Built nearly 200 years ago, in 1825, Clarendon's Cambridge University batteries generate 2,000 volts, and this high voltage is enough to attract a small brass ball that rings two small bells. This instrument has ringed continuously for two centuries.
The builder, Watkin and Hill, did not leave any archive, blueprint or recipe about this battery.
We don't know what's inside! Officially, it would be a "dry" pile of Zamboni. But dry cells of this type usually only lasted a few years. The same goes for the high-voltage dry batteries used by the Germans for the light intensifying spyglasses for snipers of the Second World War.
At 2 Hertz (2 ringtones per second), and a stroke of about 1 mm, calculate the distance traveled by the brass ball in two centuries and discuss whether the energy can be of chemical origin.
What if our friend Professor Josephson spent every day beside a steampunk fusion diode without knowing it?
Construite il y a près de 200 ans, en 1825, les piles du laboratoire Clarendon à Cambridge génèrent 2000 volts, et cette haute tension est suffisante pour attirer une petite boule en laiton qui fait sonner deux timbres. Cet instrument résonne sans discontinuer depuis deux siècles.
Le constructeur, Watkin et Hill, n’a pas laissé d’archives à propos de cette pile. En ne sait pas ce qu’il y a dedans ! Officiellement, il s’agirait d’une pile « sèche » de Zamboni. Mais les piles sèches de ce type ne duraient habituellement que quelques années. Idem pour les piles sèches à haute tension utilisées par les allemands pour les lunettes intensificatrices de lumière pour les snipers de la seconde guerre mondiale.
A raison de 2 Hertz (2 sonneries par seconde), et une course d’environ 1 mm, calculez la distance parcourue par la boule de laiton en deux siècles et discutez si l’énergie peut être d’origine chimique.
Et si notre ami le professeur Josephson passait tous les jours à coté d’une diode à fusion sans le savoir ?
An interesting replication of our work by the team of Biosearch LLC:
They succeed to light a LED. Its is a modest amount of energy, in the microwatt range, but it is energy, not excess energy.
Surprisingly, these two patents are not classified in the prior art:
The explanation of this fact (the non-quotation of my old prior art patents as relevant) is undoubtedly because this patent is declared as a "fuel cell". I suppose it is to circumvent the resistance of the US patent office that usually rejects any patent that explicitly refers to the "Cold Fusion".
I do not agree with the scientific explanations given by the signatories of this patent, but I am happy to see our results with John Giles confirmed by another team.
It is a valuable step in the right direction.
I like the work of "Magneto" Lerner and his disciples!
Is he our friend Russ Georges?
Beautifull! Were is the location of this lab?
This SRI report is a very important announcement.
I must confess that I was not convinced by the claims of Rossi and his "E-Cat", but that I began to change my mind when I saw the results of my friend Alexander Parkhomov.
But Parkhomov works in his living room, and although he is both an excellent experimenter and theoricist , he may have made a mistake.
The results of Tanzella are obtained in a professional laboratory and they are extremely credible.
An excess of 5 watts energy opens the way for irrefutable experiments in which the reactor would be sealed in a glass container full of hydrogen, and perfectly insulated with mineral fiber. After a temperature rise in an oven, it may be possible to cut off the power supply to the oven and allow it to cool, keeping the core of the reactor at 350 ° C thanks to the careful insulation of it. (The reactor temperature being maintained only by the 5 watts produced by the nuclear reaction)
Je suis plein de tristesse au delà de ce que je peux exprimer par écrit en apprenant le décès de mon ami Youri Bazhutov.
Nous garderons en mémoire son sourire et sa jovialité. C’était un grand savant et un professeur plein de dynamisme.
Je pense que nous lui rendrons hommage lors du meeting de la Société Française de la Science Nucléaire dans la Matière Condensée (RNBE 2018)
Je regrette encore plus de ne pas avoir pu participer au dernier congrès de Dagomys, au pied des belles montagnes du Caucase.
Notre cher ami Youri Nikolaevich va nous manquer de façon cruelle.
Chaque jour, je vais essayer de mériter le nom de disciple.
I am joking, but I greatly respect your work, Dear Franco, because I see that you have access.
Our Italian friend is an alter ego of me : we are rewriting the MUTUS LIBER of the ancient alchemists, but up to date… (But I don’t publish it on the net. Too dangerous. The world is not ready.)
By the way, the RANQUE tube is not totally out of topic in this forum: you know probably, that not only its sorts the cold and hot molecules, but also the isotopes of the gases, thus with a very high yield.
(Uranium hexafluoride and also water vapour and nitrogen.)
Lot of research during the past fifty years, but few published papers.
