- utilization of materials rich of nanocracks and dislocations, in particular nickel whiskers saturated by hydrogen (Piantelli, Storms) or zeolite cavities
- utilization of directional laser beams (Holmlid, Arata&Zhang)
- utilization of shock waves (LeClair, sonofusion of Taleyarkhan)
- directional impact of ion beams to thin layers of molten lithium (Unified Gravity approach, maybe also applies to Me386 and QuarkX experiments)
- magnetic field makes motion of charged particles more directional (Cravens)
- high speed collisions of heavy nanodust particles or plasmoids in microwave field
The highest yields of energy are seen in situations where the lithium target is positively biased.
Lipinski's fusion is also most transparent case of cold fusion in the sense, it doesn't use any catalyst with unclear function (like the palladium, nickel, titanium) and the main reactions involved p+6Li → 3He (2.3 MeV) + 4He (1.7 MeV) and p+7Li → 4 He (8.6 MeV) + 4He (8.6 MeV) exactly correspond the released heat and observed radiation produced. All other cases of "cold fusion" provide various mixtures of particles (if some at all) and their heat production is also disputable. Briefly speaking, this is the only LENR, which actually works like the cold fusion after all.Quote
I believe that missing MeV gamma
Why the gammas should be missing? During Lipinski fusion all energy is released in form of heat and alphas and no energy is missing there. In general, each fusion reaction results in one of the two helium ions passing through the lithium target. During fusion test in which the lithium target was 250 microns thick, theory predicted that about 1/2 of the total fusion energy will be transferred to the target as heat. The lithium target did melt in less than a second since 1/2 of the total fusion energy of a 300 keV 36 µA beam at 0.6 fusion efficiency is 200 watts and resulted in rise of temperature by 220 degrees C /second. No heat was thus missing there.
BTW Note also the 60% efficiency claimed: it means 60% of protons did hit its target and fused completely! This is something, which all hot fusion experimenters can only dream about... For example Farnsworth–Hirsch fusor runs with 0,0015% efficiency only (and it indeed generates mostly neutrons).
They see the highest possible gamma, proton,electron & alpha radiation rate that is possible in a collision like reaction.
Which source do you have for this claim? As far I know (1, 2, 3, 4..) Lipinski style of fusion consistently reported alpha radiation only - which frankly is the main radiation, which one should expect during actual cold FUSION (i.e. strong nuclear force involved analogy of hot fusion overcoming Coulomb barrier). The apparent lack of alphas in most other cases of so-called cold fusion rather rises the question, whether all these examples of anomalous heat production (including Fleischmann-Pons and E-Cat) are powered by fusion at all.
As for the Deuterium, that is electrolytically loaded into the fuel.
Which particular experiment are You talking about please? I've to admit, I'm not following this forum too regularly in recent time.
In the latest LookingForHeat experiment, the weight of the fuel is far less that a gram. The fuel is the size of a grain or rice. The reactor is not air tight let along hydogen tight. Where are all the particles coming from that are bouncing around
The weight of fuel plays no role here as I am talking about atom-sized collisions within layers 50 nm thick. For example the protons/deuterons impacting lithium surface in Unified Gravity reactors fuse with lithium under formation of alpha particles at the temperature tightly just above melting point of lithium (~ 180 °C), but not higher - why? When the lithium is solid, its surface gets clogged with lithium hydride fast. Also the surface of lithium isn't perpendicular to path of ions impacting from cathode anymore being randomly oriented. When the lithium is molten, then the portion of resulting hydride layers can be removed by surface tension (and by flow of lithium along cathode), so that the lithium surface remains physically clean.
Why the temperature cannot be raised after then? Because the cold fusion requires the crystalline lattice and the lithium highly above melting temperature isn't crystalline anymore and its atoms are arranged randomly. Only the thin layer tightly beneath surface of molten lithium (~ 50 nm thick) remains crystalline bellow temperatures 200 °C. Just this incredible sensitivity of cold fusion to temperature provides the clue, what is going on during it: the protons/deuterons have to collide toward long lines of atoms, arranged with precision, which only crystal lattice or laser beam can achieve. This sensitivity can be decreased by coating inert crystalline material with thin layer of lithium - such a layer would remain crystalline even at much higher temperatures, as it gets arrangement from atom lattice of the underlying surface.
the amazing 24 hour gamma cycle faded and vanished. Replaced by a more random pattern of gamma activity. This can be triggered, but the diurnal gammas were entirely spontaneous.
