitation that can illustrate how the electron density of a foil changes in response to a bombardment of energy. Phonons describe the effects of a sound wave moving through a solid.


    Some researchers even go so far as to argue that all particles are, in some way, quasiparticles—because they all arise from perturbations in an energy field.

    Huizenga said: "my theory says this can't happen, so it can't happen."said: "my theory says this can't happen, so it can't happen."


    Huizenga is correct, fusion cannot happen as explained by current cold fusion theories, especially the fusion that is purportedly occurring in pure protium (aka Ni/H fusion).

    images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQqntI4AAmOXn4EGD6gM9_3X8cC1meU-fGlYhNgOkHfuFZ95N2g9g


    Polaritons are a mix of electrons and photons that are produced in cracks and bumps on the surface of a metal. It is this mixture of light and electrons that allows concentration of this spin only quasiparticles to aggregates to such a large and essentially unlimited extent that low energy nuclear reactions will occur.


    Ed Storms once said that there was no way that electrons can axxumulate to such and extent to produce nuclear reactions. Ed Storms is wrong. The production of polaritons is how that accumulation can occur.



    Ed Storms said:


    Quote

    Attempts have been made by various theoreticians to propose a mechanism to explain how the Coulomb barrier can be reduced within the PdD lattice. These models generally involve changing the energy or local concentration of electrons. Initiation of a nuclear reaction in ordinary materials by such processes is prevented by chemical effects, as is shown later in the paper.

    Cold fusion cannot happen. It does not exist. What happens in LENR is the decay of the proton and neutron. The mesons that this decay produces creates the occurrence of muon catalyzed fusion. This confusion about cold fusion theory in the minds of cold fusion zealots is what steps on their own LENR message to the confusion of orthodox science. Since LENR has now been shown to occur using protium. this undercuts the deuterium fusion meme and forces us to consider the PP fusion process. This type of fusion is highly improbable and is surly rejected by science as possible. improbable to the tune of happening once every many millions of years.


    "For consistency, all time scales reported here are taken from Clayton (1968). The only reaction that is of uncertain time scale is the initial proton-proton fusion, which is too slow to measure in a laboratory. So the time scale is computed from basic theory. Hansen & Kawaler (1994) give the time scale 6,000,000,000 years, whereas Clayton gives 7,900,000,000. Bohme-Vitense (1992) gives 14,000,000,000 years, but for the lower temperature of 14,000,000 Kelvins. The one thing that is certain is that the reaction is slow."



    p + p --> d + e+ + nu 7.9 x 109years




    p + p + e- --> d + nu 1012 years





    Holmlid states in his latest paper:


    Quote

    The high-energy protons are only formed by the D + 3He reaction step, which is relatively unlikely and for example not observed in our laser-induced D+D fusion study in D(0) [14]. Any high-energy neutrons would not be observed in the present experiments. Thus, ordinary fusion D+D cannot give the observed particle velocities. Further, similar particle velocities are obtained also from the laser-induced processes in p(0) as seen in Figs 4, 6 and 7 etc, where no ordinary fusion process can take place. Thus, it is apparent that the particle energy observed is derived from other nuclear processes than ordinary fusion

    Consistent to my way of thinking, the same basic mechanisms that occur in UDH also occur in transition metal nanowire. An electron cover on the outside surface of the nanowire forms that are in a dipole motion with holes. These electrons host the condinsation of polaritons as mentioned in post 32. This polariton condensate makes the nanowire superconductive and provides a place where LENR reaction energy can be stored.

    Details, details, details...



    The view of the electron configuration the covers the positive core of the UDH most importantly needs to account for the superconductive behavior of the UDH. When an electron imparts energy into the electron cloud cover that enshrouds the UDH core, its energy must be transferred along that cloud without resistance and in a way the does not disturb the condinsation of the that cloud. The energy comes in at one point in the cloud and leaves undiminished at the opposite end of the cloud.


    In order for the electron cloud to form a polariton condinsate, orbital like continuous motion might not be supported. In other words, the electrons cannot move that much. Additionally, the electron cloud is being acted on by the repulsive nature of the meissner effect where a state of balance between the coulomb force and the meissner effect forms and suspends the electron cloud at a fixed average distance from the positive core. This electron cloud would be responsive to any motion of the protons in the positive core. All the electrons in the cloud would also be constrained because they are paired in a cooper pairing to form bosons.


