me356: Reactor parameters [part 1]

  • Mats002: I can't answer it to be 100% correct.
    David Fojt: If you are using LAH as the main hydrogen source and you want to not reach too high pressures you have to:
    a) increase free volume of the fuel chamber
    b) went excess hydrogen out
    c) reduce LAH


    By reduction of LAH you will reduce also Lithium content that is contained there. Thus you have to add Lithium in a different way.

  • Unfortunately no. The latest experiment was only made from curiosity if I can get excess heat also with a different kind of reactor where it was not possible previously.
    When time will come I will share all the data.
    I think that I am able to replicate the effect with quite high success now so the research of fully working reactor with optimal characteristics will be rapid.
    Later I will be able to produce required amount of reactors and even ship it to any place in the world. But this will be state when it will simply work as a ready product where all safety issues will be resolved to not harm anybody.
    Of course it must be legal and not breach any patent.

  • Me365:
    so the Rossi patent of layered reactors may be exactly what you are talking about wrt to a RF cascade effect?
    open ?s
    is there an efficient way to crevert RF back to electrical energy? Heat is great but direct electrical production is more useful. Whatever the COP is, whenever it is finally converted back into power or work the efficiencies will be critical.
    Given that your current output spans a significant spectrum of energy frequencies it would be important to be able to narrow that output to a specific output range. This is why your examination of RF output vs run conditions can be so important.

  • Will me356 make the same mistakes that Rossi made in his learning process where he melted down hundreds of reactors until he understood that an activator: a reactor with a minimum COP can drive a cascade of satellite reactors to produce very high COP safely. This approach is the only way to make LERN safe.


    IHMO, sending reactors all over the world with a COP of 3 is asking for burnups among the LENR amateur experimenter community. A better way is to provide a activator and a few satellite reactors configured in a cluster to the world of LENR experimenters so that they all can stay safe with and activator with minimal COP.


    Getting people all over the world to push their reactors too hard with the ever present danger of producing a meltdown cannot do LENR much good at showing the world that LENR is intrinsically safe.

  • So either you tune the reactor/reaction to bring coherence to the output or you surround the reactor with a fractally architectured rectenna.....


    Sent from my SM-N920V using Tapatalk


    Here is an old post I produced on ECW about a year ago on RF produced in LENR. Some of the speculations are old and have be superseded by more recent data. But I have not updated the post.


    Magnetic fields are produced naturally when electrons hit boundaries or defects on surfaces. Rossi may use RF as a control mechanism to dampen the reaction.There is good reason to believe that magnetism is the prime mover in LENR. Under this speculative paradigm, it is interesting to consider the options and consequences of this conjecture. In such a paradigm, any technology that is friendly to magnetism would be good for LENR, and conversely, a technology that undercuts the strength of magnetism is bad.


    The Pd/D wet technology is more unfriendly to magnetism thannickal because it makes magnetism more difficult to maintain. Firstly as a general technological principle, an isotope must have a nuclear spin of zero to enable the LENR reaction. There is much experimental evidence to support this conjecture. For an explanation see below.


    In this respect, palladium has a nuclear spin profile that is about 78% effective. 105Pd has a non-zero spin and is 22% of the isotopic contents of run of the mill palladium.


    On the other hand, Nickel is much more efficient in terms of supporting magnetism. 61Ni has a non-zero nuclear spin, but that isotope is only 1.14% of the isotopic content of Nickel. Palladium is paramagnetic and Nickel is ferromagnetic. So nickel is more desirable than palladium as a magnetic reaction catalyst.


    In more detail, this thinking is underpinned by a speculative ENR reaction rule that is interesting to explore. That rule is that the LENR reaction must occur among atomic ions that have zero nuclear spin.


    In explanation, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation. This energy is at a specific resonance frequency which depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the isotope of the atoms; in practical applications, the frequency is similar to old style VHF and UHF television broadcasts (60–1000 MHz). NMR allows the observation of specific quantum mechanical magnetic properties of the atomic nucleus.


