I am in a hurry to see excitonium crystals growth on liquid helium. Does they will survive a room temperature?
In this case, the words "electron capture" are misleading: they are not used to their proper and habitual sense. It is not a capture by the nucleus, but by the atom. The term "chemical reduction" is more accurate, to my opinion.
Irene and Frédéric Joliot-Curie were the first, in June 1933, to propose the possibility for a nucleus to decrease after absorption of an electron. I did not find the article were he states: "We can still assume that the unknown isotope Na22 is not stable and spontaneously transforms into Ne22 by capture of an extranuclear electron. ".
Does anyone know the reference of this paper?
It has subsequently been shown that sodium 22 actually decreases by electronic capture by approximately 10%
The next step with the effect discovered by Chiara et Al. will be a nuclear excitation during the reduction of a molecule. (And in my mind, I think "biological macromolecule" or "molecule of a quasicrystal", of course)
It is the reverse effect of the well-known "internal conversion" (Energy transfer from nucleus to the electronic cloud)
The reverse process, this so-called "Nuclear Excitation by Electron Capture" (NEEC) -an electron fall into a lower shell ("classical shell", not "deep orbit" for the time, but who know the future?) Can excite the nucleus to a higher-energy state.
It is not totally a surprise, because there is a strong field of research on the triggers of X-rays, and the target of these X-rays is the electrons of the atom, before transmission to the nucleus.
(A lot of work in this field during the last twenty years, but only few papers ...)
But this article of NATURE is very interesting, because it is another proof that the atomic domain and the nuclear domain are linked to each other.
Thanks for the link,
Now, fair fellows, our CMNS hour
Draws like a snail. How many years bring in
Another moon. But oh, methinks how slow
This old moon of fossilized science wanes.
"Luckily for anyone who may be stationed nearby, the bell is not incessantly dinging like some possessed alarm clock. It’s actually barely audible, because the charge is so low—the metal ball responsible for the ringing only delicately vibrates between the two bells."
It is not exact. The sound is "barely audible" because one century ago, the guys of the lab put two little pieces of fabric or absorbing paper between the ball and the bells.
About Clarendon Pile:
Which relationship between Bose-Einstein Condensates and cold fusion? We must notice that a palladium-deuterium alloy is an “hidden quasicrystal” : the deuterium nuclei are randomly inserted in the palladium lattice. There is a short-range disorder, but a long-range order. According to this point of view, the Cold Fusion could be a very complex « multi-step » phenomenon:
1) Anharmonic cooling of light nuclei in quasicristalline materials
2) Bose-Einstein condensation of the cold deuterons, or of couples of cold protons (or cold tritons) (Diafluid Phase)
3) Triggering of the initial fusion event by an external source, for exemple muons, erzions, or other cosmics rays.
4) Transfer of the energy to the whole Bose-Einstein Condensate.
5) Transfer of a part of the energy to some deuterium nuclei,
6) New fusions events caused by theses “ballistic deuterons”
7) Vanishing of the diafluid phase.
And beginning of a new cycle.
Years ago, a Russian team and a Japanese one recorded acoustic waves during cold fusion experiments. The authors suggest that these little shock waves could be produced by discrete fusion chain events caused by a muon or another particule, and quickly terminated. Each event will cause a thermal expansion of palladium, producing a faint sound.
We don’t know if the diafluid state occur in microcrystals of the palladium, or if it is delocalized to the whole palladium electrode. The scale of the reaction is probably some domains, like the Bloch domains of the magnetic materials. There is a big experimental program in front of us.
Are we the first to use this embodiment to produce voltages and current? When I filled my first patent in 1991, I was persuaded that we were the first.
I'm not so sure now. Wandering on the net, I read that the oldest science experiment still running was in a showcase of the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford.
This device was installed in 1840, but it would have been built over 15 years before.
For almost two centuries, the voltage generated was sufficient to move a metal sphere of 4 mm in diameter, between two bells separated by about one centimeter. The pace of the sphere is 2 hertz. Since 190 years, the metallic sphere covered the distance of 190x365x24x60x60x2 =1.19 million kilometers, or 3 times the Earth-Moon distance!
Many historians of science argue that the electric generator which produces the movement of the sphere would be a "dry cell" of the kind that were used during World War II to supply the infrared image intensifiers used by snipers. (Yes, in 1944/45!) This claim seems false: high voltage dry batteries produced during the past century become out of order rapidly. The batteries of the "bell Clarendon" would be "Batteries Zamboni," but we do not know anything of the method of manufacturing of these batteries. We only know that there is probably manganese dioxide inside, and also silver paper. Manganese dioxyde is an excellent proton conductor.