    The electron cloud would behave like the surface of an ocean with waves of spin coupled electrons in correlated movement as happens in a spin wave. Like water molecules in those waves, the meissner effect would constrain the electons in mostly a two dimensional membrane with some perturbations in the movement of the electrons in the third dimension to react to any movements that occur in the positive core


    How a spin wave looks as follows:



    The key to forming a Bose Condensate of polaritons is to confine heat photons and electrons together for long enough for them to become entangled. This means that the electrons and photons stay together for long enough for them to come to a thermal equilibrium.


    In Ultra dense hydrogen, electrons are confined in a thin layer that covers the UDH, this layer is called a spin wave. This spin wave is a quantum well for electrons. Heat cannot get inside this spin wave because of the meissner effect. Heat cannot leave the spin wave because the hydrogen gas above the spin wave reflects the heat back onto the spin wave. The inside and outside surface of the spin wave produces a two sided mirror that keeps the heat in around and on the spin wave. This two faced mirror effect that confines light produces a polariton condensate to form on the surface of the UDH. This process of confining reflection happens on all metal nanowires except the surface of the metal provides the interior reflecting surface of the two faced mirror.



    In a World-First, Scientists Have Achieved ‘Liquid Light’ at Room Temperature


    A Frankenstein mash-up of light and matter.


    superfluid-light_1024.jpg


    For the first time, physicists have achieved ‘liquid light’ at room temperature, making this strange form of matter more accessible than ever.


    This matter is both a superfluid, which has zero friction and viscosity, and a kind of Bose-Einstein condensate – sometimes described as the fifth state of matter – and it allows light to actually flow around objects and corners.


    Regular light behaves like a wave, and sometimes like a particle, always travelling in a straight line. That’s why your eyes can’t see around corners or objects. But under extreme conditions, light can also act like a liquid, and actually flow around objects.


    Bose-Einstein condensates are interesting to physicists because in this state, the rules switch from classical to quantum physics, and matter starts to take on more wave-like properties.


    They are formed at temperatures close to absolute zero and exist for only fractions of a second.


    But in this study, researchers report making a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature by using a Frankenstein mash-up of light and matter.


    “The extraordinary observation in our work is that we have demonstrated that superfluidity can also occur at room-temperature, under ambient conditions, using light-matter particles called polaritons,” says lead researcher Daniele Sanvitto, from the CNR NANOTEC Institute of Nanotechnology in Italy.


    Creating polaritons involved some serious equipment and nanoscale engineering.


    The scientists sandwiched a 130-nanometre-thick layer of organic molecules between two ultra-reflective mirrors, and blasted it with a 35 femtosecond laser pulse (1 femtosecond is a quadrillionth of a second).


    “In this way, we can combine the properties of photons – such as their light effective mass and fast velocity – with strong interactions due to the electrons within the molecules,” says one of the team, Stéphane Kéna-Cohen from École Polytechnique de Montreal in Canada.

    The resulting ‘super liquid’ had some strange properties.


    Under normal conditions, when liquid flows, it creates ripples and swirls – but that’s not the case for a superfluid.


    As you can see below, the flow of polaritons is disturbed like waves under regular circumstances, but not in the superfluid:

    liquid liquid light


    The flow of polaritons encounters an obstacle in non-superfluid (top) and superfluid (bottom). Credit: Polytechnique Montreal


    “In a superfluid, this turbulence is suppressed around obstacles, causing the flow to continue on its way unaltered,” says Kéna-Cohen.


    The researchers say the results pave the way not only to new studies of quantum hydrodynamics, but also to room-temperature polariton devices for advanced future technology, such as the production of super-conductive materials for devices such as LEDs, solar panels, and lasers.


    “The fact that such an effect is observed under ambient conditions can spark an enormous amount of future work,” says the team.


    “Not only to study fundamental phenomena related to Bose-Einstein condensates, but also to conceive and design future photonic superfluid-based devices where losses are completely suppressed and new unexpected phenomena can be exploited.”

    https://johncarlosbaez.wordpre…/2011/11/28/liquid-light/

    Liquid Light


    Elisabeth Giacobino works at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. Last week she gave a talk at the Centre for Quantum Technologies. It was about ‘polariton condensates’. You can see a video of her talk here.


    What’s a polariton? It’s a strange particle: a blend of matter and light. Polaritons are mostly made of light… with just enough matter mixed in so they can form a liquid! This liquid can form eddies just like water. Giacobino and her team of scientists have actually gotten pictures:


    polariton_turbulence.jpg


    Physicists call this liquid a ‘polariton condensate’, but normal people may better appreciate how wonderful it is if we call it liquid light. That’s not 100% accurate, but it’s close—you’ll see what I mean in a minute.