Many nuclear reactions actually exhibit similar cycles. Of course it could be result of many artifacts connected with human activity, but it also can be background cosmic radiation effects (the ionosphere expands during night) and finally the change in dark matter/neutrino flux during rotation of Earth and/or Sun core (1, 2, 3).
I think, I already figured out, how cold fusion works. It's synergy of many effects, each of them becomes dominant in particular LENR arrangement. The main trick (low-dimensional collisions of many atoms at the same moment) is typical of Unified Gravity approach, which even doesn't utilize hydrides and lattice effects - so it's most pure cold fusion in principle (and also most reproducible one).
US patent 4003757 (Lux and Chobanov) describes one method for preparing this oxide (which they incorrectly call Ag(II)-oxide) in a form suitable for batteries and gives the following example:
In 1.5 liters of aqueous solution containing 150 grams of sodium hydroxide, 65 grams of silver powder are suspended with continuous stirring. The silver powder has a density of approximately 1.6 grams per cubic centimeter. Its grain size distribution is: 52% under 10 microns; 33% 10 microns to 30 microns, 15% above 30 microns. The liquid is then heated to about 85° C. Upon reaching this temperature, a total of 200 grams of potassium peroxydisulfate (K2S2O8) in portions of about 40 grams each is added at intervals of, for example, 1 hour. After addition of the final portion of oxidant, stirring is continued for 3 hours. The product is then filtered, washed to free it of alkali substances, dried at a temperature of approximately 80° C and reduced to particle form.
The foregoing yields approximately 73 grams of silver-(I,III)-oxide with more than 95% content of pure silver-(I,III)-oxide. The silver oxide produced is characterized by high thermodynamic stability, low internal discharge and consequent long shelf life. The rate of gas evolution of their products in 18% NaOH is below 1 microliter per gram-hour at room temperature. This stability is attributable to the fact that the process embodying the invention produces single crystals of exceptionally regular shape and monoclinic form.
The superconductivity trick here will be in preparation of this compound in form of thin layers or more preferably needle-like form. The more isn't the better here: the thicker layers of silver monoxide would probably lose their superconductivity fast.
IMO the observation of filamentary superconductivity of “bulk” CuO1−x samples is the most close to the above finding. The announcements of room temperature superconductivity (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,...) are characteristic by lack of interest from the side of mainstream (they violate BCS theory) and general lack of replications. We can just hope, this case will be finally an exception.
The system doesn't look so strange with respect to room temperature superconductivity perspective for me - I'd definitely attempt for its replication. Of course the active ingredient here aren't silver or gold nanoparticles here, but the thin surface layer of silver oxide, silver dioxide in particular. This compound is one of strongest oxidizing agents stable at room temperature and it strongly attracts electrons from outside. These electrons would get tightly packed at the surface of silver nanoparticles, thus leading into superconductivity effect. The fact, that superconductivity observed requires high volume fraction of silver nanoparticles in the resulting mixture (only such a dispersion would form a quasicontinuous phase of silver oxide within resulting mixture) speaks on behalf of this explanation. The gold matrix could be probably replaced by some other free electron rich material, which is stable against oxidation with silver dioxide.
New form of matter may lie just beyond the periodic table The similar quark matter participates on cold fusion - but I doubt it will be researched just because of it. It requires heavily entangled collinear collisions of atom nuclei. A famous Hungarian boson may be also indication of this scenario, as it occurs inside elongated atom nuclei. BTW similar mechanism can be responsible for dense forms of hydrogen and also ball lightning at the Rydberg orbital level. Again, these stuffs cannot exist within normal spherical form and objects.
Other than that, the Island of stability is just job evasion of physicists: it doesn't exist - or better to say, it has been already explored and found very flat/shallow. The only interesting things currently happen in cold fusion research, which is boycotted by mainstream from ideological reasons (the parasites fear the competition and the lost of comfortable jobs).
how this works in terms of "existing LENR theory
We already discussed it here and here extensively. I consider UGC technology as a most generic example of cold fusion, which also illustrates, how cold fusion works.
Other technologies look more cryptic and they may not have something to do with cold fusion (i.e. strong force involved process) at all.
This is also why I trust the UGC fusion the most, not because of their efforts to convert energy of deuterons to electricity (most of energy is still released in form of heat).