Is it possible that the energy source of this strange instrument was cold fusion? Is the mystery which keep our energy for the past 25 years making these two bells ringing under the noses of the most prestigious English scientists for two centuries? Amusing question, but which requires a serious answer.
Don’t be afraid of the toxicity of mercury during experiments. You have probably more mercury in your mouth than on your benchtop. (The dental amalgam are an alloy of 50% silver and 50% mercury)
During all you life, it release mercury vapour in your mouth.
Merry Christmas to all the LENR friends, and live long and prosper!
« Cydonia » wrote :
« Please Fabrice David, stop dreaming behind works/ideas that are not yours but those of Jean Pierre Petit. You should start for Lenr applications to follow rather Willard Custer way of life..creativity and modesty. »
To « Cydonia » : I have a great respect to the ideas of my master Jean-Pierre Petit, and I I am proud to have bring him some modest experimental results :
But Pr. Jean-Pierre Petit never worked about generation of microplasmoïds by cavitation, neither to the application of plasmoïds to space propulsion, and he never worked on LENR.
But conventional thrusters have a relatively low ejection velocity, so that the specific impulse of chemical rockets is quite low.
And since ionic liquids are combustible, one could imagine producing microplasmoids (by cavitation in a magnetic field in the injectors) and then injecting them into the combustion chamber, and then doubling the Laval nozzle with a diverging superconducting coil. The pre-accelerated hot gases at the exit of the combustion chamber would be accelerated at much higher speeds by traveling the magnetic field gradient in the nozzle. (Figure)
It would be a kind of "hybrid" engine, chemical-electric that would achieve a high specific impulse.
On these considerations worthy of Mr. Gene Roddenberry, I wish you a Merry Christmas.
(And "Live Long And Prosper")
In this drawings, I just figure the ejection nozzle, but the air inlet is symmetrical, of course.
We need just a "funnel" with a frustum-shaped superconducting coil at the air inlet, and a symmetrical coil around the nozzle.
The field gradient increases in the coil surrounding the air inlet, and the plasmoids will be compressed (adiabatically, instead of gas) and the field decreases in the nozzle, so that the plasmoids will be accelerated by expanding and by releasing the energy accumulated in the air intake. (A bit like a wet soap that is pressed in the hand under the shower, to take a trivial analogy) (figure)
Elon Musk could thus accelerate a reusable orbital vehicle in the atmosphere, up to Mach 10 or more, follow a parabolical trajectory and then turn on conventional thrusters out of the atmosphere to complete the speed of orbiting.
This eliminates the need for refractory and very solid electrodes (and very heavy, which is annoying in an aircraft), it also eliminates the need for cesium injection and the entire energy transfer system from the prow to the stern (MHD Bypass)
But the other technical problem remains: as the intake and the nozzle are not tunable, is is difficult to tune the pressure of the exhaust (figure)
(continuation of the previous episode on space planes)
And this is where the plasmoids are interesting: they are likely to be more compressible than the fluid that supports them. If we inject a metafluid of ionic liquid containing plasmoids into the air inlet, the plasmoids will compress without heating up, since the compression energy will be stored in electromagnetic form), and basically, the fluid will go compress almost adiabatically.
Thank you, Alan, for quoting the excellent blog of Russ Georges. I have a great respect for Russ Georges. He did experiments on LENR which are very simple, but very interesting, that would be worth replicating.
But let's go back to our plasmoids: imagine a gas containing a "mist" of plasmoids (made by cavitation in a combustible ionic liquid). They are likely to be more compressible than the gaseous fluid that supports them. If we inject a metafluid of ionic liquid containing plasmoids into the air inlet, the plasmoids will compress without heating up, since the compression energy will be stored in electromagnetic form), and basically, the fluid will go compress almost non-adiabatically.
So, no more need for MHD braking system to eliminate the heating. (as in this drawing)
To Seiber :
I am not a theoretician, but of course I don’t think that doing Science is the act of doing random experiments in the dark.
Of course, I have some idea about the theory, but I am ready to accept any theory who works from the hydrotons to Lewis & Larsen theory.
A quarter of a century ago, I suggested the hypothesis of “Diafluidity”
And that brings me back to the two possible industrial applications of these hypothetical small plasmoids that we could produce with cavitation bubbles in a magnetic field:
You know that I am interested in the problem of space and hypersonic aircraft.