I propose you a puzzle: you know that every thermodynamic machine is reversible (minus the losses). Did you know the name of the inverse Ranque tube? (A mixer of hot and cold gases with low pressure and low impetus, giving mid-temperature, high pressure and high speed gases after vortex processing.)
I beg your pardon, but it is not a "Hyslch" tube, but a Ranque tube (Tube of Ranque) invented by a french student named Ranque. It is a good idea to use it in combination with a Peltier cell. PLease publish your results please.
By the way, I see on Linked In that you are transmuting lead into gold. In a scientific point of view, it will be very interesting to check the isotopic composition of this gold. Please send me some ingots. Of course I will send them back after isotopic testing. (Laboratoire de Recherches Associatives, BP 4 95131 Franconville, FRANCE)
I am in a hurry to see excitonium crystals growth on liquid helium. Does they will survive a room temperature?
In this case, the words "electron capture" are misleading: they are not used to their proper and habitual sense. It is not a capture by the nucleus, but by the atom. The term "chemical reduction" is more accurate, to my opinion.
Irene and Frédéric Joliot-Curie were the first, in June 1933, to propose the possibility for a nucleus to decrease after absorption of an electron. I did not find the article were he states: "We can still assume that the unknown isotope Na22 is not stable and spontaneously transforms into Ne22 by capture of an extranuclear electron. ".
Does anyone know the reference of this paper?
It has subsequently been shown that sodium 22 actually decreases by electronic capture by approximately 10%
The next step with the effect discovered by Chiara et Al. will be a nuclear excitation during the reduction of a molecule. (And in my mind, I think "biological macromolecule" or "molecule of a quasicrystal", of course)
It is the reverse effect of the well-known "internal conversion" (Energy transfer from nucleus to the electronic cloud)
The reverse process, this so-called "Nuclear Excitation by Electron Capture" (NEEC) -an electron fall into a lower shell ("classical shell", not "deep orbit" for the time, but who know the future?) Can excite the nucleus to a higher-energy state.
It is not totally a surprise, because there is a strong field of research on the triggers of X-rays, and the target of these X-rays is the electrons of the atom, before transmission to the nucleus.
(A lot of work in this field during the last twenty years, but only few papers ...)
But this article of NATURE is very interesting, because it is another proof that the atomic domain and the nuclear domain are linked to each other.
Thanks for the link,
Now, fair fellows, our CMNS hour
Draws like a snail. How many years bring in
Another moon. But oh, methinks how slow
This old moon of fossilized science wanes.
"Luckily for anyone who may be stationed nearby, the bell is not incessantly dinging like some possessed alarm clock. It’s actually barely audible, because the charge is so low—the metal ball responsible for the ringing only delicately vibrates between the two bells."
It is not exact. The sound is "barely audible" because one century ago, the guys of the lab put two little pieces of fabric or absorbing paper between the ball and the bells.
About Clarendon Pile:
Which relationship between Bose-Einstein Condensates and cold fusion? We must notice that a palladium-deuterium alloy is an “hidden quasicrystal” : the deuterium nuclei are randomly inserted in the palladium lattice. There is a short-range disorder, but a long-range order. According to this point of view, the Cold Fusion could be a very complex « multi-step » phenomenon:
1) Anharmonic cooling of light nuclei in quasicristalline materials
2) Bose-Einstein condensation of the cold deuterons, or of couples of cold protons (or cold tritons) (Diafluid Phase)
3) Triggering of the initial fusion event by an external source, for exemple muons, erzions, or other cosmics rays.
4) Transfer of the energy to the whole Bose-Einstein Condensate.
5) Transfer of a part of the energy to some deuterium nuclei,
6) New fusions events caused by theses “ballistic deuterons”
7) Vanishing of the diafluid phase.
And beginning of a new cycle.
Years ago, a Russian team and a Japanese one recorded acoustic waves during cold fusion experiments. The authors suggest that these little shock waves could be produced by discrete fusion chain events caused by a muon or another particule, and quickly terminated. Each event will cause a thermal expansion of palladium, producing a faint sound.
We don’t know if the diafluid state occur in microcrystals of the palladium, or if it is delocalized to the whole palladium electrode. The scale of the reaction is probably some domains, like the Bloch domains of the magnetic materials. There is a big experimental program in front of us.
Are we the first to use this embodiment to produce voltages and current? When I filled my first patent in 1991, I was persuaded that we were the first.
I'm not so sure now. Wandering on the net, I read that the oldest science experiment still running was in a showcase of the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford.
This device was installed in 1840, but it would have been built over 15 years before.
For almost two centuries, the voltage generated was sufficient to move a metal sphere of 4 mm in diameter, between two bells separated by about one centimeter. The pace of the sphere is 2 hertz. Since 190 years, the metallic sphere covered the distance of 190x365x24x60x60x2 =1.19 million kilometers, or 3 times the Earth-Moon distance!