    Here’s a picture of Elisabeth Giacobino (at right) and her coworkers in 2010—not exactly the same team who is working on liquid light, but the best I can find:

    How to make liquid light

    How do you make liquid light?


    First, take a thin film of some semiconductor like gallium arsenide. It’s full of electrons roaming around, so imagine a sea of electrons, like water. If you knock out an electron with enough energy, you’ll get a ‘hole’ which can move around like a particle of its own. Yes, the absence of a thing can act like a thing. Imagine an air bubble in the sea.


    All this so far is standard stuff. But now for something more tricky: if you knock an electron just a little, it won’t go far from the hole it left behind. They’ll be attracted to each other, so they’ll orbit each other!


    What you’ve got now is like a hydrogen atom—but instead of an electron and a proton, it’s made from an electron and a hole! It’s called an exciton. In Giacobino’s experiments, the excitons are 200 times as big as hydrogen atoms.


    Excitons are exciting, but not exciting enough for us. So next, put a mirror on each side of your thin film. Now light can bounce back and forth. The light will interact with the excitons. If you do it right, this lets a particle of light—called a photon—blend with an exciton and form a new particle called polariton.

    How does a photon ‘blend’ with an exciton? Umm, err… this involves quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics you can take two possible situations and add them and get a new one, a kind of ‘blend’ called a ‘superposition’. ‘Schrödinger’s cat’ is what you get when you blend a live cat and a dead cat. People like to argue about why we don’t see half-live, half-dead cats. But never mind: we can see a blend of a photon and an exciton! Giacobino and her coworkers have done just that.

    The polaritons they create are mostly light, with just a teeny bit of exciton blended in. Photons have no mass at all. So, perhaps it’s not surprising that their polaritons have a very small mass: about 10-5 times as heavy as an electron!


    They don’t last very long: just about 4-10 picoseconds. A picosecond is a trillionth of a second, or 10-12 seconds. After that they fall apart. However, this is long enough for polaritons to do lots of interesting things.


    For starters, polaritons interact with each other enough to form a liquid. But it’s not just any ordinary liquid: it’s often a superfluid, like very cold liquid helium. This means among other things, that it has almost no viscosity.

    So: it’s even better than liquid light: it’s superfluid light!

    The flow of liquid light

    What can you do with liquid light?


    For starters, you can watch it flow around obstacles. Semiconductors have ‘defects’—little flaws in the crystal structure. These act as obstacles to the flow of polaritons. And Giacobimo and her team have seen the flow of polaritons around defects in the semiconductor:


    polariton_flow.jpg


    The two pictures at left are two views of the polariton condensate flowing smoothly around a defect. In these pictures the condensate is a superfluid.

    The two pictures in the middle show a different situation. Here the polariton condensate is viscous enough so that it forms a trail of eddies as it flows past the defect. Yes, eddies of light!


    And the two pictures at right show yet another situation. In every fluid, we can have waves of pressure. This is called… ‘sound’. Yes, this is how ordinary sound works in air, or

    under water. But we can also have sound in a polariton condensate!


    That’s pretty cool: sound in liquid light! But wait. We haven’t gotten to the really cool part yet. Whenever you have a fluid moving past an obstacle faster than the speed of sound, you get a ‘shock wave’: the obstacle leaves an expanding trail of sound in its wake, behind it, because the sound can’t catch up. That’s why jets flying faster than sound leave a sonic boom behind them.


    And that’s what you’re seeing in the pictures at right. The polariton condensate is flowing past the defect faster than the speed of sound, which happens to be around 850,000 meters per second in this experiment. We’re seeing the shock wave it makes. So, we’re seeing a sonic boom in liquid light!


    It’s possible we’ll be able to use polariton condensates for interesting new technologies. Giacobimo and her team are also considering using them to study Hawking radiation: the feeble glow that black holes emit according to Hawking’s predictions. There aren’t black holes in polariton condensates, but it may be possible to create a similar kind of radiation. That would be really cool!


    But to me, just being able to make a liquid consisting mostly of light, and study its properties, is already a triumph: just for the beauty of it.

    It has been discovered that a BEC will generate hawking radiation like a black hole. Hawking radiation is thermal and could be where excess heat is generated in LENR. Unless the polariton BEC forms, no excess heat is generated. The energy produced by the LENR reaction will be muons, gamma, or at least NOT thermal emf.