First of all, if it were possible to initiate (hot) fusion reactions in such a plasmoid, one could imagine a hypersonic airplane where such plasmoids would be injected into the air inlet of the stato reactor. With a suitable design of the air intake, the shockwave will slow down the supersonic air and compress it. The plasmoids will shrink If some fusion reactions are initiated in the plasmoid fluid diluted in air, the gas will be heated, as if we had injected kerosene into the stato reactor, and we will get a strong thrust, only by nuclear fusion . Obviously, the pilot will be burned by neutrons, but it does not matter if it is a drone. It's a bit "science-fiction", but one could imagine a nuclear-powered plane that would navigate the atmosphere of giant planets for several years, without fuel. (you only have to shield all the electronics to protect it from neutrons and gammas)
But it's very hypothetical. To be honest, I only quote this idea for the record.
To longview, who says: «:It is a supercritical fluid, a supercritical plasma, which is essentially a supercritical fluid. "
We know what a supercritical fluid is, but I do not know what a "supercritical plasma" is.
For the record, a supercritical fluid is a fluid that does not change phase if we only change the pressure (starting above the critical point, of course) If we increase the pressure too much, we still end up getting a kind of solid, more or less "solid" depending on the properties of the fluid. (I am not sure that it is possible to obtain such a "solid", even at very high pressure, in the case of helium.) (below the critical point, it is possible to solidify the helium under reasonable pressures, and this solid helium forms a Diafluid-like Bose-Einstein Condensate at around 0 Kelvin.)
Example: you can compress supercritical water to the pressure you want, you will never get condensation into liquid water. (On the other hand, theoretically, at very high pressure, one must obtain "ice", for example in the heart of giant planets, but this is theoretical in the case of giant planets, because it is very hot in the center (10,000 K or more.) The theoretical physicists who made these calculations are not chemists, and they seem to ignore that at high temperature the water dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen ... It seems obvious to me that a layer of hot ice (water or ammonia, or a mixture of the two) should evolve rapidly into a pure layer of oxygen and a layer of nitrogen, the hydrogen migrating towards the outer hydrogen-helium (supercritical) layer. The nice inner core of "rocks" that we can see on the beautiful infographics of Wikipedia must silicates must decompose itself to release oxygen and metals, so we must have a ferronickel core containing other metals, and above more or less pure layers of Obviously, and fortunately, uranium does not sediment in the center of the nucleus of the planets and this heavy element remains dissolved in ferronickel, otherwise we would be aware of it.
I take this opportunity to note that it is the same thing in the center of the sun: We are in "radiative zone", there is no convection, the reactions of fusion of which we spoke above, in the center of the sun, are probably fusion reactions at the core limit of heavy elements of our star. (from memory, the rocky core must equals 3000 Earth masses) The fusion of hydrogen in our star is in fact a nuclear reaction in condensed matter!
But back to our plasma: at very high pressure, we can no longer compress a plasma, because of the pressure of Pauli (Because of the exclusion principle of Pauli, electrons and other fermions repel.) It is he famous "degenerate matter" of the center of white dwarfs.
If the pressure increases further the electrons are very quickly picked up by the protons and this remark answers the question of our friend ... above: yes, the electronic capture is possible with free electrons, no need for intact K and L shells! And this reaction depends on the electron density: the more electrons spend time in the nuclei the more likely they are to react with the protons by weak interaction.
I also suggest improving the system by removing water vapor in the bubbles. Indeed, when the bubble collapses, (1) there is steam inside, and when the bubble collapses, there comes a moment when the steam becomes supercritical, (2) and when the density of this fluid supercritical reaches the density of water, the collapse of the bubble stops (3) and the fluid bounces (as in a supernova).
In addition, even before the rebound, the fluid is heated to white, and it radiates light (UV, visible and infrared), which pumps energy out of the system, and this brakes the wall in implosion.
Unlike "Zephir", I do not think this research is totally useless.
I will give you two examples:
If we manage to generate small stable plasmoids in a deuterated liquid by cavitation under a magnetic field we obtain a liquid that contains some kind of small "tokamaks freestanding", whose life is low, but still very large compared at the speeds of nuclear reactions.
Typically, I suggested that we can expect a life of about a tenth of a second.
If this liquid is compressed, for example by means of a shock wave, it is probable that the plasmoids will compress more than the liquid, and that the temperature, the electric current and the magnetic field will increase.
It is not impossible that we approach the criterion of Lawson.
My results are not spectacular: not much neutron or gammas with tap water and 100 bars of pressure. Little light and no more light under magnetic field.
Do not be discouraged, they are inexpensive experiments and I suggest that they be replicated and improved in better equipped laboratories.