Unified Gravity Corp is the most serious business in cold fusion research, IMHO. Their process is well understood and managed with compare the rest, which is merely black box magic. That is to say, with respect to reliability of process, the Unified Gravity Corp. is most worth of share investments.
Just recently his observations were confirmed: Lattice Energy LLC - LENR experiment conducted by The Aerospace Corporation repeated Japanese NEDO projects reported excess heat results - June 6 2018
20 grams of Ni:Pd nanoparticles has been embedded in μ-sized ZrO2 particles. After conditioning the cells, both were heated to near 300°C in the hydrogen atmosphere for a period of 1000 hours (40 days). During this period, the test cell registered 7.5% more power (approximately 1 W) than the input power. The control cell measured approximately 0.05 W of excess power. The error in the excess power measurement was ± 0.05 W. Assuming that the active material is the 5.44 g of Ni+Pd yields a specific energy of 635 MJ/kg. For comparison, the highest specific energy of a hydrocarbon fuel (methane) is 55.5 MJ/kg. The highest chemical specific energy listed (see Energy Density topic in Wikipedia) is 142 MJ/kg for hydrogen compressed to 700 bar. Based on these results, it is unlikely that the source of heat energy was chemical in origin.
No hard facts on this, but I have been told that he is not only old, but in poor health
Why all these researchers are keeping their secrets for itself goes over my head. What they will do with all of it in their graves?
For particle physicists whose entire standard model assumes that decay rates cannot be influenced by external factors, the Purcell effect is a puzzle.
The Purcell effect is the enhancement of a quantum system's spontaneous emission rate by its environment. In the 1940s Edward Mills Purcell discovered the enhancement of spontaneous emission rates of atoms when they are incorporated into a resonant cavity. It has nothing to do with radioactive decay rate and its theory is elaborated well.
Emmy Noether did not use the conservation laws, she derived them from different symmetries that our physical word exhibits.
These symmetries are based on conservation laws anyway - a classical circular reasoning. What I pointed out was, the apparent violation of mass-energy conservation law has lead into finding of new particles, which supported it later - so I presume, that Woodward and Shawyer drives are another case of this paradigm. Just the particles which they generate are even more lightweight, numerous and elusive than the neutrinos and their detection may took even longer time, than at the case of neutrinos in their era. Until we find them, then we should consider mass-energy conservation violated in similar way, like Dirac - the inventor of neutrinos - did.
SAFIRE has nothing to do with cold fusion, the disintegration of tungsten electrode observed is common ion sputtering effect. AxilAxil lacks better experiments so that he combines wildly.
No, there is more than experience: It is well supported by Einstein's theory,
Jesus Christ: the Einstein's theory is derived by utilizing the energy-mass conservation law everywhere: it wouldn't violate it even if it could (and it actually can). And theoretical support means anything in experimental physics, which just looks for violation of theories. The same applies to Noether theorems which also utilize momentum conservation law - not just energy conservation. Whereas the EM/Woodward drive violate mass-energy conservation law only indirectly so far, we can be already sure they violate momentum conservation law.Quote
I'm personally curious to have Shawyer's drive brought into proximity with a neutrino detector and see if anything is detected.
Neutrinos can be hardly generated by EMDrive - but scalar waves can and they can be detected easily. But the simplest EMDrive detector would be another EMDrive, because every radiator also behaves like an antenna. It just means that thrust of each EMDrive should depend on the position of another EMDrive running nearby....
This is what I'm talking about - the neutrinos were detected twenty six years after observation of breaking of mass-energy conservation law. That means, over one quarter of century the physicists were forced to live with violation of one of most important principles of contemporary physics - such a situation can emerge anytime later. I also noted it just a few posts before. Do you think, you're smart, if you're allowing me to repeat it?
Actually this situation (the violation of mass-energy conservation law) did already happen before twenty six years already for example in form of reaction-less drives like the Shawyer's EMDrive or Woodward's Mach Drive. These devices move forward despite they don't release anything back - in this sense we also observe the violation of mass-energy conservation principle. Not accidentally every reaction-less drive is also potential perpetuum mobile (why?). Now the physics should also wait for a new neutrino-like particle, the reactive force of which would explain this anomaly.
But we didn't observe it - actually the physicists even didn't start to look for it. So why the mass-energy conservation law should be preserved in general?
There is no deeper reason for it - only leaky experience.
It all started like experimentally confirmed violation of mass-energy conservation law
the experimental confirmation was (mass-energy?) of detected products < in mass-energy than reactants.
And where the difference is?