    See


    Observation of self-amplifying Hawking radiation in an analog black ...

    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.6550


    Quote

    It has been proposed that a black hole horizon should generate Hawking radiation. In order to test this theory, we have created a narrow, low density, very low temperature atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, containing an analog black hole horizon and an inner horizon, as in a charged black hole. We observe Hawking radiation emitted by the black hole. This is the output of the black hole laser. We also observe the exponential growth of a standing wave between the horizons. The latter results from interference between the negative energy partners of the Hawking radiation and the negative energy particles reflected from the inner horizon. We thus observe self-amplifying Hawking radiation.

    Regarding: "Thus, if the previously mentioned small clusters of H(0) do not float in a magnetic field, they're probably not superconductive."


    This is a conundrum.


    What comes to mind is the condition in LENR where gamma radiation is produced. This is a very strange condition.


    Consider:


    Quote

    Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H Systems


    http://newenergytimes.com/v2/l…ctromagneticRadiation.pdf

    This gamma radiation only appears in a system that is very weakly pumped. Rossi's system produced gamma radiation when that system was very cold. Rossi solved this issue when he added a heater to the his reactor design so that the reactor was hot before it was started.


    It could be that the polariton BEC does not form unless the polaritons are vigorously pumped. When that BEC forms, then that BEC can absorb the gamma emissions of the nuclear reactions that are generated by the activity of the UDH.


    I confess that I do not fully understand what is happening in this weakly pumped cold condition. The weakly pumped system may only produce a feeble meissner effect which is just able to generate the spin wave and the hole superconductor but with not enough strength in the meissner effect to be detected magnetically. But it seems that the polariton BEC that forms in the spin wave of the UDH reinforces and augments the superconductivity and the associated meissner effect in the Hole superconductor.

    Regarding:

    • From experimental studies, above several hundred °K the H(0) is not superfluid nor superconductive (presumably)


    The structure of UDH requires that it must always be superconducting since the separation of the positive core and the negatively charged spin wave that closely covers that core requires HOLE superconductivity to be in effect.


    It could be when the LENR reaction is actively feeding energy into the structure of UDH that it remains intact regardless of the external temperature. But when the inflow of energy stops then the UDH eventually collapses.


    I assume that the BEC produce LENR and then LENR supports and maintains the BEC.


    The BEC requires energy to exist since it is pumped and at a non-equilibrium state.

    The temperature at the core of the Sun is unknown. If this core is liquid then there may not be any fusion reactions going on. The 15,000,000 K temperature is a value that comes out of the fusion reaction that is purported to be occurring inside the core. But that PP fusion reaction may not be happening at the core.


    pp-cno.gif

    The muon neutrino rate produced by the Sun is three time what is to be expected if PP fusion were happening inside the Sun. But if LENR was producing that energy rate, the muon production rate would be correct.


    If the neutrino rate was a result of proton decay rather than PP fusion, then most of the neutrinos that are produced would be Muon neutrinos.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestake_experiment



    Quote

    Solar neutrino oscillation


    The first experiment that detected the effects of neutrino oscillation was Ray Davis's Homestake experiment in the late 1960s, in which he observed a deficit in the flux of solar neutrinos with respect to the prediction of the Standard Solar Model, using a chlorine-based detector.[6] This gave rise to the Solar neutrino problem. Many subsequent radiochemical and water Cherenkovdetectors confirmed the deficit, but neutrino oscillation was not conclusively identified as the source of the deficit until the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory provided clear evidence of neutrino flavor change in 2001.[7]


    Solar neutrinos have energies below 20 MeV. At energies above 5 MeV, solar neutrino oscillation actually takes place in the Sun through a resonance known as the MSW effect, a different process from the vacuum oscillation described later in this article.[1]



    The solar neutrino oscillation may not be occurring or even valid. All this theory is based of PP fusion happening in the Sun. Holmlid should calculate what the neutrino rate should be if the solar heat source came from metallic hydrogen based nuclear reactions.

    Bose condensation and its ability to suppress radiation through super-absorption might make experimentation more difficult...here is why.


    Quantum Mechanics teaches that distance does not matter in entanglement. Two things can be entangled even if separated by billions of kilometers. If an entangled (superconductive) process produces a muon that is still entangled by that process' subsequent reactions then the muon so catalyzed might also be constrained by the peculiarities of the LENR reaction. The energy produced by that subsequent reaction may follow the same path as the first reaction that produced the muon. This could be the reason why reactions produced in lead by the muon does not result in any activation involving radioactive isotopes.