    All isotopes that contain an odd number of protons and/or of neutrons have an intrinsic magnetic moment and angular momentum, in other words a nonzero spin, while all nuclides with even numbers of both have a total spin of zero. The most commonly studied NMR active nuclei are 1H and 13C, although nuclei from isotopes of many other elements (e.g. 2H, 6Li, 10B, 11B, 14N, 15N, 17O, 19F, 23Na, 29Si, 31P, 35Cl, 113Cd, 129Xe, 195Pt) have been studied by high-field NMR spectroscopy as well.


    It is now known that Ni61 does not participate in the LENR for the DGT reaction. The DGT rection is an extremely week one and is not strong enough to overcome the NMR resistance of Ni61: a NMR active isotope. When a magnetic field is applied to an NMR active isotope, the magnetic energy imparted to the nucleus is dissipated by induced nuclear vibrational energy which is radiated away as rf energy. The Non-zero spin of the the nucleus shields the nucleus from the external magnetic field not allowing that field to penetrate into it. External magnetic fields catalyze changes in the protons and neutrons in the nucleus as well as enabling accelerated quantum mechanical tunneling. If this external magnetic field is shielded by NMR activity, LENR transmutation of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus is made more difficult.


    Rossi increases Ni62 and Ni64 in his nickel because these isotopes have zero nuclear spin and will emit less positrons when converted to copper because of their high neutron content.


    Therefore, during the course of an extended LENR reaction cycle,isotope depletion will tend to favor the enrichment and buildup of NMR active elements.


    Both deuterium and nitrogen are known LENR poisons because of their non zero nuclear spins. Hydrogen with non-zero spin will not participate in the LENR reaction whereas cooper pairs of protons will. Expect LENR reactions centered on pairs of protons with zero spin.


    Also, as the LENR reaction matures and more NMR active isotopes accumulate, the LENR reactor will put out increasing levels or rf radiation derived from the nuclear vibrations of the NMR isotope.


    This NMR thinking also applies to the nature of the various isotopes of hydrogen.


    Molecular hydrogen occurs in two isomeric forms, one with its two proton spins aligned parallel (orthohydrogen), the other with its two proton spins aligned antiparallel (parahydrogen). At room temperature and thermal equilibrium, hydrogen consists of approximately 75% orthohydrogen and 25% parahydrogen.


    Orthohydrogen hydrogen has non zero spin, this is bad for Ni/H LENR because the non zero spin wastes magnetic energy by producing RF radiation. Parahydrogen hydrogen has zero spin. This is good for Ni/H LENZ because this type of hydrogen is magnetically inactive.


    This is a way to increase parahydrogen hydrogen by using a noble metal catalyst.


    see


    Catalytic process for ortho-para hydrogen conversion


    http://www.google.copatents/US3383176


    Could this metallic ruthenium and certain ruthenium alloys be included in Rossi's secret sauce?


    The first step in the hydrogen doublet fusion process is the formation of one or more atoms of 2He.


    Helium-2 or 2He, also known as a diproton, is an extremely unstable isotope of helium that consists of two protons without any neutrons.According to theoretical calculations it would have been much more stable(although still beta decaying to deuterium) had the strong force been 2% greater. Its instability is due to spin-spin interactions in the nuclear force,and the Pauli exclusion principle, which forces the two protons to have anti-aligned spins and gives the diproton a negative binding energy.


    By the way, the ash produced by the LENR reaction will have a non-zero nuclear spin such as lithium, boron, and beryllium. This is due to the fact that the ash is at the end of the LENR reaction chain that terminates with an isotope featuring a non-zero nuclear spin.


    Furthermore, all the stable isotopes of copper have a non-zero nuclear spin. This may be way these isotopes are found in the ash assay of Rossi’s reactor.


    One last correlation remains.It seems that the popular wet LENR catalyst acts like a superconductor for protons where protons pair up into a cooper pair.