I suggest using high pressure pumps to cut steel by water jet (more than 1000 bars) Our Russian friends have shown that fission products and neutrons appeared if uranium nitrate was added in water and that the fluid is cavited through an orifice in a sapphire.
Picture: cavitation bubbles in the optical cavity between the poles of the magnet.
The idea was that this ring of current would oppose the collapse of the bubble, and that it would be possible to turn each cavitation bubble into a stable little plasmoid: a ring of current surrounded by its field magnetic.
I thought that the emission of light by the cavitation bubbles would be increased, and that with a little luck, the emission of radiation (X, gammas and neutrons) would also be increased in the presence of magnetic field. (Because of the fusion of the deuterium contained in the tap water)
A deuterium atom on 6000 protium atoms, all the same, equals billions of atoms in the cavitation zone.
Incredulous you are!
The idea is that the wall of a collapsing bubble moves at several kilometers per second in a magnetic field. As the fluid is tap water (a conductive liquid), I thought that a huge electric current would form a ring in the plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, and this in each small bubble.
Cavitation is an extremely useful phenomenon for producing high concentrations of energy. (High temperatures and high pressures)
We constructed this electromagnet to study the behavior of cavitation bubbles in the presence of a magnetic field.
OK, it’s « hot fusion ». But it is also the success of an outsider.
As perfect outsiders, we must consider this new as a good Christmas gift.
Happy holidays to everyone.
Question 2 : With 50µF and 2500 volt, all the palladium wire is vaporized and oxidized. It form a little cloud of brown palladium oxide.
It is a rather expensive experiment, it is why I use copper to make “pre-shaped” plasmoïds like this:
A Vlassov coil is a special coil designed by the Russian scientist A.Vlassov. I met his disciple Popova at Dagomys, Russia. She explain me how to made plasmoïds.
If you "simply" coiled a "regular" coil and bend it to form a tore, you will only get a short-circuit between the wires which bring the current in. (by arcing in the air)
The Vlassov coil is made of two coils, one of the two coiled clockwise, the other counterclockwise and if you connect the two coil to form a torus like this picture, there is no short-circuit.
All the wire is vaporized and turn into a plasma torus. The magnetic field is totally enclosed in the torus of plasma and the energy of the discharge is stored in the field.
When the current in the plasma decreases by Joule effect, the magnetic field also decreases and the resulting induction maintains the current for a certain time (less than a second, in general)
We get what's called a "plasmoid"
In this case, it is a plasmoid "COFI" (Current Out, Field Inside)
The plasma is very hot, and it is self-confined. I wanted to see if the reaction (fusion of deuterium) could ignite in the plasma of palladium and deuterium.
The philosophical goal underlying this somewhat dangerous experiment is to demonstrate that it is the CRYSTALLINE NETWORK of palladium which acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and not the NUCLEUS of the palladium atoms.
You know that I am a supporter of the first hypothesis. Luckily, the result of our experiments seems to show that I was right, and that's why I'm still able to write tonight. (Sometimes you have to take risks for your ideas)
Unfortunately, my laboratory in France was closed some months ago. I saw with bitterness ten years of work going to the dustbin.
I made this work with John Giles who built a mirror lab in Scotland. He his now full time working in the wind energy field.
Mark Dansie spoke about our results in 2013:
To Max Nozin: We will be happy to know the materials and methods.
Metal of the wire? Voltage? Capacitance? Gas in the shield?
In my experiment above:
- 0.1mm palladium wire (Sigma)
-The wire is coiled in the form of a Vlassov Coil before the blast.
-The coil is charged with deuterium overnight by electrolysis in heavy water. (Probably full charged, the deuterium begin to "boil" in the deuterium oxide just when the electrolysis current is stopped.)
-My holder system that can be easily plugged in and unplugged allows to perform shooting a few seconds after the end of electrolysis.
-50 microfarads, 2500 volts.
I estimate the radioactivity of silver pieces less than a minute after firing, with three counters of different types.
-It does not seem that the radioactivity of the silver 108 and 110 is enormously higher than the background noise before the shoot. I deduce that there are not many neutrons emitted.
-(And I’m still alive)
But this simple experiment need to be reproduced with higher voltage and capacitance. The Vlassov plasmoïds need a minimum intensity to become stable.
To "CAN" yes, it is probably an aeorgel-like oxyde, or aerogel-like hydride if the gas inside the reactor is hydrogen.
Sorry, I wrote "Popova coil", but in fact it's a Vlassov coil, of course. (Popova is his student)