    If the experimenter cannot see any radiation or activation coming from muon generated secondary reactions, then it will be difficult to determine what is happening in these LENR experiments. The only evidence that can be counted on is the detection of transmutation in the lead shielding.


    One idea that might work is using Xenon to detect transmutation spectroscopy. Xenon is the heaviest stable gas with an atomic weight of 118 that is more likely than most elements to interact with muons. Over time, if transmutation is occurring in the Xenon, then the spectral lines of the transmuted elements will show up in the light from the light produced by the xenon tube.


    Furthermore, spectroscopy is very sensitive in the detection of elements.

    Quantum Mechanics teaches that distance does not matter in entanglement. Two things can be entangled even if separated by billions of kilometers. If an entangled (superconductive) process produces a muon that is still entangled by that process' subsequent reactions then the muon so catalyzed might also be constrained by the peculiarities of the LENR reaction. The energy produced by that subsequent reaction may follow the same path as the first reaction that produced the muon. This could be the reason why reactions produced in lead by the muon does not result in any activation involving radioactive isotopes.


    If the experimenter cannot see any radiation or activation coming from muon generated secondary reactions, then it will be difficult to determine what is happening in these LENR experiments. The only evidence that can be counted on is the detection of transmutation in the lead shielding.


    One idea that might work is using Xenon to detect transmutation spectroscopy. Xenon is the heaviest stable gas with an atomic weight of 118 that is more likely than most elements to interact with muons. Over time, if transmutation is occurring in the Xenon, then the spectral lines of the transmuted elements will show up in the light from the light produced by the xenon tube.


    Furthermore, spectroscopy is very sensitive in the detection of elements.

    Superconductivity means Bose condensation must be occurring and for this condition to occur, a boson must be forming that condensate. Electrons cannot form a condensate. But electrons can be converted into a boson when these electrons become entangled with photons. This is what a polariton is, an electron that has been entangled with a photon. After this entanglement process, the electron loses almost all of its mass and its charge. but it still has spin. Anytime an electron is confined long enough for a photon to join with it, a polariton will form. This is why microcavities and tubercles are places where polaritons form. In those places, electrons and photons are combined together for a long enough time to form polaritons. This also happens on the surface of nanoparticles where dipoles hold onto electrons for long enough for sequestered photons to become entangled with the electrons in those dipoles.


    Superconductivity at high temperatures is critical in supporting the LENR reaction and that is why polaritons and its condensate are KEY to the LENR reaction.

    In order for the Sun to use metallic hydrogen in the production of solar heat, that metallic hydrogen must maintain its lattice form even when the temperature of the Sun reaches into the millions of degrees. How can such a process be happening?


    The superconductive nature of metallic hydrogen must be protecting its lattice structure from any particles or radiation that solar activity can produce. A positive feedback loop that makes the metallic hydrogen superconductivity stronger as the outside environment becomes more energetic must be in place.


    The missiner effect repels all particles and radiation from penetrating into the positively charged "Hole" core of the metallic hydrogen. There may be no limit to how strong that the superconductive shield can become so that the entire Sun can remain a liquid even down to the bottom of its very core.


    The same protective superconductive mechanism must be how metallic water in cavitation can erode the most robust material including diamond and boron nitride.

    * Comment to post #72 by gio06.


    * Progress on "Zener-like" phenomenology.


    My opinion on the Zener like effect in LENR as follows:


    Superconductivity is just as or maybe even more controversial than LENR is. Who could imagine that a material could become superconducting at room temperature let alone at 3000K. But there are indicators in LENR experiments that point to superconductors partially forming at room temperature and even at higher temperatures.


    For example, the electrical resistance of Celiani's wire goes down when its temperature rises. Also hydrogen loaded palladium becomes a room temperature superconductor when the hydrogen loading is high.


    One of the factors that can be causing this drop in electrical resistance is the formation of islands of superconductivity that form in the lattice or the plasma that is producing the LENR effect.


    Electrons could be jumping from island to island in their trip across the lattice. When the electron is moving past the LENR Island on its boundary, it gets a free ride but the resistance returns in its trip between islands.


    Ultra-dense hydrogen has been found to be a room temperature superconductor and produces the messier effect. Highly loaded palladium could contain a high number of Ultra-dense hydrogen islands of superconductivity in a lattice.


    Rossi’s plasma could contain a high number of LENR reaction generating superconducting nanowires (Ken Shoulders called them EVOs) that let electrons travel on them with no resistance.