    See


    http://arxiv.org/pdf/0807.1386...


    This work emphasizes that atoms in the crystal-field of KHCO3 are not individual particles possessing properties in their own right. They merge into macroscopic states and exhibit all features of quantum mechanics: non-locality, entanglement, spin-symmetry, superposition and interference. There is every reason to suppose that similar quantum effects should occur in many hydrogen bonded crystals undergoing structural phase transitions.


    I understand spin-symmetry to mean a zero spin.This catalyst provides a proton dimer of zero spin to the wet LENR reaction. This is the reason why this catalyst enhances electrolytic LENR in water.

  • You say above

    Quote

    Now I am able to turn the excess heat on and off on will

    I assume you mean "at will". You also say

    Quote

    that temperatures of the heater are very same in both cases.Power was also very same.

    So how do you turn it on and off? Our understanding was that T < 1300 C there was no excess heat and T > 1300 C is when the system starts to produce excess heat.

  • @me356
    Are you willing to share your Nickel prep procedure?


    My procedure for my last run was:
    Heat for 1 hour in air at 250C
    Heat 1 hour at 115C under vacuum
    Reduce, 20 PSIG Hydrogen at 115C overnight
    Heat 1 hour at 150C under vacuum
    Reduce, 20 PSIG Hydrogen at 150C 10 hours
    Heat 1 hour at 150C under vacuum
    Reduce, 20 PSIG Hydrogen at 300C 3 hours
    Store under Hydrogen


    Thank you for any suggestions you have.

  • Me356


    Thankyou for publishing your observations. While I am ok if you won't answer, but am interested to know if you 'switching' technique involves pulsing the heater current for a set period at particular frequencies and with a modified waveform.


    It is great to hear you have had one of these unit s working for 6 or so months.


    thanks Doug Marker

  • me356 (SORRY for duplicate post - my earlier one didn't show after several hours - then appeared immediatly after I posted this one ?)


    Thankyou for having the courage to post your very interesting experiments here for us to read about.


    I am delighted that you are being treated respectfully and the questions are all thus far sensible and supportive. The value of positive support can never be underestimated.


    I have questions that you may or may not be willing to answer and that is fully understood. But if you are willing to cover any aspect please do. It relates to your activation of the excess heat and any details will be welcome.


    Q1) The question is do you trigger the excess heat by pulsing the heater current for set bursts at any particular frequency and with any modified current wave form.
    Q2 A) Are you able to de-active when you want (am assuming you have already said this can be done). Is that achieved by varying the current to the heater coil rapidly downward for a period of time, or by a burst of current using a different wave-form.


    Again, thanks for your openness.


    Doug Marker (DSM).

  • I have a question about switching off the excess heat? is this conceptual error? u can switch off the power supply. That is simple. What exactly u mean by switching off the EXCESS HEAT? Whats the power used to achieve this state?

  • BEC: Excess heat production with lithium can be started even in temperatures around 450°C, but a proper equipment is necessary. Temperature around 700°C is more realistic.


    wishfulThinking: I am preparing the fuel long enough so that it can load hydrogen very rapidly. 200°C is good temperature for loading.
    With one nickel sample it could take a few cycles, with other it might take long time. I am convinced that even nickel foil might work well if prepared correctly.


    Dsjm1: Partially yes, but I am convinced that even with a pure DC you should be able to get excess heat.


    Hank Mills:
    1. I think that this is correct.
    2. There are many things related to timing. Longer the reactor is running, a bigger possibility for reaction with other materials. Bigger possibility for formation of unwanted compounds (especially with lithium). The fuel and hydrogen atmosphere can be contaminated.
    3. Yes
    4. It depends on a design of the reactor.


    Dsjm1: Q2 A) Yes. No. No.


    iamdrsvp: No, it isn't. Power of the heater is unchanged, but for sure changing the temperature rapidly can be also reason for triggering excess heat.
    Such changes are unfortunately affecting many things at the same time, so if one is not in a good range, it will not work.