Many historians of science argue that the electric generator which produces the movement of the sphere would be a "dry cell" of the kind that were used during World War II to supply the infrared image intensifiers used by snipers. (Yes, in 1944/45!) This claim seems false: high voltage dry batteries produced during the past century become out of order rapidly. The batteries of the "bell Clarendon" would be "Batteries Zamboni," but we do not know anything of the method of manufacturing of these batteries. We only know that there is probably manganese dioxide inside, and also silver paper. Manganese dioxyde is an excellent proton conductor.
Is it possible that the energy source of this strange instrument was cold fusion? Is the mystery which keep our energy for the past 25 years making these two bells ringing under the noses of the most prestigious English scientists for two centuries? Amusing question, but which requires a serious answer.
Don’t be afraid of the toxicity of mercury during experiments. You have probably more mercury in your mouth than on your benchtop. (The dental amalgam are an alloy of 50% silver and 50% mercury)
During all you life, it release mercury vapour in your mouth.
Merry Christmas to all the LENR friends, and live long and prosper!
« Cydonia » wrote :
« Please Fabrice David, stop dreaming behind works/ideas that are not yours but those of Jean Pierre Petit. You should start for Lenr applications to follow rather Willard Custer way of life..creativity and modesty. »
To « Cydonia » : I have a great respect to the ideas of my master Jean-Pierre Petit, and I I am proud to have bring him some modest experimental results :
But Pr. Jean-Pierre Petit never worked about generation of microplasmoïds by cavitation, neither to the application of plasmoïds to space propulsion, and he never worked on LENR.
But conventional thrusters have a relatively low ejection velocity, so that the specific impulse of chemical rockets is quite low.
And since ionic liquids are combustible, one could imagine producing microplasmoids (by cavitation in a magnetic field in the injectors) and then injecting them into the combustion chamber, and then doubling the Laval nozzle with a diverging superconducting coil. The pre-accelerated hot gases at the exit of the combustion chamber would be accelerated at much higher speeds by traveling the magnetic field gradient in the nozzle. (Figure)
It would be a kind of "hybrid" engine, chemical-electric that would achieve a high specific impulse.
On these considerations worthy of Mr. Gene Roddenberry, I wish you a Merry Christmas.
(And "Live Long And Prosper")
In this drawings, I just figure the ejection nozzle, but the air inlet is symmetrical, of course.
We need just a "funnel" with a frustum-shaped superconducting coil at the air inlet, and a symmetrical coil around the nozzle.
The field gradient increases in the coil surrounding the air inlet, and the plasmoids will be compressed (adiabatically, instead of gas) and the field decreases in the nozzle, so that the plasmoids will be accelerated by expanding and by releasing the energy accumulated in the air intake. (A bit like a wet soap that is pressed in the hand under the shower, to take a trivial analogy) (figure)
Elon Musk could thus accelerate a reusable orbital vehicle in the atmosphere, up to Mach 10 or more, follow a parabolical trajectory and then turn on conventional thrusters out of the atmosphere to complete the speed of orbiting.
This eliminates the need for refractory and very solid electrodes (and very heavy, which is annoying in an aircraft), it also eliminates the need for cesium injection and the entire energy transfer system from the prow to the stern (MHD Bypass)
But the other technical problem remains: as the intake and the nozzle are not tunable, is is difficult to tune the pressure of the exhaust (figure)
(continuation of the previous episode on space planes)
And this is where the plasmoids are interesting: they are likely to be more compressible than the fluid that supports them. If we inject a metafluid of ionic liquid containing plasmoids into the air inlet, the plasmoids will compress without heating up, since the compression energy will be stored in electromagnetic form), and basically, the fluid will go compress almost adiabatically.
Thank you, Alan, for quoting the excellent blog of Russ Georges. I have a great respect for Russ Georges. He did experiments on LENR which are very simple, but very interesting, that would be worth replicating.
But let's go back to our plasmoids: imagine a gas containing a "mist" of plasmoids (made by cavitation in a combustible ionic liquid). They are likely to be more compressible than the gaseous fluid that supports them. If we inject a metafluid of ionic liquid containing plasmoids into the air inlet, the plasmoids will compress without heating up, since the compression energy will be stored in electromagnetic form), and basically, the fluid will go compress almost non-adiabatically.
So, no more need for MHD braking system to eliminate the heating. (as in this drawing)
To Seiber :
I am not a theoretician, but of course I don’t think that doing Science is the act of doing random experiments in the dark.
Of course, I have some idea about the theory, but I am ready to accept any theory who works from the hydrotons to Lewis & Larsen theory.
A quarter of a century ago, I suggested the hypothesis of “Diafluidity”