    I believe that Rossi adds vanadium oxide to his fuel mix as LENR reaction booster. This additive vaporizes at 3000K. In this way, this additive produces vanadium nanowires at 3000K when the vanadium condenses like rain drops in a cloud; the electric current jumps from nanowire to nanowire as they get a free ride across the plasma thereby reducing the electrical resistant to near zero.


    This negation in electrical resistant produced by a hot research topic is sciences these days called non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates, a state of matter produced in polaritons. The vanadium nanoparticles like most other transition metal nanowires carry polaritons on their surface.

    See how quantum mechanics can generate this Bose condensate that can form at 3000K here.


    https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.05264


    I believe that there are true things that are included in hydrino theory which generally deal with chemical reactions. I also beleive that there are behaviors of the hydrino that really come from metallic hydrogen like the processes that occur on both the surface and in the atmosphere of the sun. There is also x ray, gamma and XUV emissions that are produced in space that come from metallic hydrogen reactions that Mills are wrongly attributing to hydrinos.


    But I am convinced that there is no dark matter and no SunCell dark matter ash. If that stuff existed, R, Mills would have produced it to prove the hydrino theory for science.


    The reaction that drives the SunCell is the same one that Rossi has discovered drives the Quark reactor.

    I beleive that Verlinde is correct in that there is no such thing as dark matter.


    Search my posts on  Verlinde.



    Verlinde beleive that gravity is an initial force. As such, entanglement replaces dark matter as the mechanism that produces changes in gravity over galactic scales.

    Leonard Susskind is coming round to the same idea...see my post


    How to emit low energy photons during LENR


    This means that R, Mills theory of the hydrino is wrong and so is Holmlid's dark matter theory.




    This paper and its implications are certainly going to stir heated discussions; too bad that unlike several other recent papers from him/his group it's paywalled and thus most people won't get to read it.

    Abstract

    Plain Language Summary

    Regarding: This paper and its implications are certainly going to stir heated discussions


    This discussion has already occured


    See all my posts on Robitaille via search


    Here are a few of many:


    The Liquid Sun


    MFMP: 18 steps to LENR excess heat (BasE-Cat recipe)

    Quote

    Regarding:


    In a paper published in 2014 Holmlid et al do report gamma emission (photons) > 80 keV from the hot plasma caused by laser-induced fusion processes in the D(0) layer generated in their reactor.

    In the Dekalion R5 reactor, X-Rays up to 300 KeV were seen after each spark. In these spark/laser shot initiated reactions, the LENR process is restated immediately after each EMF pulse.


    Polaritons are constantly reforming in that they only live for a few picoseconds. New polaritons are constantly formed to replace the ones that have died. When the EMF pulse initiates, a change of state occurs in each new polariton which enables the LENR reaction. This LENR initiation process produces Bremsstrahlung as explained in post 32.


    In a system like Rossi's, where there is no continuing EMF pulsing and the LENR reaction and the associated BEC is stable and self renewing, the BEC is not destroyed by the EMF pulse. This is self sustain mode. The LENR reaction remains in place as long as a high voltage electrostatic field is maintained accross the dirty plasma. Energy production in this type of LENR system is stable. In a stable LENR system, Bremsstrahlung only occurs at the beginning of BEC formation and then again when the LENR reaction terminates when the BEC is destroyed.


    If Holmlid where to look at the energy distribution of the X-Ray/gamma spectrum he is detecting in foils, Holmlid will see a Bremsstrahlung like energy distribution after each EMF pulse.

    Since no gammas are seen in the far field, the energy from fusion must be absorbed quantum mechanically via teleportation into the polariton storage mechanism as discussed in post 32. That would leave helium transmutation as the cause of fusion but no appearance of fusion energy output to the far field. Since the same fusion results are seen using protium, the fusion mechanism must involve muons catalyzed fusion. Holmlid can check for this by looking for an increased percentage of deuterium in the pure protium feedstock since deuterium is the first step in the helium production process.


    Remember that Rossi has just produced a paper to explain how neutrons move from lithium 7 into light nickel to produce Ni62 and Ni64. Protium would use this same mechanism to produce deuterium from protium. Rossi says that a meson does this isotope manipulation.

    The prolific emission of muons precludes the fusion assumption because fusion cannot generate enough energy to produce muons requiring about 200 MeV (a negative and positive muon pair) from spontaneous particle production. So the S = 1 state is most probably stable. Furthermore. no fusion based gammas are seen.