QuoteZephir, you have not referenced any mass-energy violations. The neutrino example is a supreme case of mass-energy conservation correctly predicting a new unexpected particle!
It all started like experimentally confirmed violation of mass-energy conservation law. The finding of neutrino has come 26 years later - it means, whole one quarter of century the physicists faced violation of mass-energy law without its explanation by another experiment. It's as simple as it is. Any other interpretation is irrelevant here.
Like I said, the overunity devices doesn't imply any measurable violation mass-energy conservation law, these based on perpetuum mobiles of 2nd kind the less.
Here I collected a quite a few examples of such a devices - many of them were presented in scientific journals, some of them were even peer-reviewed.
- Buckling motion of graphene could be used to generate electricity from ambient thermal energy (synopsis)..
- Thermoelectric Power Generation from Lanthanum Strontium Titanium Oxide through the Addition of Graphene
- On-Chip Maxwell’s Demon as an Information-Powered Refrigerator
- Graphite & quartz & rubber based solid state electric generator of GQenergy s.r.l.
- Graphene-based "battery" for capturing the thermal energy of ions and converting it into electricity (PDF)
- Carbon nanotube rectenna directly converts light into electricity
- Microphones sensitive enough for to capture Brownian noise in solids
- Steorn's Orbo-Cube battery utilizes graphite suspended in wax electret matrix 1, 2
- Silicon Crystal Graphite Battery of QuantaMagnetics, update
- Victor Petrik prepares and tests graphite based thermoelectric generator before eyes of his scientific visitors
- Self-charging "petrovoltaic cells" of Townsend T Brown
- Electret apparatus for supplying electric power of Boyd Bushman
- LED's efficiency exceeds 100%
- Captret effect - capacitors have the ability to self-charge, Another captret experiments (overunity forums 1, 2, 3)
- Carbon Magnesium Volta pile, 2, 3 of John Bedini and Marcus Reid. Crystal battery generating 135 Volts
- Karpen pile from Romania may also serve as a rectenna, Karpen's cell revisited
- Clarendon dry pile (Zamboni cell, Oxford bell) could also run on carbon battery
- Observations of spontaneous heating of bismuth sphere in magnetic field. Bismuth is diamagnetic topological insulator similar to graphene.
- ERR Fluxgenerator alsos uses Bismuth and aluminum are also used in
- The mysterious energy generating ChemAlloy story also contains bismuth..
- Diamagnetic graphite based motor and Superconducting generator of Andrew Abolafia could work on similar principle
- A Self Charging Supercapacitor, Carbon fibre battery
- Research of N.E. Zayev about cooling of dielectrics the changing field with energy generation, see also RU2227947 and RU2390907 patents.
- Physicists create first photonic Maxwell's demon, Could Maxwell's Demon Exist in Nanoscale Systems?, Autonomous Maxwell's demon displays chilling power
- Cool Chips electrons to carry heat from one side of a vacuum diode to the other.
- Ambient RF Energy-Harvesting Technologies for Self-Sustainable Standalone Wireless Sensor Platforms, Challenges and Solutions in Battery Fuel Gauging
- Environmental Electrosmog Harvester Feeding LED Bulb
- Polariton storage of energy, US8611067
That is to say, I'm not opened to discuss existence of such devices already - I'm only here for to discuss their common working principle, which is outlined for example here.
If you don't like it, then you're not required to participate on discussion... Nobody of dog owners is required to participate in discussion about cats and trying to refuse their existence, if they don't like them - isn't it correct?
But I can promise you, what you bet is what you get. There is no over unity energy gain.
LOL, and there is no cold fusion, movable continents, heliocentric solar system.. How many times we heard about it?
This is all irrelevant, as nobody ever checked some overunity device with respect to mass-energy conservation law. I don't like wasting time in irrelevant discussions - my life is too short for it.
Maybe some overunity devices really work into account of their rest mass - why not? I also already considered it. Many physicists believe for example, that protons are unstable and they're looking for examples of their decay - what if they have these examples before nose in form of certain overunity devices?Quote
Mass-energy are conserved. You can never create or destroy them
Except that the definitions of matter and energy shift all the time. The first mass-energy violation observed has lead into finding of neutrino particles (it took twenty six years ). Maybe we find some new examples of mass - energy conservation violation later and even later we will find a new explanations for them (particles of dark matter or energy, graviton, whatever).
Or we won't - never say never. Only trolls are sure with everything.